Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Waseda University, abbreviated as Sōdai, is a Japanese private research university in Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as the Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō by Ōkuma Shigenobu, the school was formally renamed Waseda University in 1902. Waseda is organized into thirty-six departments: thirteen undergraduate schools and twenty-three graduate schools; as of May 2016, there were 8,269 graduate students. In addition to a central campus in Shinjuku, the university operates campuses in Chūō, Nishitōkyō, Honjō, Kitakyūshū. Waseda operates twenty-one research institutes at its main Shinjuku campus; the Waseda University Library is collectively one of the largest libraries in Japan and hold some 4.5 million volumes and 46,000 serials. Waseda ranks among the most academically selective and prestigious universities in Japanese university rankings, it is ranked alongside Keio University, its rival, as the best private university in Japan. In 2015–2016, Waseda ranked 212th in the QS World University Rankings. Waseda is among the top type of the select Japanese universities assigned additional funding under the MEXT's Top Global University Project to enhance Japan's global educational competitiveness.
Waseda has graduated many notable alumni, including seven Prime Ministers of Japan, numerous important figures of Japanese literature, including Haruki Murakami, many CEOs, including Tadashi Yanai, the CEO of UNIQLO, Nobuyuki Idei, the former CEO of Sony, Takeo Fukui, the former President and CEO of Honda, Norio Sasaki, the former CEO of Toshiba, Lee Kun-hee, the Chairman of Samsung Group, Mikio Sasaki, the former Chairman of Mitsubishi, Hiroshi Yamauchi and Shuntaro Furukawa and current Presidents of Nintendo respectively. Waseda was founded as Tōkyō Senmon Gakkō on October 21, 1882 by samurai scholar and Meiji-era politician and former prime minister Ōkuma Shigenobu. Before the name'Waseda' was selected, it was known variously as Waseda Gakkō or Totsuka Gakkō after the location of the founder's villa in Waseda Village and the school's location in Totsuka Village respectively, it was renamed Waseda University on September 1902, upon acquiring university status. It started as a college with three departments under the old Japanese system of higher education.
In 1882, the university had the department of political science and economics and physical science. Along with these departments, an English language course was established, where the students of all the departments could learn English. Three years the department of physical science was closed because it had too few applicants; the department of literature was established in 1890, the department of education in 1903, the department of commerce in 1904, the department of science and engineering in 1908. Although Waseda formally adopted the term university in its title in 1902 it was not until 1920 that, in common with other Japanese schools and colleges, it received formal government recognition as a university under the terms of the University Establishment Ordinance, thus Waseda became, with Keio University, the first private university in Japan. Much of the campus was destroyed in the fire bombings of Tokyo during World War II, but the university was rebuilt and reopened by 1949, it has grown to become a comprehensive university with two senior high schools and school of art and architecture.
In June 12, 1950, sixty police raided Waseda University and seized copies of a Communist-inspired open letter to General MacArthur. The open letter to MacArthur was once read at a Communist-sponsored rally a week earlier; the letter demanded a peace treaty for Japan that would include Russia and Communist China, withdrawal of occupation forces, the release of eight Japanese sent to prison for assaulting five U. S soldiers at a Communist rally. A police official said most meetings at Waseda would be banned in the future because "political elements" might try to utilize them. Yuichi Eshima, Vice-Chairman of the Students Autonomy Society, said the police action "stupefied" students and professors, that "This is worse than the prewar peace preservation measures." Ōkuma had long desired to create an academic cap so distinctive that someone wearing the cap would be identified as a Waseda student. The chief tailor of Takashimaya, was called upon to design a cap in three days; each square cap was stamped on the inside with the student's name, his department, the school seal and the legend, "This certifies that the owner is a student of Waseda".
