Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025; the county seat is Martinez. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, is suburban; the county's name is Spanish for "opposite coast", referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In prehistoric times the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations.
This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and continues to be elevated by compressive forces resulting from the action of plate tectonics and at its upper reaches presents ancient seabed rocks scraped from distant oceanic sedimentation locations and accumulated and lifted by these great forces. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, with the present county containing portions of regions populated by a number of Native American tribes; the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned.
The known settled populations were hunter-gatherer societies that had no knowledge of metals and that produced utilitarian crafts for everyday use of the highest quality and with graphic embellishments of great aesthetic appeal. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known culturally comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts and from inter-generational knowledge passed down through northerly outlying tribes of the larger region. Early interaction of these Native Americans with Europeans came with the Spanish colonization via the establishment of missions in this area, with the missions in San Jose and San Francisco and the establishment of a Presidio in 1776.
Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, through the establishment of land grants from the King of Spain to favored settlers. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain. While little changed in ranchero life, the Mexican War of Independence resulted in the secularization of the missions with the re-distribution of their lands, a new system of land grants under the Mexican Federal Law of 1824. Mission lands extended including portions of Contra Costa County. Between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County; the smallest unit was one square league, or about seven square miles, or 4,400 acres, maximum to one individual was eleven leagues, or 48,400 acres, including no more than 4,428 acres of irrigable land. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope and stakes.
Lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year. Fences were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required 2000 head of cattle and two square leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, trading ships were taxed. Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley. In 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon. Jose Maria Amador was granted a four square league Rancho San Ramon in 1834. In 1834 Rancho Monte del Diablo was confirmed with 17,921 acres to Salvio Pacheco; the Pacheco family settled at the Rancho in 1846. The boundary lines w
Silver fox (animal)
The silver fox is a melanistic form of the red fox. Silver foxes display a great deal of pelt variation: some are black except for a white coloration on the tip of the tail, some are bluish-grey, some may have a cinereous color on the sides. Silver foxes were among the most valued furbearers, their skins were worn by nobles in Russia, Western Europe, China. Wild silver foxes do not reproduce with members of the same coat morph and can be littermates with the common red variety, though captive populations bred for their fur and as pets are exclusively mated with members of the same color; the silver fox's long outer hair can extend as much as two inches beyond the shorter underfur on different parts of the fox's body under the throat, behind the shoulders, on the sides and the tail. The hair of the underfur is brown at the base, silver grey tipped with black further along the follicle; the hair is soft and was once reputed to be finer than that of the pine marten. The uniformly blackish brown or chocolate colored underfur, unusually long and dense, measures in some places two inches and is exceedingly fine.
It surrounds the whole body to the tail, where it is a little coarser and woollier. The fur is shortest on the forehead and limbs, is finer on the fox's underbelly; when viewed individually, the hairs composing the belly fur exhibit a wavy appearance. There are scarcely any long hairs on the ears; the soles of the feet are so thickly covered with woolly hair. Silver foxes tend to be more cautious than red foxes; when bred with another member of the same color morph, silver foxes will produce silver coated offspring, with little variation in this trend after the third generation. When mated to pure red foxes, the resulting cubs will be fiery red in overall coat color, will have blacker markings on the belly and points than average red foxes; when one such fiery red fox is mated with a silver one, the litter is always 50% silver and 50% red. Fiery red parents may produce a silver cub, the usual proportion being one in four; the colors of mixed foxes blend rather than segregate. The blended offspring of a silver and red fox is known as a cross fox.
Red foxes, including the silver form, are one of the most distributed carnivorous species in the world, ranging over much of the northern hemisphere and Australia. Their abundance in a wide variety of habitats can be attributed to introduction by humans into new habitats for fox-hunting. In North America, silver foxes occur in the northwestern part of the continent. In the 19th century, silver foxes were sometimes collected from Labrador, the Magdalen Islands, they were taken from the mountainous regions of Pennsylvania and the wilder portions of New York, they were found in Nova Scotia. According to Sir John Richardson, it was uncommon for trappers to collect more than 4–5 silver foxes in any one season, in areas where silver foxes were present, despite the trappers’ tendency to prioritize them above all other fur-bearers once they were discovered. Silver foxes comprise up to 8% of Canada's red fox population. In the former Soviet Union, silver foxes occur in forest zones and forest–tundra belts in middle and eastern Siberia and the Caucasus mountains.
