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Enos Luther Brookes

Enos Luther Brookes was an American chemist, academic and an early civil rights movement activist. He attended Tuskeegee Institute and his bachelor's degree from Lincoln University in 1923 where he was valedictorian, he received his masters in chemistry from Columbia University in 1928. Brookes served as a faculty member at Columbia University and was a faculty member at Clark University, he was the head of the Department of Science at Clark University. He worked at Alabama State University and at Florida A & M, he was a founder of Alpha Delta Alpha Scientific Society at Clark University. Professor Brookes in collaboration with Mr. Henry Lewis Van Dyke of Alabama State College wrote a syllabus for "Survey of the Physical Sciences" via a grant from the General Education Board of New York City, he is one of the Black Faces of Science on the North Carolina T mural. Brookes served as the President of the Atlanta branch of the NAACP, he spoke at a number of NAACP regional conferences. He was key in setting up a task force in dealing with internal conflicts that plagued the NAACP.

He was a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity and founded the chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha at Clark University. He served on the Board of Directors of the Atlanta Tuberculosis Association, he was born as the son of school teacher James M. Brookes and Martha Brookes, he came to America in 1914. In 1928, he married historian Dr. Stella Lucille Brewer, he died of a heart attack in 1944

Chessington Community College

Chessington School is a co-educational 11–16 inclusive / comprehensive school with a sports centre in the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Greater London. In 1939, the Garrison Lane site of Chessington Community College was opened as RAF Chessington and was used as a barrage balloon centre in the defence of London in World War II. After a brief period of operation as a US Air Force base most of the land was sold off for housing. Before 1953, there was only one secondary school in the Chessington area, Moor Lane secondary mixed school, opened in 1936. After World War II, large areas of Chessington and west of the Leatherhead Road, were scheduled for building development to serve as overspill areas for Surbiton and Malden; this meant that new schools had to be provided and it was decided by the county council to build a new secondary boys' school in Garrison Lane and to retain Moor Lane as a secondary girls' school. In September 1953, Fleetwood County Secondary boys' school was opened as a three-form entry school with 324 boys on the role.

There were the usual problems connected with establishing a new school and others due to the following reason: As house building in the area progressed, boys of all ages were continually being admitted to the school making a stable organisation impossible, in some cases resulting in boys of different age groups being taught in the same classes. The school soon became overcrowded and this problem was accentuated because all the rooms had been built for classes of 30; some forms had more than 40 on roll and it was only just possible to get them into the rooms. This situation was relieved in 1958 by the addition of a library; the number of boys from Chessington families was quite small with many boys travelling in from a distance. For the majority there was, as yet, no community tradition and the first settling down period of two or three years was difficult. Time and the natural course of events solved most of these early problems. Casual admissions during the year became normal and forms were reduced in size so that no form was of more than 35, most being just below 30.

A healthy community spirit began to develop in the school with the increasing growth of extra-curricular activities and other activities which had a noticeable effect on the attitude and behaviour of boys in general. As a boys' school, Fleetwood was inspected by Her Majesty's Inspectors from the Ministry of Education in July 1962, just prior to the admission of girls; the inspection concluded that Fleetwood County Secondary School for Boys was a good school which made a most valuable contribution to the community it served. Under the Surrey Development Plan for Secondary Education, girls were admitted to what was renamed Fleetwood County Secondary School, the first girls being admitted in September 1962 when 38 girls joined the existing 383 boys. In the following years, numbers began to rise. During the 1980s, during a period of falling rolls and due to the geographical location of the school, numbers began to fall. Consideration was given by Kingston Local Education Authority to close the school.

This angered many of the parents and residents in the Chessington and Hook areas who felt that local amenities were being taken away from the south of the borough to its detriment. Following a great deal of political debate locally, Kingston’s Education Committee decided to keep the secondary school in the south of the borough but given the complaints about lack of recreational facilities decided that a new educational establishment was needed in the borough which would serve the community needs of the Chessington and Hook area. In September 1989, Chessington Community College was established with Mr. J. P. Hayes as its first headteacher. In 1992, the College opened its £2 million sports centre, built not only to provide indoor sporting facilities for the pupils of Chessington Community College but to serve the sporting needs of the local community in the evenings and at weekends; the College progressed well under the headship of Hayes with the percentage of Year 11 pupils gaining 5 A* -C GCSEs rising from 19% in summer 1990 to nearly 50% in summer 1995.