Thus, the cap served as a form of identification, a status symbol. The cap, with its gold-braided badge, is registered as a trademark. On October 21, 2007, Waseda University celebrated its 125th anniversary. Ōkuma talked about the "125 years of life" theory: "The lifespan of a human being can be as long as 125 years. He will be able to live out his natural lifespan as long as he takes proper care of his health", because "physiologists say that every animal has the ability to live five times as long as its growth period. Since a man is said to require about 25 years to become mature, it follows that he can live up to 125 years of age." This theory propounded by Ōkuma was popular and referred to in the media of the time. In commemorative events relating to Waseda University and Ōkuma, the number 125 is accorded special significance, as it marks an important epoch; the tower of Ōkuma Auditorium, completed on the university's 45th anniversary, is 125 shaku, or about 38 m high. In 1963, there were events to mark the 125th anniversary of Ōkuma Shigenobu's birth.
Ōkuma, who twice served as prime minister of Japan, organized his second cabinet when he was 77 and died when he was 83. He
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
Mannheim-Heidelberg International Filmfestival shortened to IFFMH, is an annual film festival held jointly by the cities of Mannheim and Heidelberg in Baden-Württemberg. The festival was established in 1952; the festival presents arthouse films of international newcomer directors. It is the second-oldest film festival in Germany. Since 1994 it has been held jointly by the cities of Heidelberg; the festival takes place annually around November. The 67th International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg will take place from November 15 to 25 November in 2018; the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg is aimed at industry professionals as well as cinema enthusiasts, with about 300 professional participants and 50,000 visitors each year, it is one of the largest film festivals in Germany. After several screenings there are public panel discussions with the film's representatives; the festival presents films of independent newcomer directors and who are internationally widely-unknown, focussing on arthouse and auteur films.
The films selected must be premieres and thus films screened at Cannes, Locarno and any German festival are excluded for the International Competition. In 2010 the MANNHEIM MEETING PLACE was launched; the project succeeds the Festival's former co-production market MANNHEIM MEETINGS, focusing on the improvement of marketing opportunities of completed film projects. However, co-production meetings will still take place. During the history of the festival, feature films by now-famous directors such as François Truffaut, Helke Sander, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Kalthoum Bornaz, Jim Jarmusch, Shelley Saywell, Atom Egoyan, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Bryan Singer, Guillaume Nicloux, Lou Ye, Rafi Pitts, Thomas Vinterberg, Derek Cianfrance, Luca Guadagnino and Rahmin Bahrani were first introduced to an international public at the festival. Grand Newcomer Award Mannheim-Heidelberg for the best fiction feature film with a minimum length of 70 minutes. Talent Award Mannheim-Heidelberg for the best unconventionally narrated feature film with a minimum length of 70 minutes.
The prize can not be awarded ex aequo. Special Jury Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg for a film with the minimum length of 70 minutes, or for an extraordinary performance as actor, director etc; this prize can be awarded twice. Special Mentions of Mannheim-Heidelberg for a memorial film or special achievements like acting, music, montage,etc. Up to three Special Mentions can be awarded; the International Film Critics Prize given by the FIPRESCI Jury for a film of the competition. The Ecumenic Film Prize given by the Ecumenical Jury for a film of the competition. Audience Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg for the film most liked by the Festival audience, regardless of genre and length. Recommendations of the Jury of Cinema Owners for a film of the competition which should be released theatrically in Germany. In addition, since 1998 in sporadic intervals, the honorary Master of Cinema Award is issued to outstanding cineastic artist: 2017 – Istvan Szabo 2015 – Olivier Assayas 2009 – Atom Egoyan 2006 – Aleksandr Sokurov 2004 – Wim Wenders, Edgar Reitz 2003 – Raoul Ruiz 2002 – Zhang Yimou 1999 – Otar Iosseliani 1998 – Theo Angelopoulos In addition, since 2013, the honorary New Master of Cinema Award is issued: 2014 – Geoffrey Enthoven 2013 – Frédéric Fonteyne Grand Newcomer Award - Main Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg See you in Texas, Vito Palmieri, Italy Special Newcomer Award Mannheim-Heidelberg Wailings in the forest, Bagane Fiola, The Philippines Special Achievement Award Mannheim-Heidelberg to Sabit Kurmanbekov for the film Returnee, Kasachstan Special Mention of Mannheim-Heidelberg to Alejandro Andujar for the film The Watchman, Domenican Republic Special Mention of Mannheim-Heidelberg to Shady Srour for the screenplay to Holy Air, Israel Special Mention of Mannheim-Heidelberg to Cezmi Baskin for the film Murtaza, Turkey Audience Award Life beyond me, Olivier Peyon, Uruguay Audience Award Zer, Kazim Öz, Germany International Film Critics' Prize Zer Kazim Öz, Germany Prize of the Ecumenical Jury Life beyond me Olivier Peyon, Uruguay Recommendation of the Cinema Owners Holy Air' Shady Srour, Origami Patrick Demers, While we live Mehdi Avaz, Denmark Grand Newcomer Award - Main Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg Reseba- The Dark Wind, Hussain Hassan Ali, Germany Special Newcomer Award Mannheim-Heidelberg Wedding Dance - Kasap Havasi, Cigdem Sezgin, Turkey Special Achievement Award Mannheim-Heidelberg to the actress Rimma Zyubina The Nest of the Turtledove, Ukraine Special Achievement Award Mannheim-Heidelberg to the actor Majid Potki Another Time, Iran Special Mentions of Mannheim-Heidelberg to the film Train Driver's Diary by Milos Radovic, Serbia Audience Award Train Driver's Diary, Milos Radovic, Serbia Audience Award Moon Dog, Philipp John, Ireland International Film Critics' Prize To keep the light Erica Fae, USA Prize of the Ecumenical Jury The Nest of the Turtledove Taras Tkachenko, Ukraine Recommendation of the Cinema Owners Calico Skies Valerio Esposito, USA, Moon Dogs Philipp John, Train Driver's Diary Milos Radovic, Serbia Grand Newcomer Award - Main Award of Mannheim-Heidelberg The Thin Yellow Line, Celso R. Garcia, Mexico Special Newcomer Award Mannheim-Heidelberg 12 Months in 1 Day, Margot Schaap, The Netherlands Special Achievement Award Mannheim-Heidelberg to the director Rebecca Cremona Simshar, Malta Audience Award Jeremy, Anwar Safa, Mexico Intern
The Locarno Film Festival is an annual film festival held every August in Locarno, Switzerland. Founded in 1946, it is one of the longest-running film festivals, is known for being a prestigious platform for art house films; the festival screens films in various competitive and non-competitive sections, including feature-length narrative and documentary, avant-garde, retrospective programs. The Piazza Grande section is held in one of the world’s largest open-air screening venues, seating 8,000 spectators; the top prize of the Festival is the Golden Leopard, awarded to the best film in the International Competition. Other awards include the Leopard of Honour for career achievement, the Prix du Public UBS, the public choice award; the Festival del film Locarno kicked off on 23 August 1946, at the Grand Hotel of Locarno with the screening of the movie "'O sole mio " by Giacomo Gentilomo. The first edition was organized in less than three months with a line-up of fifteen movies American and Italian, among, Rome, Open City directed by Roberto Rossellini, And Then There Were None directed by René Clair, Double Indemnity by Billy Wilder and The Song of Bernadette by Henry King.
