Dance-pop is a pop and dance subgenre that originated in the early 1980s. It is uptempo music intended for nightclubs with the intention of being danceable but suitable for contemporary hit radio. Developing from a combination of electronic dance music and pop music, with influences of disco, post-disco and synth-pop, it is characterised by strong beats with easy, uncomplicated song structures which are more similar to pop music than the more free-form dance genre, with an emphasis on melody as well as catchy tunes; the genre, on the whole, tends to be producer-driven, despite some notable exceptions. Dance-pop borrowed influences from other genres, which varied by producer and period; such include contemporary R&B, trance, new jack swing, synthpop and some forms of Europop. Dance-pop is a popular mainstream style of music and there have been numerous pop artists and groups who perform in the genre. Notable ones include Cher, Britney Spears, Kylie Minogue, Gloria Estefan, Christina Aguilera, Jennifer Lopez, Spice Girls, Paula Abdul, Backstreet Boys, Michael Jackson, NSYNC, Destiny's Child, Janet Jackson, Taylor Swift, Miley Cyrus, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Ariana Grande and Selena Gomez As the term "disco" started to go out of fashion by the late 1970s to early 1980s, other terms were used to describe disco-based music, such as "post-disco", "club", "dance" or "dance-pop" music.
These genres were, in essence, a more modern variant of disco music known as post-disco, which tended to be more experimental and producer/DJ-driven using sequencers and synthesizers. Dance-pop music emerged in the 1980s as a combination of dance and pop, or post-disco, uptempo and simple, club-natured, producer-driven and catchy. Dance-pop was more uptempo and dancey than regular pop, yet more structured and less free-form than dance music combining pop's easy structure and catchy tunes with dance's strong beat and uptempo nature. Dance-pop music was created and produced by record producers who would hire singers to perform the songs. In the beginning of the 1980s, disco was an anathema to the mainstream pop. According to prominent Allmusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Madonna had a huge role in popularizing dance music as mainstream music, utilizing her charisma and sex appeal. Erlewine claimed that Madonna "launched dance-pop" and set the standard for the genre for the next two decades.
As the primary songwriter on her self-titled debut album and a co-producer by her third record, Madonna's insistence on being involved in all creative aspects of her work was unusual for a female dance-pop vocalist at the time. The staff of Vice magazine stated that her debut album "drew the blueprint for future dance-pop."In the 1980s, dance-pop was aligned to other uptempo electronic genres, such as Hi-NRG. Prominent producers in the 1980s included Stock and Waterman, who created Hi-NRG/dance-pop for artists such as Kylie Minogue, Dead or Alive and Bananarama. During the decade, dance-pop borrowed influences from funk, new jack swing, contemporary R&B. Other prominent dance-pop artists and groups of the 1980s included the Pet Shop Boys and Kim, Samantha Fox, Debbie Gibson, Tiffany. By the 1990s, dance-pop had become a major genre in popular music. Several dance-pop groups and artists emerged during the 1990s, such as the Spice Girls, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Jessica Simpson, Backstreet Boys, and'NSYNC.
During the early 1990s, dance-pop borrowed influences from house music, as well as contemporary R&B and new jack swing. By the late 1990s, electronic influences became evident in dance-pop music. Additionally in 1998, Cher released a dance-pop song called "Believe" which made usage of a technological innovation of the time, Auto-Tune. An audio processor and a form of pitch modification software, Auto-Tune is used as a way to correct pitch and to create special effects. Since the late 1990s, the use of Auto-Tune processing has become a common feature of dance-pop music. Celine Dion released a midtempo dance-pop song, "That's the Way It Is" by the end of 1999. During this period, some British bands connected with Britpop and alternative pop experimented with dance pop as a form - examples include Catatonia single Karaoke Queen, Kenickie's final single Stay in the Sun and Romo band Orlando's major label debut single "Just For A Second." Another Britpop band, Theaudience was fronted by Sophie Ellis Bextor who went on to a successful solo career in artist-driven dance-pop.
At the beginning of the 2000s, dance-pop music was still prominent, electronic in style, influenced by genres such as trance, house and electro. Nonetheless, as R&B and hip hop became popular from the early part of the decade onwards, dance-pop borrowed a lot of its influences from urban music. Dance-pop stars from the 1980s and 1990s such as Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Janet Jackson and Kylie Minogue continued to achieve success at the beginning of the decade. Whilst a lot of dance-pop at the time was R&B-influenced, many records started to return to their disco roots.
