A submersible mixer is a mechanical device, used to mix sludge tanks and other liquid volumes. Submersible mixers are used in sewage treatment plants to keep solids in suspension in the various process tanks and/or sludge holding tanks; the submersible mixer is operated by an electric motor, coupled to the mixer's propeller, either direct-coupled or via a planetary gear-reducer. The propeller rotates and creates liquid flow in the tank, which in turn keeps the solids in suspension; the submersible mixer is installed on a guide rail system, which enables the mixer to be retrieved for periodic inspection and preventive maintenance. Examples of applications where submersible mixers are applied: Anoxic/anaerobic tanks and oxidation basins at sewage treatment plants IFAS, MBBR, other fixed film biocarrier processes. Mixing of sewage wet wells Reception tanks and post-digestion tanks at biogas facilities Liquid Manure storage tanks at dairy and poultry farms Waste processing at slaughterhouses, poultry abattoirs, fish processing plants, etc
A static mixer is a precision engineered device for the continuous mixing of fluid materials, without moving components. The fluids to be mixed are liquid, but static mixers can be used to mix gas streams, disperse gas into liquid or blend immiscible liquids; the energy needed for mixing comes from a loss in pressure. One design of static mixer is the plate-type mixer and another common device type consists of mixer elements contained in a cylindrical or squared housing. Mixer size can vary from about 6 mm to 6 meters diameter. Typical construction materials for static mixer components included stainless steel, Teflon, PVDF, PVC, CPVC and polyacetal; the latest design involve static mixing elements made of glass-lined steel. In the plate type design mixing is accomplished through intense turbulence in the flow. In the housed-elements design the static mixer elements consist of a series of baffles made of metal or a variety of plastics; the mixer housing can be made of metal or plastic. The housed-elements design incorporates a method for delivering two streams of fluids into the static mixer.
As the streams move through the mixer, the non-moving elements continuously blend the materials. Complete mixing depends on many variables including the fluids' properties, tube inner diameter, number of elements and their design; the housed-elements mixer's fixed helical elements can produce patterns of flow division and radial mixing: Flow division: In laminar flow, a processed material divides at the leading edge of each element of the mixer and follows the channels created by the element shape. At each succeeding element, the two channels are further divided, resulting in an exponential increase in stratification; the number of striations produced is 2n. Radial mixing: In either turbulent flow or laminar flow, rotational circulation of a processed material around its own hydraulic center in each channel of the mixer causes radial mixing of the material. Processed material is intermixed to reduce or eliminate radial gradients in temperature and material composition. A common application is mixing nozzles for two-component sealants.
Other applications include chemical processing. Static mixers can be used in the refinery and oil and gas markets as well, for example in bitumen processing or for desalting crude oil. In polymer production, static mixers can be used to facilitate polymerization reactions or for the admixing of liquid additives; the static mixer traces its origins to an invention for a mixing device filed on Nov. 29, 1965 by the Arthur D. Little Company; this device was the housed-elements type and was licensed to the Kenics Corporation and marketed as the Kenics Motionless Mixer. Today, the Kenics brand is owned by National Oilwell Varco; the plate type static mixer patent was issued on November 24, 1998 to Robert W. Glanville of Westfall Manufacturing. Thermal cleaning Static Mixer
Mixing (process engineering)
In industrial process engineering, mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulation of a heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous. Familiar examples include pumping of the water in a swimming pool to homogenize the water temperature, the stirring of pancake batter to eliminate lumps. Mixing is performed to allow heat and/or mass transfer to occur between one or more streams, components or phases. Modern industrial processing always involves some form of mixing; some classes of chemical reactors are mixers. With the right equipment, it is possible to mix a solid, liquid or gas into another solid, liquid or gas. A biofuel fermenter may require the mixing of microbes and liquid medium for optimal yield; the opposite of mixing is segregation. A classical example of segregation is the brazil nut effect; the type of operation and equipment used during mixing depends on the state of materials being mixed and the miscibility of the materials being processed. In this context, the act of mixing may be synonymous with stirring kneading-processes.
Mixing of liquids occurs in process engineering. The nature of liquids to blend determines the equipment used. Single-phase blending tends to involve low-shear, high-flow mixers to cause liquid engulfment, while multi-phase mixing requires the use of high-shear, low-flow mixers to create droplets of one liquid in laminar, turbulent or transitional flow regimes, depending on the Reynolds number of the flow. Turbulent or transitional mixing is conducted with turbines or impellers. Mixing of liquids that are miscible or at least soluble in each other occurs in process engineering. An everyday example would be the addition of milk or cream to coffee. Since both liquids are water-based, they dissolve in one another; the momentum of the liquid being added is sometimes enough to cause enough turbulence to mix the two, since the viscosity of both liquids is low. If necessary, a spoon or paddle could be used to complete the mixing process. Blending in a more viscous liquid, such as honey, requires more mixing power per unit volume to achieve the same homogeneity in the same amount of time.