They are rare in steppes and deserts. In the richness and beauty of its splendid fur the Silver-gray Fox surpasses the beaver or sea otter, the skins are indeed so esteemed that the finest command extraordinary prices, are always in demand. In order for the pelt to be considered of suitable quality, certain criteria must be met. First, there must be a section of glossy black fur on the neck with a bluish cast; the silver hairs must contain pure bands that are neither prominent. The most valued furs had an distribution of silver hair, as patches of silver hair gave the coat a flaky appearance, considered undesirable. Second, the fur must have "silkiness", which refers to the softness of the fur, was judged by a client running his hand over the pelt. Third, the coat must have a sheen, which reflects the health of the coat and the animal from which it came, as well as the finesse of the hairs; the fur must weigh at least one pound, with value increasing along with size. Heavy fur is considered to be more handsome.
The fur of a silver fox was once considered by the natives of New England to be worth more than 40 American beaver skins. A chieftain accepting a gift of silver fox fur was seen as an act of reconciliation; the records of the Hudson's Bay Company indicate that 19–25% of fox skins traded in British Columbia in the years 1825–1850 were silver, as were 16% of those traded in Labrador. The fur was always sold to Russian and Chinese traders; the silver fur of this fox was the most sough-after pelt due to its style. In 1830, the allele frequency for a silver pelt was at 15% but due to overhunting, this number had fallen to 5% in 1930. Today, the silver pelt is still hunted for and the population of foxes with this silver pelt continues to fall Before the practice of fur farming was refined on Prince Edward Island, it was standard practice to release free ranging silver foxes into small islands, where they starved to death. Fur farmers on Prince Edward Island gained success by breeding and caring for their foxes in captivity.
The farmers recognized the foxes' monogamous habits and permitted their studs to mate for life with a single female, contributing to their success. The fur of captive bred foxes was of a better quality than that of free ranging ones (worth $500–1,000 rather tha
Lake County, California
Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,665; the county seat is Lakeport. The county takes its name from Clear Lake, the dominant geographic feature in the county and the largest natural lake wholly within California. Lake County forms CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is directly north of the San Francisco Bay Area. Lake County is part of California's Wine Country, which includes Napa and Mendocino counties, it includes over 35 wineries. Lake County was formed in 1861 from parts of Napa and Mendocino counties, but the area had European-American settlers from at least the 1840s. Lake County has long been known as a farming community; the 1911 California Blue Book lists the major crops as Bartlett beans. Other crops include grain, hay, peaches, apples and walnuts. Stockraising included goats, hogs and dairying; some vineyards were planted in the 1870s by European Americans but the first in the state were established in the 18th century by Spanish missionaries.
By the early 20th century, the area was earning a reputation for producing some of the world's greatest wines. However, in 1920, national Prohibition ended Lake County's wine production. With authorized cultivation limited to sacramental purposes, most of the vineyards were ripped out and replanted with walnut and pear orchards. A re-emergence of Lake County's wine industry began in the 1960s when a few growers rediscovered the area's grape-growing potential and began planting vineyards. Several Lake County American Viticultural Areas, such as High Valley AVA and Red Hills Lake County AVA, have been recognized as having distinct character; the area has increased vineyard acreage from fewer than 100 acres in 1965 to more than 9,455 acres of vineyard in 2015. Lake County's grape prices, at $1,634 per ton overall reached an all-time high in 2015. In 2014, Lake County surpassed Mendocino County in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market; the number of wineries continues to grow, with over 35 wineries now located in Lake County.
Lake County has been ranked by the American Lung Association as having the cleanest air in the nation, including in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Lake County has been ranked twenty-four times as having the cleanest air in California; the American Lung Association's website gives Lake County air a "C" grade for high ozone days and an "A" grade for particle pollution. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,329 square miles, of which 1,256 square miles is land and 73 square miles is water. Two main watercourses drain the county: Cache Creek, the outlet of Clear Lake. Both of these flow to the Sacramento River; the main streams which flow into Clear Lake are Forbes Creek, Scotts Creek, Middle Creek and Kelsey Creek. At the extreme north of the county Lake Pillsbury and the Van Arsdale Reservoir dam the Eel River, providing water and power to Ukiah in Mendocino County. Clear Lake is believed to be the oldest warmwater lake in North America, due to a geological fluke; the lake sits on a huge block of stone which tilts in the northern direction at the same rate as the lake fills in with sediment, thus keeping the water at the same depth.