James Dean Bradfield
James Dean Bradfield is a Welsh singer-songwriter and record producer. He is known for being the lead guitarist and lead vocalist for the Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers. Born in Tredegar, Bradfield attended the local Oakdale Comprehensive School where he suffered years of cruelty and bullying for his name, lazy eye, musical bent and small size. James formed a close relationship with three friends: his cousin Sean Moore, who lived with James and his family throughout their childhood after his own parents' divorce, future bandmates Nicky Wire and Richey Edwards. Bradfield loved to run and was a steeplechaser, soon grew fond of punk rock band The Clash, although his earliest musical love was ELO, he decided that he wanted to be a rock star. He learnt to play guitar by learning how to play Guns N' Roses's Appetite for Destruction with the curtains drawn in his parents' front room. In late April 2006, a track from Bradfield's debut solo single entitled "That's No Way to Tell a Lie" premiered on Janice Long's show on Radio 2.
It became the first single from the album and was released on 10 July while the album, entitled "The Great Western", was released on 24 July. The single debuted at #18 in the UK single charts while the album debuted at #22 on the album charts; the positions were considered successful considering the lack of promotion. In support of the album, Bradfield played a series of solo gigs in May 2006 in Manchester, Dundee, Nottingham and London; the setlists consisted of tracks from "The Great Western" as well as several Manics tracks including "This Is Yesterday" and "Ocean Spray". He played one further date at London ULU in June 2006, featuring a similar setlist to the other gigs. Bradfield performed at the 2006 V Festival in late August, he embarked on his first full UK tour – consisting of 15 dates – in October. A second single,'An English Gentleman' was lifted from "The Great Western" prior to the tour and entered the UK chart at #31 on 1 October 2006, he lives in Llandaff Cardiff. Despite having once said “I always get bored of the company of women quickly,” he married the band's PR agent Mylène Halsall in a ceremony in Florence, Italy on 11 July 2004.
The couple have two children. He is a supporter of Nottingham Forest. In 2015, Bradfield and fellow Manic Sean Moore went to Patagonia in aid of the Velindre charity; the Great Western – #22 The Chamber: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack "That's No Way to Tell a Lie" – #18 "An English Gentleman" – #31 "Lopez" with 808 State on album Don Solaris "Inertia Creeps" with Massive Attack, remix for Inertia Creeps single "I'm Left, You're Right, She's Gone" with Tom Jones on album Reload "Commemoration And Amnesia" with Patrick Jones, 2 tracks "Tongues for a Stammering Time" with Patrick Jones, 4 tracks "Turn No More" with Public Service Broadcasting on their album Every Valley 1996: Northern Uproar – Northern Uproar 1997: Kylie Minogue – Impossible Princess 1999: Tom Jones – Reload 2004: Johnny Boy – "You Are The Generation That Bought More Shoes And You Get What You Deserve" Price, Simon. Everything. Virgin Publishing. ISBN 0-7535-0139-2. Clarke, Martin. Manic Street Preachers: Sweet Venom. Plexus Publishing.
ISBN 0-85965-259-9. Official Manic Street Preachers Site James Dean Bradfield biography from BBC Wales
Kylie Ann Minogue known mononymously as Kylie, is an Australian-British singer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Appearing in the series for two years, Minogue's character married Scott Robinson in an episode viewed by nearly 20 million people in the United Kingdom, making it one of the most watched Australian TV episodes ever. Since Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames, most notably the "Princess of Pop." She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Born and raised in Melbourne, Minogue has worked and lived in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, she released her first studio album Kylie the next year. In 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records where she released her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics.
Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released Light Years. The followup, was a hit in many countries, including the United States; the lead single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles of the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Other successful singles by Minogue include "I Should Be So Lucky", "The Loco-Motion", "Especially for You", "Hand on Your Heart", "Better the Devil You Know", "Confide in Me", "Spinning Around", "Love at First Sight", "Slow", "2 Hearts" and "All the Lovers". In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue made her film debut in The Delinquents and portrayed Cammy in Street Fighter. Minogue has appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.
In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the third series of The Voice Australia. Her other ventures include children's books and fashion; as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and received a Mo Award for "Australian Entertainer of the Year" for her live performances. Minogue was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to Music, she was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture. Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, she was inducted by the Australian Recording Industry Association into the ARIA Hall of Fame. In December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time.
Minogue signed a new global recording contract with BMG Rights Management in early 2017. Her latest album Golden was released on 6 April 2018, debuting at No. 1 in the Australia. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968, her father is a fifth generation Australian, has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father and Denis Jones, decided to move to Australia for a better life. Just before Kylie's birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylie's younger brother, Brendan, is a news cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is a singer and television host; the Minogue family moved around various suburbs in Melbourne to sustain their living expenses, which Kylie found unsettling as a child. After the birth of Dannii, the family moved to South Oakleigh; because money was tight, Ron worked as an accountant at a family-owned car company and Carol worked as a tea lady at a local hospital.