Chessington Community College was most inspected by Ofsted on the 6 and 7 November 2014, in this report the school was given an overall rating of "Good" in comparison to a previous rating "Requires Improvement" from an inspection on the 12 and 13 December 2012. Chessington Community College has been given a Secondary performance rating of 0.36 for 2016, this put the school in the top 25% of English schools in terms of academic progress for pupils between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 4. In 2016 Chessington Community College achieved their best GCSE results, with 67% of children achieving Grade C or better, 7.7% above the England average. In 2015 Chessington Community College achieved the following GCSE results 50% of students achieved 5 or more GCSEs at grade C or above including maths and English 94.93% of students achieved 5 or more GCSEs at grades A-G 97.83% of students achieved 1 or more GCSEs at grades A-G In 2014 63 per cent of Chessington Community College pupils had achieved five A*-C grades.

In September 2015 Mr Ash Ali was appointed to the role of Headteacher promising to continue growth of community pride. September 2015 to present – Mr Ash Ali September 2009 to September 2015 – Mr Rob Niedermaier-Reed September 2002 to September 2009 – Mr. D. Kemp 1997 to September 2002 – Mr. J. P. Allen September 1989 to 1997 – Mr. J. P. Hayes The school has achieved sports college status which means

Canadian Army Command and Staff College

The Canadian Army Command and Staff College the Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College, is a school for officers of the Canadian Forces, specializing in staff and army operations courses. It is located at Fort Frontenac, in Kingston, Canada. CACSC is charged with developing in army officers the ability to perform command and staff functions in war; the following courses are offered at CACSC: Army Operations Course Primary Reserve Army Operations Course Military Training and Cooperation Program - North Atlantic Treaty Organization Unit Command Team Course Primary Reserve Command Team Course Information Management Officer Course Joint Tactical Targeting Course Collateral Damage Estimation Course Lt Col G. G. Simonds Maj-Gen H. F. H. Hertzberg, CMG, DSO, MC Brig D. G. Cunningham, DSO Brig J. D. B. Smith, CBE, DSO Maj-Gen J. F. M. Whiteley, CB, CBE, MC Lt-Gen G. G. Simonds, CB, CBE, DSO, CD Brig G. Kitching, CBE, DSO, CD Brig M. P. Bogert, CBE, DSO, CD Brig R. Rowley, DSO, ED, CD Brig D. C. Cameron, DSO, ED, CD Brig B.

F. Macdonald, DSO, CD Brig W. A. Milroy, DSO, CD BGen W. A. Milroy, DSO, CD BGen D. S. MacLennan, CD BGen F. W. Wootton, CD BGen P. V. B. Grieve, CD BGen C. L. Kirby, CD Col P. H. C. Carew, CD BGen P. H. C. Carew, CD BGen J. A. Cotter, CD BGen R. I. Stewart, CD BGen C. Milner, OMM, CD MGen C. Milner, OMM, CD BGen T. F. De Faye, OMM, CD Col R. S. Billings, CD BGen R. P. Alden, OMM, CD Col J. S. Labbe, CD BGen M. K. Jeffery, OMM, CD BGen J. Arp, CD Col M. Lessard, CD BGen M. Lessard, CD BGen G. W. Nordick, OMM< MSC, CD Col J. R. Ferron, CD Col J. C. Collin, OMM, CD Col F. A. Lewis, MSM, CD Col J. Cade, MSM, CD Col B. W. G. McPherson, CD Col R. D. K. Walker, MSC, CD Col G. R. Smith, MSM, CD LCol J. G. J Trudel, CD Col D. D. Basinger, CD Col D. J. Cross, CD Col R. T. Strickland, CD Fort Frontenac Library Fort Frontenac Official website

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test–Ban Treaty is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but has not entered into force, as eight specific nations have not ratified the treaty; the movement for international control of nuclear weapons began in 1945, with a call from Canada and the United Kingdom for a conference on the subject. In June 1946, Bernard Baruch, an emissary of President Harry S. Truman, proposed the Baruch Plan before the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, which called for an international system of controls on the production of atomic energy; the plan, which would serve as the basis for United States nuclear policy into the 1950s, was rejected by the Soviet Union as a US ploy to cement its nuclear dominance. Between the Trinity nuclear test of 16 July 1945 and the signing of the Partial Test Ban Treaty on 5 August 1963, 499 nuclear tests were conducted.

