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Mixolydian mode

Mixolydian mode is a musical mode. In the modern sense, it is the scale on the white piano keys that starts with G, its ascending sequence consists of a root note, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step. The term "Mixolydian mode" may refer to one of three things: the name applied to one of the ancient Greek harmoniai or tonoi, based on a particular octave species or scale; the modern diatonic mode is the scale forming the basis of both the rising and falling forms of Harikambhoji in Carnatic music, the classical music form of southern India. The idea of a Mixolydian mode comes from the music theory of ancient Greece; the invention of the ancient Greek Mixolydian mode was attributed to Sappho, the 7th-century-B. C. Poet and musician. However, what the ancient Greeks thought of as Mixolydian was different from the modern interpretation of the mode. In Greek theory, the Mixolydian tonos employs a scale corresponding to the Greek Hypolydian mode inverted. In its diatonic genus, this is a scale descending from paramese to hypate hypaton.

In the diatonic genus, a whole tone followed by two conjunct inverted Lydian tetrachords. This diatonic genus of the scale is the equivalent of playing all the white notes of a piano from B to B, known as modern Locrian mode. In the chromatic and enharmonic genera, each tetrachord consists of a minor third plus two semitones, a major third plus two quarter tones, respectively; the term Mixolydian was used to designate one of the traditional harmoniai of Greek theory. It was appropriated by 2nd-century theorist Ptolemy to designate his seven tonoi or transposition keys. Four centuries Boethius interpreted Ptolemy in Latin, still with the meaning of transposition keys, not scales; when chant theory was first being formulated in the 9th century, these seven names plus an eighth, were again re-appropriated in the anonymous treatise Alia Musica. A commentary on that treatise, called the Nova expositio, first gave it a new sense as one of a set of eight diatonic species of the octave, or scales; the name Mixolydian came to be applied to one of the eight modes of medieval church music: the seventh mode.

This mode does not run from B to B on white notes, as the Greek mode, but was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from G up one octave to the G above, or as a mode whose final was G and whose ambitus runs from the F below the final to the G above, with possible extensions "by licence" up to A above and down to E below, in which the note D had an important melodic function. This medieval theoretical construction led to the modern use of the term for the natural scale from G to G; the seventh mode of western church music is an authentic mode based on and encompassing the natural scale from G to G, with the perfect fifth as the dominant, reciting note or tenor. The plagal eighth mode was termed Hypomixolydian and, like the Mixolydian, was defined in two ways: as the diatonic octave species from D to the D an octave higher, divided at the mode final, G; the modern Mixolydian scale is the fifth mode of the major scale. That is, it can be constructed by starting on the fifth scale degree of the major scale.

Because of this, the Mixolydian mode is sometimes called the dominant scale. This scale has the same series of tones and semitones with a minor seventh; as a result, the seventh scale degree is a subtonic, rather than a leading-tone. The flattened seventh of the scale is a tritone away from the mediant of the key; the order of whole tones and semitones in a Mixolydian scale is whole, half, whole, wholeIn the Mixolydian mode, the tonic and subtonic triads are all major, the mediant is diminished, the remaining triads are minor. The Mixolydian mode is common in non-classical harmony, such as folk, funk and rock music. Klezmer musicians refer to the Mixolydian scale as the Adonai malakh mode. In Klezmer, it is transposed to C, where the main chords used are C, F, G7. "Old Joe Clark" "Paddy's Green Shamrock Shore" – A traditional Irish folk song. "She Moved Through the Fair" – A traditional Irish folk song. "Fughetta super: Dies sind die heilgen zehn Gebot" in G Major from Clavier-Übung III, BWV 679 by Johann Sebastian Bach Piano Concerto in A minor, third movement, by Edvard Grieg "Clocks" by Coldplay "Dark Star" by the Grateful Dead, modal in A Mixolydian "Express Yourself" by Madonna "Gloria" by Them "Green Light" by Lorde "Hey Jude" by the Beatles "I Think We're Alone Now" by The Shondells "Lay Lady Lay" by Bob Dylan "Let It Loose" by The Rolling Stones "Marquee Moon" by Television "Morning Mr. Magpie" by Radiohead "Norwegian Wood" by The Beatles "Ramblin' Man" by The Allman Brothers Band "Royals" by Lorde Theme From Star Trek "Sweet Child o' Mine" by Guns N' Roses "This Is a Low" by Blur "You and I" by Lady Gaga "All Blues" by