The geology of the county is chaotic, being based on Franciscan Assemblage hills. Numerous small faults are present in the south end of the lake as well as many old volcanoes, the largest being Cobb Mountain; the geologic history of the county shows events of great violence, such as the eruption of Mount Konocti and Mount St. Helena and the collapse of Cow Mountain, which created the hills around the county seat of Lakeport. Blue Lakes, Lake Pillsbury, Indian Valley Reservoir are the county's other major bodies of water. Lake County has habitats for a variety of species of concern including the uncommon herb, Legenere limosa, the rare Eryngium constancei, the tule elk. Waterfowl and other wildlife abound in the Clear Lake basin. Due to its surrounding hilly terrain, Lake is the only one of California's 58 counties never to have been served by a railroad line. Glenn County - northeast Colusa County - east Yolo County - southeast Napa County - southeast Sonoma County - southwest Mendocino County - west Mendocino National Forest Cow Mountain Recreation Area Cache Creek Wilderness and Cache Creek Wildlife AreaIn 2015 President Barack Obama created the Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument, incorporating these and other areas.
Boggs Mountain Demonstration State Forest Anderson Marsh State Historic Park Loch Lomond Vernal Pool Ecological Reserve Boggs Lake Ecological Reserve Clear Lake State Park Rodman Slough Preserve In the late 19th century, the worldwide popularity of mineral water for the relief of myriad physical ailments resulted in the development of mineral resorts around Clear Lake. Greene Bartlett discovered Bartlett hot springs in 1870; the springs were developed by 1900 included a mineral water bottling plant. The resort burned down in 1934. Harbin Hot Springs was developed by settlers in the 1860s. Harbin burned to the ground in the Valley Fire of 2015. Highland Springs opened in 1891, was destroyed by fire in 1945. During its time, Highland had a spacious hotel. Saratoga Springs Resort was opened by J. J. Liebert in 1873 with several cabins, within two decades had room for 350 guests. Witter Springs Resort opened in 1873 with a hotel and gue
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide, including the Near East, Europe and Africa; the first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Mermaids are sometimes associated with perilous events such as floods, storms and drownings. In other folk traditions, they can be benevolent or beneficent, bestowing boons or falling in love with humans; the male equivalent of the mermaid is the merman a familiar figure in folklore and heraldry. Although traditions about and sightings of mermen are less common than those of mermaids, they are assumed to co-exist with their female counterparts; some of the attributes of mermaids may have been influenced by the Sirens of Greek mythology. Historical accounts of mermaids, such as those reported by Christopher Columbus during his exploration of the Caribbean, may have been inspired by manatees and similar aquatic mammals.
While there is no evidence that mermaids exist outside folklore, reports of mermaid sightings continue to the present day, including 21st-century examples from Israel and Zimbabwe. Mermaids have been a popular subject of art and literature in recent centuries, such as in Hans Christian Andersen's well-known fairy tale "The Little Mermaid", they have subsequently been depicted in operas, books and comics. The word mermaid is a compound of the Old English mere, maid; the equivalent term in Old English was merewif. They are conventionally depicted as beautiful with long flowing hair; as cited above, they are sometimes equated with the sirens of Greek mythology, half-bird femmes fatales whose enchanting voices would lure soon-to-be-shipwrecked sailors to nearby rocks, sandbars or shoals. Sirenia is an order of aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, coastal marine waters and marine wetlands. Sirenians, including manatees and dugongs, possess major aquatic adaptations: arms used for steering, a paddle used for propulsion, remnants of hind limbs in the form of two small bones floating deep in the muscle.
They look ponderous and clumsy but are fusiform and muscular, mariners before the mid-nineteenth century referred to them as mermaids. Sirenomelia called "mermaid syndrome", is a rare congenital disorder in which a child is born with his or her legs fused together and small genitalia; this condition is about as rare as conjoined twins, affecting one out of every 100,000 live births and is fatal within a day or two of birth because of kidney and bladder complications. Four survivors were known as of July 2003; as the anthropologist A. Asbjørn Jøn noted: "these'marine beasts' have featured in folk tradition for many centuries now, until recently they have maintained a reasonably standard set of characteristics. Many folklorists and mythographers deem that the origin of the mythic mermaid is the dugong, posing a theory that mythicised tales have been constructed around early sightings of dugongs by sailors." Depictions of entities with the tails of fish, but upper bodies of human beings appear in Mesopotamian artwork from the Old Babylonian Period onwards.