Much of the impetus for the PTBT, the precursor to the CTBT, was rising public concern surrounding the size and resulting nuclear fallout from underwater and atmospheric nuclear tests tests of powerful thermonuclear weapons. The Castle Bravo test of 1 March 1954, in particular, attracted significant attention as the detonation resulted in fallout that spread over inhabited areas and sickened a group of Japanese fishermen. Between 1945 and 1963, the US conducted 215 atmospheric tests, the Soviet Union conducted 219, the UK conducted 21, France conducted three. In 1954, following the Castle Bravo test, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India issued the first appeal for a "standstill agreement" on testing, soon echoed by the British Labour Party. Negotiations on a comprehensive test ban involved the US, UK, the Soviet Union, began in 1955 following a proposal by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Of primary concern throughout the negotiations, which would stretch with some interruptions to July 1963, was the system of verifying compliance with the test ban and detecting illicit tests.

On the Western side, there were concerns that the Soviet Union would be able to circumvent any test ban and secretly leap ahead in the nuclear arms race. These fears were amplified following the US Rainier shot of 19 September 1957, the first contained underground test of a nuclear weapon. Though the US held a significant advantage in underground testing capabilities, there was worry that the Soviet Union would be able to covertly conduct underground tests during a test ban, as underground detonations were more challenging to detect than above-ground tests. On the Soviet side, the on-site compliance inspections demanded by the US and UK were seen as amounting to espionage. Disagreement over verification would lead to the Anglo-American and Soviet negotiators abandoning a comprehensive test ban in favor of a partial ban, which would be finalized on 25 July 1963; the PTBT, joined by 123 states following the original three parties, banned detonations for military and civilian purposes underwater, in the atmosphere, outer space.

The PTBT had mixed results. On the one hand, enactment of the treaty was followed by a substantial drop in the atmospheric concentration of radioactive particles. On the other hand, nuclear proliferation was not halted and nuclear testing continued at a rapid clip. Compared to the 499 tests from 1945 to the signing of the PTBT, 436 tests were conducted over the ten years following the PTBT. Furthermore, US and Soviet underground testing continued "venting" radioactive gas into the atmosphere. Additionally, though underground testing was safer than above-ground testing, underground tests continued to risk the leaking of radionuclides, including plutonium, into the ground. From 1964 through 1996, the year of the CTBT's adoption, an estimated 1,377 underground nuclear tests were conducted; the final non-underground test was conducted by China in 1980. The PTBT has been seen as a step towards the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty of 1968, which directly referenced the PTBT. Under the NPT, non-nuclear weapon states were prohibited from possessing and acquiring nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

All signatories, including nuclear weapon states, were committed to the goal of total nuclear disarmament. However, India and Israel have declined to sign the NPT on the grounds that such a treaty is fundamentally discriminatory as it places limitations on states that do not have nuclear weapons while making no efforts to curb weapons development by declared nuclear weapons states. In 1974, a step towards a comprehensive test ban was made with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, ratified by the US and Soviet Union, which banned underground tests with yields above 150 kilotons. In April 1976, the two states reached agreement on the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty, which concerns nuclear detonations outside the weapons sites discussed in the TTBT; as in the TTBT, the US and Soviet Union agreed to bar peaceful nuclear explosions at these other locations with yields above 150 kilotons, as well as group explosions with total yields over 1,500 kilotons. To verify compliance, the PNET requires that states rely on national technical means of verification, share information on explosions, grant on-site access to counterparties.