Curtin Immigration Reception and Processing Centre

Curtin Immigration Detention Centre is an Australian immigration detention facility in the Kimberley in Western Australia at 17°36'14.58"S 123°49'14.28"E. Curtin was described by former Immigration minister, Philip Ruddock, as the country's "most primitive" processing centre, it was shut down by the Howard Government following a riot in 2002 but was re-opened in 2010 by its successor - the Rudd-Gillard Government. Being run by Serco Asia Pacific who run Villawood and other detention centres in Australia; the controversial move has been seen by commentators as a reversal by the Australian Labor Party of its policy towards detention. Munjed Al Muderis Iraqi asylum seeker and pioneering Osteointegration surgeon, human rights activist. Abdul Hekmat, Hazara refugee and journalist contributing to The Monthly magazine, The Saturday Paper and The Guardian, among other publications. RAAF Curtin List of Australian immigration detention facilities Remote Curtin detention centre was closed for a reason

Emund the Old

Emund the Old or Edmund was King of Sweden from c. 1050 to c. 1060. His short reign was characterised by disputes with the Archbishopric of Bremen over church policies, a debated delimitation of the Swedish-Danish border. Emund was the son of the first Christian ruler of Sweden, his mother was a co-wife, daughter of a Slavic chief from the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. He had two uterine sisters called Holmfrid, his half-siblings, born by Olof's legitimate Queen Estrid of the Obotrites, were Anund Jacob and Ingegerd. According to the 13th-century historian Snorri Sturluson, Estrid was ill-tempered and treated her stepchildren poorly. King Olof sent Emund to be raised with his mother's Slavic family. While staying there he failed to hold on to the Christian religion. Olof was succeeded by his other son Anund Jacob. Snorri relates that Emund was ruling in Sigtuna, an important center in the Swedish realm, by 1035. However, other sources show; the German ecclesiastical chronicler Adam of Bremen, in his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, says that Anund Jacob died in or shortly after 1049 and was succeeded by Emund.

Our only near-contemporary source for Emund's reign is Adam of Bremen, who paints a negative picture of the new ruler. This is due to the self-willed attitude of Emund vis-à-vis the Archdiocese of Bremen. Adam relates that Emund was baptised but cared little for the Christian faith, he gives Emund the cognomen pessimus, reflected by the short chronicle of the Westrogothic law which knows the king as Slemme, the bad. The Westrogothic law states; the dispute with Bremen was triggered by Emund's insistence on maintaining a bishop called Osmundus. A protegé of the Norwegian-based missionary Sigfrid, Osmundus had been raised at a school in Bremen but failed to be ordained bishop by the Pope, he was ordained by the Polish archbishop of Gniezno and proceeded to Sweden where he won the confidence of King Emund. In the mid-1050s the Archbishop of Bremen sent envoys to Sweden, headed by Adalvard the Elder, intended as the new bishop; the delegation was offended when encountering Osmundus who sported the habits of an archbishop and "seduced the still converted wild peoples through incorrect education in our faith".

On Osmundus' insistence, Emund turned the envoys away from an assembly. However, the Swedish magnate Stenkil, a relation of the king, escorted the delegation on its way back; some time after the schism, King Emund dispatched his son Anund with an army "in order to expand the realm". The Viking expedition crossed the sea and came, according to Adam, to Terra Feminarum, the Land of Women. Adam places this somewhere in Scythia. Modern scholars have assumed that the term alludes to Kvenland, situated to the east of the Gulf of Bothnia in present-day Finland. "The women", says Adam, "immediately mixed poison in the springwater, in that way brought death to the king himself and his army." The passage implies. The military disaster was paired with failed harvests; this crop failure can be dated to 1056 from other sources. The calamities caused the Swedes to turn to the Archbishop of Bremen and ask to receive Adalvard back as Bremen-appointed bishop. Adalvard duly arrived to Sweden where he devoted his efforts to the conversion of Värmland towards the border of Norway.