These figures are mermen, but mermaids do appear. The name for the mermaid figure may have been kuliltu, meaning "fish-woman"; such figures were used in Neo-Assyrian art as protective figures and were shown in both monumental sculpture and in small, protective figurines. The first known mermaid stories appeared in Assyria c. 1000 BC. The goddess Atargatis, mother of Assyrian queen Semiramis, loved a mortal and unintentionally killed him. Ashamed, she jumped into a lake and took the form of a fish, but the waters would not conceal her divine beauty. Thereafter, she took the form of a mermaid — human above the waist, fish below — although the earliest representations of Atargatis showed her as a fish with a human head and arm, similar to the Babylonian god Ea; the Greeks recognized Atargatis under the name Derketo. Sometime before 546 BC, Milesian philosopher Anaximander postulated that mankind had sprung from an aquatic animal species, he thought. A popular Greek legend turned Alexander the Great's sister, into a mermaid after her death, living in the Aegean.
She would ask the sailors on any ship she would encounter only one question: "Is King Alexander alive?", to which the correct answer was: "He lives and reigns and conquers the world". This answer would please her, she would accordingly calm the waters and bid the ship farewell. Any other answer would enrage her, she would stir up a terrible storm, dooming the ship and every sailor on board. In the second century AD, the Hellenized Syrian writer Lucian of Samosata wrote about the Syrian temples he had visited in his treatise On the Syrian Goddess, written in Ionic Greek: "Among them – Now, the traditional story among them concerning the temple, but other men swear that Semiramis of Babylonia, whose deeds are many in Asia founded this site, not for Hera but for her own mother, whose name was Derketo." "I saw Derketo's likeness in a strange marvel. It is woman for half its length, but the image in the Holy City is a woman, the grounds for their acco
Schoenoplectus acutus, called tule, common tule, hardstem tule, tule rush, hardstem bulrush, or viscid bulrush, is a giant species of sedge in the plant family Cyperaceae, native to freshwater marshes all over North America. The common name derives from the Nāhuatl word tōllin, was first applied by the early settlers from New Spain who recognized the marsh plants in the Central Valley of California as similar to those in the marshes around Mexico City. Tules once lined the shores of Tulare Lake, California the largest freshwater lake in the western United States, until it was drained by land speculators in the 20th century; the expression "out in the tules" is still common, deriving from the dialect of old Californian families and means "where no one would want to live", with a touch of irony. The phrase is comparable to "out in the boondocks". Schoenoplectus acutus has a thick, rounded green stem growing to 1 to 3 m tall, with long, grasslike leaves, radially symmetrical, pale brownish flowers.
Tules at shorelines play an important ecological role, helping to buffer against wind and water forces, thereby allowing the establishment of other types of plants and reducing erosion. Tules are sometimes cleared from waterways using herbicides; when erosion occurs, tule rhizomes are replanted in strategic areas. The two varieties are: Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus – northern and eastern North America Schoenoplectus acutus var. occidentalis – southwestern North America Dyed and woven, tules are used to make baskets, mats, clothing, duck decoys, boats by Native American groups. Before the Salish got horses for bison hunting, they lived in tents covered with sewed mats of tule. At least two tribes, the Wanapum and the Pomo people, constructed tule houses as as the 1950s and still do for special occasions. Bay Miwok, Coast Miwok, Ohlone peoples used the tule in the manufacture of canoes or balsas, for transportation across the San Francisco Bay and using the marine and wetland resources. Northern groups of Chumash used the tule in the manufacture of canoes rather than the sewn-plank tomol used by Chumash and used them to gather marine harvests.
The Paiutes named a neighboring tribe the Si-Te-Cah in their language. The young sprouts and shoots can be eaten raw and the rhizomes and unripe flower heads can be boiled as vegetables. One of the few Pomo survivors of the Bloody Island Massacre in Northern California, a 6-year-old girl named Ni'ka, or Lucy Moore, evaded the United States Cavalry by hiding behind the tule reeds in the bloodied water, her descendants have since formed the Lucy Moore Foundation to work for better relations between the Pomo and residents of California. It is so common in wetlands in California, several places in the state were named for it, including Tulare. Tule Lake includes Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, it was the site of an internment camp for Japanese Americans during World War II, imprisoning 18,700 people at its peak. The town of Tulelake is northeast of the lake. California has a Tule River; the Tule Desert is located in Nevada. Nevada has Tule Springs. California's dense, ground-hugging tule fog is named for the plant, as are the tule elk and tule perch.