The Festival del film Locarno presented movies and short movies by many international directors such as Claude Chabrol, Stanley Kubrick, Paul Verhoeven, Miloš Forman, Marco Bellocchio, Glauber Rocha, Raul Ruiz, Alain Tanner, Mike Leigh, Béla Tarr, Chen Kaige, Edward Yang, Alexandr Sokurov, Atom Egoyan, Jim Jarmusch, Ang Lee, Gregg Araki, Christoph Schaub, Catherine Breillat, Abbas Kiarostami, Gus Van Sant, Pedro Costa, Fatih Akin, Claire Denis and Kim Ki-Duk. Pardo d'oro. Grand Prize of the festival, awarded by the city and region of Locarno, for the best film in the concorso internazionale, shared between the director and the producer. Special Jury Prize. Prize, awarded by cities of Ascona and Losone, for the second best film in the concorso internazionale, shared between the director and the producer. Leopard for Best Direction. Prize, awarded by the city and region of Locarno, for the best directed film in the concorso internazionale. Leopard for Best Actress. Leopard for Best Actor. Swatch First Feature Awards.
Prize awarded by a jury of international critics to the first works presented in the sections concorso internazionale, concorso Cineasti del presente, Fuori concorso, Signs of Life and Piazza Grande. Pardo d'oro Cineasti del presente. Prize awarded to the best film of this competition, dedicated to first or second features. Ciné+ Special Jury Prize – Cineasti del presente; the French television channel Ciné+ Club offers the broadcast rights to the winning film and guarantees the broadcast on their channel. Pardo per il miglior regista emergente: Prize for the best new director. Pardo per la migliore opera prima. Prize, awarded from 2006 to 2009 to the best first work screened in the competition concorso internazionale or concorso Cineasti del presente. Pardino d'oro for the Best International Short Film – SRG SSR Prize. Prize awarded to the best short film in the international short film competition Pardi di domani. Pardino d'oro for the Best Swiss Short Film – Swiss Life Prize. Prize awarded to the best short film in the national short film competition Pardi di domani.
Pardino d'argento SSR SRG for the international competition. Prize awarded to a film in the international competition Pardi di domani. Pardino d'argento Swiss Life for the national competition. Prize awarded to a film in the national competition Pardi di domani. Locarno short film nominee for the European Film Awards – Pianifica Prize; the prize, offered by the studio Pianifica, goes to a short film made by a European director, presented in one of the two competitions. The award includes an automatic nomination in the short film category of the European Film Awards. Prize for Best Swiss Newcomer; the prize provides equipment offered by Cinegrell, Visuals SA, Freestudios SA, Taurus Studio e Avant-première SA/Film Demnächst AG. Premio Medien Patent Verwaltung AG; the winning film will be subtitled in three central European languages. This subtitling can be inserted on video or DVD format. For some 20 years now, the Pardo d'onore has provided an opportunity to commend illustrious film directors, who embody the idea of cinema which the festival has supported so passionately since its inception: the best of auteur films and audacious, with a strong vision and a personal style, endlessly reinventing itself.
Locarno is proud to number amongst recipients of the Pardo d‘onore such master filmmakers as Jacques Rivette, Manoel de Oliveira, Samuel Fuller, Bernardo Bertolucci, Jean-Luc Godard, Daniel Schmid, Ken Loach, Ermanno Olmi, Terry Gilliam, Abbas Kiarostami, Wim Wenders, Aleksandr Sokurov, Hou Hsiao-Hsien, Amos Gitai, William Friedkin, Alain Tanner, Jia Zhangke, Werner Herzog, Agnès Varda, Michael Cimino and Marco Bellocchio, winners of the Vela d'argento in 1965, Alejandro Jodorowsky in 2016. Every year the Exellence Award, sponsored by Moët et Chandon, celebrates one or more internationally acclaimed actors or actresses, through their work and talent, have enriched the cinema with their unique contribution. Since 2004, the Locarno Festival has been honoured to thus pay tribute to Oleg Menshikov, Susan Sarandon, John Malkovich, Willem Dafoe, Carmen Maura, Michel Piccoli, Toni Servillo, Chiara Mastroianni, Isabelle Huppert, Charlotte Rampling, Gael García Bernal, Victoria Abril and Sir Christopher Lee, Juliette Binoche, Giancarlo Giannini and Edward Norton.
In 2016 the
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word