Osmundus appears to have submitted to Adalvard in the end, but left Sweden for England some time before 1066. It has been assumed on loose grounds that he was the same person as Åsmund Kåresson, a prominent carver of runic inscriptions in Uppland. One of the latter's inscription includes the passage "Åsmund Kåresson carved runes right. Sat Emund". There has been much speculation. Little is known about the relationship between Sweden and its Nordic neighbours in King Emund's time, he may have continued his brother Anund Jacob's support for the Danish king Sweyn Estridsen against Harald Hardrada of Norway. A memorandum about an early delimitation of the Swedish-Danish border has been preserved in a large number of medieval Swedish manuscripts; the text states that "Emund Slemme was the King in Uppsala, Sweyn Forkbeard in Denmark. They placed boundary-marks between Denmark. Now is enumerated Ragnvalde of Tiundaland, Botvid of Hälsingland, Bote of Fjärdhundraland, Grimalde of Östergötland and Tote and Tokke of Jutland, Gunkil of Sjaelland, Dan of Scania, Grimulf of Grimeton in Halland.

They placed six stones between the two kingdoms. The first stone stands in Snutruase, the second in Danabäck, the third one is Kinna sten, the fourth in Uraksnaes, the fifth Vita sten, the sixth is Brömse sten between Blekinge and Möre." The memorandum is followed by a story about a meeting between the three Nordic kings on Danaholmen where the Danish king held the bridle of the Swedish king's horse, while the Norwegian king held his stirrups, thus acknowledging the precedence of the Uppsala king. In older historiography it was assumed that the province of Blekinge was transferred from Sweden to Denmark at this occasion. A late 9th-century source alleges that Blekinge belonged to the Swedes at that time

Bruce Williams (Royal Navy officer)

Rear Admiral Bruce Nicholas Bromley Williams CBE is a retired Royal Navy officer. Williams joined the Royal Navy in 1980, he became commanding officer of the frigate HMS Norfolk in 1998 and commanding officer of the frigate HMS Campbeltown in 2003. He went on to be commander of Combined Task Force 58 in 2005 and Commander United Kingdom Task Group and Deputy Commander United Kingdom Maritime Forces in 2006. In late 2006 he was assigned to the command of Combined Task Force 150, a multinational squadron of ships serving under the US Fifth Fleet assigned to maritime security operations in the Indian Ocean. During this command, which coincided with the war in Somalia between the Transitional Federal Government, backed by the forces of Ethiopia against the Islamic Courts Union, Williams led the task force performing naval interdiction off the Somali coast of during the Battle of Ras Kamboni in January 2007 to prevent the escape of wanted terrorists associated with Al-Qaeda. Williams turned over command of Task Force 150 to French Navy Rear Admiral Alain Hinden on 4 April 2007.

Williams became Deputy Commandant of the Joint Services Command and Staff College in 2008, before being promoted to rear admiral and taking up the appointment as Chief of Staff to NATO's Allied Maritime Command Naples in 2009. He went on to be Deputy Director General and Chief of Staff of the European Union Military Staff in Brussels in 2011, he retired from the Navy in 2015. He was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours. Media related to Bruce Williams at Wikimedia Commons

White Fang

White Fang is a novel by American author Jack London — and the name of the book's eponymous character, a wild wolfdog. First serialized in Outing magazine, it was published in 1906; the story details White Fang's journey to domestication in Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush. It is a companion novel to London's best-known work, The Call of the Wild, about a kidnapped, domesticated dog embracing his wild ancestry to survive and thrive in the wild. Much of White Fang is written from the viewpoint of the titular canine character, enabling London to explore how animals view their world and how they view humans. White Fang examines the violent world of wild animals and the violent world of humans; the book explores complex themes including morality and redemption. As early as 1925, the story was adapted to film, it has since seen several more cinematic adaptations, including a 1991 film starring Ethan Hawke and a 2018 original film for Netflix; the story begins before the wolf-dog hybrid is born, with two men and their sled dog team on a journey to deliver the coffin of Lord Alfred to a remote town named Fort McGurry in the higher area of the Yukon Territory.

The men and Henry, are stalked by a large pack of starving wolves over the course of several days. After all of their dogs and Bill have been eaten, four more teams find Henry trying to escape from the wolves; the story follows the pack, robbed of its last prey. When the pack brings down a moose, the famine is ended; the she-wolf gives birth to a litter of five cubs by the Mackenzie River, all but one die from hunger. One Eye is killed by a lynx while trying to rob her den for food for her cub; the surviving cub and the she-wolf are left to fend for themselves. Shortly afterward, the she-wolf kills all the lynx's kittens to feed her cub, prompting the lynx to track her down, a vicious fight breaks out; the she-wolf kills the lynx but suffers severe injury. One day, the cub comes across five Aboriginal people, the she-wolf comes to his rescue. One man, Grey Beaver, recognizes the she-wolf as his brother's wolfdog, who left during a famine. Grey Beaver's brother is dead, so he takes Kiche and her cub and christens the cub White Fang.