Blending powders is one of the oldest unit-operations in the solids handling industries. For many decades powder blending has been used just to homogenize bulk materials. Many different machines have been designed to handle materials with various bulk solids properties. On the basis of the practical experience gained with these different machines, engineering knowledge has been developed to construct reliable equipment and to predict scale-up and mixing behavior. Nowadays the same mixing technologies are used for many more applications: to improve product quality, to coat particles, to fuse materials, to wet, to disperse in liquid, to agglomerate, to alter functional material properties, etc; this wide range of applications of mixing equipment requires a high level of knowledge, long time experience and extended test facilities to come to the optimal selection of equipment and processes.. Solids-solids mixing can be performed either in batch mixers, the simpler form of mixing, or in certain cases in continuous dry-mix, more complex but which provide interesting advantages in terms of segregation and validation.
One example of a solid–solid mixing process is mulling foundry molding sand, where sand, bentonite clay, fine coal dust and water are mixed to a plastic and reusable mass, applied for molding and pouring molten metal to obtain sand castings that are metallic parts for automobile, machine building, construction or other industries. In powder two different dimensions in the mixing process can be determined: convective mixing and intensive mixing. In the case of convective mixing material in the mixer is transported from one location to another; this type of mixing leads to a less ordered state inside the mixer, the components that must be mixed are distributed over the other components. With progressing time the mixture becomes more randomly ordered. After a certain mixing time the ultimate random state is reached; this type of mixing is applied for free-flowing and coarse materials. Possible threats during macro mixing is the de-mixing of the components, since differences in size, shape or density of the different particles can lead to segregation.
When materials are cohesive, the case with e.g. fine particles and with wet material, convective mixing is no longer sufficient to obtain a randomly ordered mixture. The relative strong inter-particle forces form lumps, which are not broken up by the mild transportation forces in the convective mixer. To decrease the lump size additional forces are necessary; these additional forces can either be impact forces or shear forces. Liquid–solid mixing is done to suspend coarse free-flowing solids, or to break up lumps of fine agglomerated solids. An example of the former is the mixing granulated sugar into water. In the first case, the particles can be lifted into suspension by bulk motion of the fluid. One example of a solid–liquid mixing process in industry is concrete mixing, where cement, small stones or gravel and water are co
Feed mixers are used in feed mills for the mixing of feed ingredients and premixes. The mixer plays a vital role in the feed production process, with efficient mixing being the key to good feed production. If feed is not mixed properly and nutrients will not be properly distributed when it comes time to extrude and pelletize the feed, or if the feed is to be used as mash; this means that not only would the feed not have nutritional benefit, it would be bad for the animals that are eating it. There are a number of different type of mixers used in the feed industry with the most used being: Vertical Mixer – Used in small farms, they consist of a vertical screw which takes material to the top where it falls back down again, repeats that process to mix materials Horizontal Mixer – Consisting of paddles or blades attached to a horizontal rotor, these mixers have a higher consistent homogeneity and short mixing times; these machines come in a variety of configurations: Round bowl- The sides are shaped in rounding configuration Decagon bowl- The sides are shaped with angled flats creating a circular configuration Square bowl- The sides are similar to a square box with the top being open to load feed.
Paddle reel- A large rotating reel with paddles to move feed forward and back. Auger system- Multiple augers processing feed and moving forward and backwards in the tub. Vertical screw- A vertical standing auger moving feed upward and down the sides to process feed. Mixer-wagon
Production sound mixer
A production sound mixer, location sound recordist, location sound engineer or sound mixer is the member of a film crew or television crew responsible for recording all sound recording on set during the filmmaking or television production using professional audio equipment, for inclusion in the finished product, or for reference to be used by the sound designer, sound effects editors, or foley artists. This requires choice and deployment of microphones, choice of recording media, mixing of audio signals in real time; the recordist will arrive on location with his/her own equipment, which includes microphones, radio systems, mixing desk, audio storage, cables, a paper or computer sound logs. The recordist may be asked to capture a wide variety of wild sound on location, must consider the format of the finished product; the recorded production sound track is combined with other elements, i.e. effects, narration, foley or re-recorded dialog by automatic dialogue replacement. When taping on video, the sound recordist may record audio directly onto the camera rather than use a separate medium, although a separate copy is made, as it both provides an extra copy which may have more tracks and may include other sound captured without the camera.