After moving to Surrey Hills, Minogue attended Studfield Primary School before attending Camberwell Primary School. She went on to Camberwell High School. During her schooling years, Minogue found it difficult to make friends, she got her HSC with subjects including English. Minogue described herself as being of "average intelligence" and "quite modest" during her high school years. From the age of 11, Kylie appeared in small roles in soap operas including The Sullivans and Skyways. In 1985, she was cast in one of the lead roles in The Henderson Kids. Minogue took time off school to film The Henderson Kids and while Carol was not impressed, Minogue felt that she needed the independence to make it into the entertainment industry. During filming, co-star Nadine Garner labelled Minogue "fragile" after producers yelled at her for forgetting her lines. Minogue was dropped from the second season of the show after producer Alan Hardy felt the need for her character to be "written off". In retrospect, Hardy stated that removing her from the showing "turned out to be the best thing for her".
Interested in following a career in music, Minogue made a demo tape for the producers of weekly music programme Young Talent Time, which featured Dannii as a regular performer
Glamour is a women's magazine published by Condé Nast Publications. Founded in 1939 and first published in April 1939 in the United States, it was called Glamour of Hollywood. In August 1943, the magazine changed its name, to Glamour with the subtitle of for the girl with the job; the magazine is published in a larger format than many of its counterparts. On January 8th, 2018 it was announced that Samantha Barry the Head of Social Media and Emerging Media at CNN, would be the new Editor in Chief of Glamour, it targets women 18–49 and reaches a subscription audience of 1,411,061 readers in the United States. Its circulation on newsstands is 986,447, making the total average paid circulation: 2,397,508. Glamour was the first women's magazine to feature an African-American covergirl when it included Katiti Kironde on the cover of its college issue in August 1968. Since 1980, the magazine has held an annual "Women of the Year" awards ceremony. In November 2018, Glamour announced that its print edition would cease with its January 2019 issue in order to focus on its digital presence.
Each year for the last 56 years, the magazine has been selecting a top ten list of outstanding college women across the country. The list was composed of the best dressed college juniors in America, but was changed for more substance with categories such as academic achievement, community service, career goals as leading criteria. Hundreds of college juniors apply each year. Past winners, finalists include; each autumn, the magazine organizes the “Glamour Woman of the Year Awards” which recognize women in the public eye. In 2007, Lorena Ochoa won a Woman of the Year award. In 2008 the award was granted to two Yemenis: 10-year-old divorcee Nujood Ali, the lawyer who took on her case. Nujood's courage was praised including Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice; the 2010 Glamour Woman of the Year was Cher and the 2016 Glamour Woman of the Year was Zendaya Glamour launched in the UK in April 2001, where it pioneered the “handbag size” format, with the tagline "fits in your life as well as your handbag".
Each September, the magazine holds “National Glamour Week”. The magazine features extra coupons and competitions. Since its launch the magazine has been edited by Jo Elvin, with Michelle Pamment serving as acting editor in 2005. In June 2009, to celebrate Glamour's 8th birthday in the UK, Glamour.com have made a gallery of every cover since launch. In October 2017, it was announced that publication of the monthly UK edition is to end at the end of 2017. Henceforward, the UK version will be a twice-yearly publication. On January 8th, 2018, it was announced Samantha Barry, former head of Social Media and Emerging Media at CNN would be the new Editor in Chief of Glamour, started on January 15th, 2018; the Italian edition of Glamour was launched under the title Lei. It was not until 1992, when the magazine was renamed Glamour, like its U. S. counterpart. The Russian edition was established in 2004 and it is published monthly in the country; the South African edition launched in April 2004, is published monthly and is, since its inception, edited by Pnina Fenster.