The TTBT and PNET did not enter into force for the US and Soviet Union until 11 December 1990. In October 1977, the US, UK, Soviet Union returned to negotiations over a test ban; these three nuclear powers made notable progress in the late 1970s, agreeing to terms on a ban o


Caloocan the City of Caloocan, or known as Caloocan City, is a 1st class urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 1,583,978 people making it the fourth-most populous city in the Philippines, it is divided into two geographical locations with a total combined area of 5,333.40 hectares. It was part of the Province of Rizal of the Philippines' Southern Luzon Region; the city's name is colloquially spelled as Kalookan. It comprises what is known as the CAMANAVA area along with cities Malabon and Valenzuela; the word caloocan comes from the Tagalog root word lo-ok. South Caloocan is bordered by Manila, Quezon City, Malabon and Valenzuela. North Caloocan shares its border with Quezon City and Marilao, Meycauayan and San Jose del Monte in the province of Bulacan. Caloocan was a lowland area located on the corner where the old town of Tondo and Tambobong meet. Caloocan became a municipality when it was separated from Tondo in 1815, its original territory was extended to San Mateo and Montalban to the east.

The city is significant because it was the center of activities for the Katipunan, the secret militant society that launched the Philippine Revolution during the Spanish occupation of the Philippines. In a house in Caloocan secret meetings were held by Andrés Bonifacio and his men, it was in the city's perimeters where the first armed encounter took place between the Katipunan and the Spaniards; the revolution erupted after the Cry of Balintawak led by Andres Bonifacio In 1899 the city saw heavy fighting in the Philippine–American War, at the Battle of Caloocan and the Second Battle of Caloocan. In 1901, during the formation of the province of Rizal, Caloocan was included in its matrix. Novaliches became part of Caloocan pursuant to Act 942, as amended by Act 984 and Act 1008 of the Philippine Commission, transferred in 1949 for the formation of Quezon City. In 1961, after Republic Act No. 3278 was approved by the Philippine Congress and the plebiscite was conducted. Caloocan was inducted into cityhood on February 16, 1962 Caloocan once encompassed a much larger, contiguous area.

The districts of Balintawak, La Loma and Novaliches were once part of Caloocan. Balintawak is a historic district because it was the original site of the "Cry of Pugad Lawin" at a location called "Kang-kong" near Tandang Sora's house. Novaliches was an expansive sector with some hillsides that served as meeting places and hideouts for Andrés Bonifacio and the Katipunan. By the 1920s there was a consolidation of several municipalities. Caloocan annexed the neighbouring town of Novaliches, as stated in the Act 942, as amended by Acts 984 and 1008 of the Philippine Commission, bringing its total area to about 15,000 hectares, it extended to the foothills of San Mateo and Montalban in the east. When Quezon City was created in 1939, Caloocan ceded 1,500 hectares of land from the barrios or sitios of Balintawák, Kaingin, Kangkong, La Loma, Matalahib, Galas, San Isidro, San José, Santol and Tatalon. Instead of opposing the transfer, Caloocan residents willingly gave the land in the belief it will benefit the country's new capital city.

However, in 1949, Congress passed Republic Act No. 333, which redefined the Caloocan-Quezon City boundary. The barrios of Baesa, Talipapâ, San Bartolomé, Pasong Tamó, Banlat, Pugad Lawin, Pasong Putik, which once belonged to Novaliches and had an area of about 8,100 hectares, were excised from Caloocan; the remaining portion of the Novaliches is now called North Caloocan. This split Caloocan into two parts: a southern section, more urbanised, a northern section that became suburban-rural. Caloocan is divided into two non-contiguous areas. Southern Caloocan lies directly north of the Manila and is bounded by Malabon and Valenzuela to the north and west, Navotas to the west, Quezon City to the east. Northern Caloocan is the northernmost territory of Metro Manila which most residents call Novaliches or Fairview. Caloocan's northern part is much larger than its southern half. Caloocan is divided into 188 barangays; the city uses a hybrid system for its barangays. All barangays have their corresponding numbers but only a few — in the northern part — have corresponding names.

However, names of barrios and districts do not coincide with barangay perimeters. Barangays in southern Caloocan are smaller compared to their northern counterparts. Among the cities in Metro Manila, only Manila and Caloocan implement the so-called "Zone Systems". A zone is a group of barangays in a district. Although a zone is considered a subdivision in the local government units, the people do not elect a leader for the zone in a popular election similar to the normal barangay or local elections; the zoning system is for statistical purposes. Caloocan has 16 zones; the biggest zone in Caloocan is Zone 15 in District 1 directly west of the second biggest zone in Caloocan, Zone 16. Barangay Bagong Silang is the most populous barangay in the entire country with a population of 246,515 people. In 1957, the sitio of Bagbagin was