The sound mixer is considered a department head, is thus responsible for all aspects of production sound including the hiring of a boom operator and utility sound technician, planning the technical setup involving sound including both sound equipment and ancillary devices involved in syncing and time offsets and discussing sound-related problems with the rest of the crew, ordering and preparing the sound equipment to be used on the set. David Yewdall; the Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound. Focal Press, 1999. Vincent Magnier, Le guide de la prise. Éditions Dunod/INA, 2007. John Purcell, Dialogue Editing for Motion Pictures: A Guide to the Invisible Art. Focal Press, 2009. ISBN 0240809181 Jay Rose, Producing Great Sound for Film and Video. Focal Press, fourth edition 2014 Book info. ISBN 9780415722070 Longoria, Sam. Make Your Movie Sound Like A Real Movie Martinez, Carlos E. Location Audio for Any Budget, An Introduction Rose, Jay Film/video tutorials written for DV Magazine and others
A vortex mixer, or vortexer, is a simple device used in laboratories to mix small vials of liquid. It consists of an electric motor with the drive shaft oriented vertically and attached to a cupped rubber piece mounted off-center; as the motor runs the rubber piece oscillates in a circular motion. When a test tube or other appropriate container is pressed into the rubber cup the motion is transmitted to the liquid inside and a vortex is created. Most vortex mixers are designed with 2 or 4-plate formats, have variable speed settings ranging from 100 to 3,200 rpm, can be set to run continuously, or to run only when downward pressure is applied to the rubber piece. Vortex mixers are quite commonplace in bioscience laboratories. In cell culture and microbiology laboratories they may be used to suspend cells. In a biochemical or analytical laboratory they may be used to mix the reagents of an assay or to mix an experimental sample and a dilutant; the vortex mixer was invented by the Kraft brothers while working for Scientific Industries.
A patent was filed by the Kraft brothers on April 6, 1959 and granted on October 30, 1962. Scientific Industries still makes a version of this original vortex mixer. An alternative to the electric vortex mixer is the "finger vortex" technique in which a vortex is created manually by striking a test tube in a forward and downward motion with one's finger or thumb; this takes longer and results in inadequate suspension, although it may be suitable in some cases when a vortex mixer is unavailable or the forces involved in vortexing would damage the sample, but this technique is not recommended when caustic substances are involved. The technique is better suited to accelerate the mixture of solutions which do not require the kinetic energy input needed to create suspensions. For incubating applications, vortex mixers can employ precision temperature control at various mixing speeds which make them ideal for a wide variety of molecular biology applications including immunochemical reactions and protein analysis, microarray analysis.
Magnetic stirrer and stir bar Shaker Stirring rod Static mixer
Drink mixers are the non-alcoholic ingredients in mixed drinks and cocktails. There are many reasons, they add new ones to a drink. Mixers dilute the drink, they may make the drink sweeter, more savory. Some mixers change the consistency of the drink, making it thicker or more watery. Drink mixers may be used for decorative purposes by changing the color or appearance of the drink, they simply increase the volume of a drink, to make it last longer. Caffeine, a stimulant, masks some of the depressant effects of alcohol. Coffee Energy drinks – Red Bull, etc. Iced tea, sweetened – Lipton BRISK, etc. Carbonation adds a festive flair to drinks, it increases the absorption of the alcohol into the blood stream due to increased pressure in the stomach resulting in faster intoxication. Bitter lemon – flavored with quinine and lemon Carbonated water Cola – Coca-Cola, etc. Ginger ale Ginger beer Lemon Sour Lemon–lime soda – 7 Up, etc. Root beer, orange and cherry soda, various other fruit and herb–flavored soft drinks are used, but they have not been as popular as the drinks listed above.
Tonic water - The essential ingredient is quinine. Sugar and other flavorings are commonly added. Milk products add a smoothing effect to the feel of the drink to counteract the burn of the alcohol, they turn the drinks opaque enhancing and lightening the color of the drink. Cream Eggnog Half and half Ice cream Milk Juices are flavorful additions; some add sweetness, others add a sour tang, add a sweet-tart sensation. Fruit juices are common additions to rum-based cocktails. Apple cider Coconut milk or coconut water Cranberry juice Grape juice Grapefruit juice Lemon juice Lemonade Lime juice, unsweetened Limeade Olive juice Orange juice Pineapple juice Tomato juice – plain or flavored Wheatgrass juice Some suppliers now manufacture pre-made mixes, which contain all the ingredients for a particular drink pre-mixed; the only thing that needs to be added is alcohol. Bloody Mary mix Cosmopolitan mix Hot Toddy mix Margarita mix Mojito mix Mudslide mix Strawberry Daiquiri mix The addition of a sauce imparts a surprising new taste to a familiar drink.
Hot sauces are used in drinking games. Honey Hot sauce – Tabasco sauce, etc. Worcestershire sauce The key ingredient in a syrup is sugar, which sweetens any drink into which it is mixed. Other flavors are added to a sugar syrup. Demerara syrup – A combination of Demerara sugar, a natural brown sugar, water. Falernum – Of Caribbean origin, flavored with almonds, ginger and/or cloves, lime. Fassionola - A passion fruit and guava juice syrup. Lime juice, sweetened – Rose's lime juice Orgeat – Flavored with almonds and either rose water or orange flower water. Simple syrup – A combination of granulated sugar and water. Sour mix – Also known as sweet and sour mix, a combination of simple syrup and lemon or lime juice. Squash – A concentrated fruit- or herbal-flavored syrup. Many other food and beverage items can be used in mixed drinks; these are some other common ones. Egg – egg whites thicken and increase the foaminess of blended drinks. Food coloring Sports drink – Gatorade, SunnyD, Redbull etc. List of cocktails Mixed drink shooters and drink shots Cocktail garnishCategoriesCategory:Drink mixers Category:Mixed drinks Category:Soft drinks