The giant garter snake was closely associated with tule marshes in California's Central Valley. Munz, Philip A. A California Flora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973, copyright 1959 Munz, Philip A. A California Flora: Supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976 Jones, Terry L. and Klar, Kathryn California prehistory: colonization and complexity, Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2007 C. Michael Hogan Morro Creek, published by Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham Tule Boat Photo Gallery Tule reed canoe, launched on Lake Merced, San Francisco Tule reed canoe, Modoc Swall, Corinne. Tule reed boat workbook: a voyage of adventure. Kentfield, CA: Mother Lode Musical Theatre, Watershed Preservation Network. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California. The historic Pomo territory in northern California was large, bordered by the Pacific Coast to the west, extending inland to Clear Lake, between Cleone and Duncans Point. One small group, the Northeastern Pomo of the Stonyford vicinity of Colusa County, was separated from the core Pomo area by lands inhabited by Yuki and Wintuan speakers; the name pomo derives from a conflation of the Pomo words and. It meant "those who live at red earth hole" and was once the name of a village in southern Potter Valley near the present-day community of Pomo, it may have referred to local deposits of the red mineral magnesite, used for red beads, or to the reddish earth and clay, such as hematite, mined in the area. In the Northern Pomo dialect, -pomo or -poma was used as a suffix after the names of places, to mean a subgroup of people of the place. By 1877, the use of Pomo had been extended in English to mean the entire people known today as the Pomo; the Pomo had 20 chiefs at the same time.
The people called Pomo were linked by location and cultural expression. They were not or politically linked as one large unified group. Instead, they lived in small groups or bands, linked by geography and marriage. Traditionally they relied upon fishing and gathering for their food; the Pomo Indian cultures are several ethnolinguistic groups that make up a single language family in Northern California. Their historic territory extended from the Pacific Coast between Cleone and Duncans Point to Clear Lake; the Pomo Indians preferred to live in small groups which are called "bands". These bands were linked by geography and marriage; the Pomo cultures encompassed hundreds of independent communities. Like many other Native groups, the Pomo Indian of Northern California relied upon fishing and gathering for their daily food supply, they ate salmon, wild greens, mushrooms, grasshoppers, rabbits and squirrels. Acorns were the most important staple in their diet; the division of labor in Pomo Indian communities involved gathering and preparation of plant-based foods by women, while men were hunters and fishers.
The Pomo Indian culture is famed for its tradition of intricate basketry. A valued basket type incorporates bird feathers into design of the basket's weave; some of their most culturally important dances are "Ghost Dance" and "Far South". During a "Ghost Dance" ceremony, they believed, and a "Far South" dance was celebrated as the rite of passage for children to the tribe. The Pomoan languages became endangered after European colonization of their native territory. Contacts with Russian and English have impacted these languages, many are no longer spoken due to language shift to English. There are about twelve Pomo language varieties. Pomo known as Pomoan or less Kulanapan, is a language family that includes seven distinct and mutually unintelligible languages, including Northern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo, Eastern Pomo, Southeastern Pomo, Central Pomo, Southern Pomo, Kashaya. John Wesley Powell classified the language family as Kulanapan in 1891, using the name first introduced by George Gibbs in 1853.
This name for the language family is derived from the name of one Eastern Pomo village on the south shore of Clear Lake. Powers was the first to refer to this entire language family with the name "Pomo", the geographic names that have been used to refer to the seven individual Pomoan languages were introduced by Barrett; the Pomo people participated in shamanism. It included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world, an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms; the Pomo believed in a supernatural being, the Kuksu or Guksu, who lived in the south and who came during ceremonies to heal their illnesses. Medicine men dressed up as their interpretation of a healer spirit. A shamanistic movement was the "Messiah Cult", introduced by the Wintun people, it was practiced through 1900. This cult believed in prophets who had dreams, "waking visions" and revelations from "presiding spirits", "virtually formed a priesthood".
The prophets earned much status among the people. The record of Pomo myths, legends and histories is extensive; the body of narratives is classed within the Central California cultural pattern. The Pomo had a strong mythology of world order, it includes the personification of the Kuksu or Guksu healer spirit, spirits from six cardinal directions, the Coyote as their ancestor and creator god. According to some linguistic theories, the Pomo people descend from the Hokan-speaking people. One theory places the ancestral community from which the Pomoan languages and cultures are descended in the Sonoma County, California region; this area was. In this hypothesis, about 7000 BCE, a Hokan-speaking people migrated into the valley and mountain regions around Clear Lake, their language evolved into Proto-Pomo; the lake was rich in resources. About 4000 BCE to 5000 BCE, some of the proto-Pomo migrated into the Russian River Valley and north to present-day Ukiah, their language diverged into western, southern and northern Pomo.
Another people Yukian speakers, lived first in the Ru