Glamour is published in Germany, Mexico, Hungary, Russia, Brazil, Greece, the Netherlands and Bulgaria. Additionally, there is a third Spanish edition, published in the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America. In Germany and Greece Lucky, a fashion and shopping magazine is published seasonally, in tandem with Glamour. Lucky magazine is being shut down. A copy of it was the magazine to which George Costanza masturbated on the series Seinfeld, when he was caught by his mother in the season 4 episode "The Contest". Glamour Glamour model Official website of Glamour TV Official website Official website Official website Official website Official website Official website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Official Website Website GlamYou
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
"Cowboy Style" is a song recorded by Australian recording artist and songwriter Kylie Minogue, for her sixth studio album Impossible Princess. The song was released as the final single on 5 October 1998 through Mushroom. Minogue co-wrote the track with Dave Seaman while Brothers in Rhythm produced it. Backed by guitars and drum instruments, "Cowboy Style" is a Celtic pop track in which Minogue sings about her relationship with Stephane Sednaoui. Critical response to "Cowboy Style" was positive. Released in Australia and New Zealand, the song charted at number thirty-nine on the Australian Singles Chart. Minogue promoted "Cowboy Style" by performing it on her Intimate and Live Tour from June to August 1998. One of the live performances, directed by Michael Williams, was used as the music video, she performed it on her Fever Tour and Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour. The song was included in the track list of Minogue's compilation albums Confide in Me and Confide in Me: The Irresistible Kylie. "Cowboy Style" was written by Minogue, Steve Anderson and Dave Seaman, was one of the first songs composed for the album.
Minogue wrote the song prior to being in a relationship with French photographer Stephane Sednaoui with different lyrical context, but it was completed while she was dating. Of the song, Minogue said "the way you start a new relationship with someone, they can bring out so many emotions within you and makes you question yourself a bit more." The title "Cowboy Style" comes from when she first met Sednaoui in person, where she recalled him looking "unusual" and felt like he was "the new cowboy coming into town". Following the weak commercial performance of her previous single "Breathe", Minogue left Deconstruction Records. While performing on her Intimate and Live concert tour in Australia, Minogue confirmed that she would release "Cowboy Style" as the fourth single in Australia and New Zealand by Mushroom Records; the single's artwork was shot during the Intimate and Live tour by Simon Emmert, which featured Minogue with a leather bra and a cowboy hat on. Idolator listed the artwork as one of "Kylie's Best Single Covers", saying "Leather bra and a cowboy hat.
Enough said." An unedited shot of the cover was featured in her Kylie photo album book, released in August 1999. "Cowboy Style" was recorded at Real World Studios, Sarm West and DMC Studios in London and was mixed by Alan Bremner at Real World. Instrumentally, Greg Bones and Anderson played the guitar, Johnnie Hardie played the fiddle, all other instrumentals played by Anderson. "Cowboy Style" is a Celtic pop song that lasts a duration of forty-four seconds. Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine commented that "Cowboy Style features a tribal percussion break and a string quartet that sounds more Celtic than country." Online music critic Adrian Denning compared the song to the work of Icelandic recording artist and songwriter Björk. Nick Levine from Digital Spy said "Oh, in'Cowboy Style', it has a track that manages to sound a little bit Celtic and a little bit Middle Eastern. Pete Waterman must have wept." "Cowboy Style" received favorable reviews from music critics. Chris True from Allmusic highlighted the song.
Michael R. Smith from The Daily Vault compared the song in retrospect to American singer Madonna's song "Don't Tell Me", writing. It's the one track that left me wanting more of the same - extended remixes, at the least." A reviewer from Who Magazine was positive towards the track, stating "An Eastern feel under a free-flowing melody. Classic poppy Kyles." C. Adams from Herald Sun commended the track by saying "Cowboy Style manages to border from country music and remain cool." Gary James from Entertainment Focus praised all her written tracks and selected "Say Hey", "Too Far", "Cowboy Style" and "Limbo" for her being able to portray an "sense of claustrophobia and uncertainty."John Mangan from The Age was positive in his review, saying the song is a "funky hoe-down sound". A reviewer from the publication The Backlot listed the song at number eleven on their "Kylie Minogue's Best Songs, In Honor of Her Birthday" and said "This stylistic mishmash is a hard-driving, sexualized quest for freedom.
How do you deal with the fact that Kylie sings, "I am frightened, I'm aroused, I'm enlightened to the now' and sells it?" Online critic Adrian Denning from his website Adriandenning.co.uk said "Too Far flows well into the impressive, eastern flavored Cowboy Style. Either one of these two songs would have made better singles than the ones chosen, by the way." Sputnikmusic highlighted the track as an album stand out, commenting "Cowboy Style a funky western jam that might get country fans to do a line dance, this is the mother to Madonna's "Don't Tell Me". Kylie's creativity to mix her style with a genre that can be a put off to the masses is a surprise and one of the albums highlights." "Cowboy Style" entered at thirty-nine on 18 October 1998. It is the lowest charting single from the Impossible Princess album; the music video for "Cowboy Style" was directed by Michael Williams and taped at a sound check at one of the Intimate and Live shows in June 1998. The music video was dubbed with the radio edit, it was featured on the CD single.
The music video was released on the DVD version of Greatest Hits 87–99 in June 2003. Minogue performed "Cowboy Style" on the Australian morning TV series. Minogue included the song on
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were