White Fang has a harsh life in the Indian camp. The Indians save him, but the pups never accept him, the leader, Lip-Lip, singles him out for persecution. White Fang grows to become a savage, morose and deadly fighter, "the enemy of his kind", it is at this time that White Fang is separated from his mother, sold off to another Indian Camp by Three Eagles. He realizes how hard life in the wild is when he runs away from camp, earns the respect of Grey Beaver when he saves his son Mit-Sah from a group of boys seeking revenge; when a famine occurs, he runs away into the woods and encounters his mother Kiche, only for her to chase him away, for she has a new litter of cubs. He encounters Lip-Lip, whom he fights and kills before returning to the camp; when White Fang is five years old, he is taken to Fort Yukon, so that Grey Beaver can trade with the gold-hunters. There, when Grey Beaver is drunk, White Fang is bought by an evil dog-fighter named Beauty Smith. White Fang defeats all opponents pitted against him, including several wolves and a lynx, until a bulldog called Cherokee is brought in to fight him.

Cherokee has the upper hand in the fight when he grips the skin and fur of White Fang's neck and begins to throttle him. White Fang nearly suffocates, but is rescued when a rich, young gold hunter, Weedon Scott, stops the fight, forcefully buys White Fang from Beauty Smith. Scott attempts to tame White Fang, after a long, patient effort, he succeeds; when Scott attempts to return to California alone, White Fang pursues him, Scott decides to take the dog with him back home. In Sierra Vista, White Fang must adjust to the laws of the estate. At the end of the book, an escaped convict, Jim Hall, tries to kill Scott's father, Judge Scott, for sentencing him to prison for a crime he did not commit, not knowing that Hall was "railroaded". White Fang is nearly killed himself, but survives; as a result, the women of Scott's estate name him "The Blessed Wolf". The story ends with White Fang relaxing in the sun with the puppies he has fathered with the sheep-dog Collie. Major animal characters: White Fang, the novel's protagonist.

He gets bullied by Li-lip and was forced to become a fighting dog when he was bought by Beauty Smith. However, his life changed when a loving master named Weedon Scott buys him and takes him to his home in Santa Clara Valley in California, he becomes a part of the family after saving Judge Scott from Jim Hall. Kiche, White Fang's mother, a sled dog owned by Gray Beaver, known at the beginning of the novel as the "she-wolf". Lip-lip, a canine pup who lives in the Native American village and bullies White Fang. One-Eye, White Fang's father, a true wolf, killed by the lynx. Cherokee, a bulldog, the only dog to defeat White Fang. Collie, a sheepdog, mother of White Fang's whelps; the Lynx, an aggressive feline, responsible for killing One-Eye, but gets killed by Kiche in retaliation. Major human characters: Gray Beaver

Annie Furuhjelm

Annie Fredrika Furuhjelm was a Finnish journalist, feminist activist, writer. She was a member of the Parliament of Finland from 1913 to 1924 and again from 1927 to 1929, representing the Swedish People's Party of Finland, she was the first enfranchised woman in Europe to serve as a delegate to the International Women Suffrage Alliance and the first elected female legislator to speak before the British Parliament. She was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland for her service to the nation. Annie Fredrika Furuhjelm was born on 11 December 1859 at Rekoor Castle in Sitka on Baranof Island in the Russian Colony of Alaska, her father, Johan Hampus Furuhjelm, was the penultimate Russian governor of Alaska and her mother Anna von Schoultz was the daughter of a Swedish-Finnish adventurer. When Alaska was purchased by the United States, the family left in 1867 for Russian Siberia, where they spent six years in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur before returning to Helsinki. In 1870, Furujhelm was sent to Dresden for schooling before rejoining her family in Helsinki in 1872.

She was educated and fluently spoke English, German, Italian and Swedish, having completed studies at the girl's gymnasium in 1876 and post-graduate college in 1887. After completing her schooling, Furuhjelm founded a school, she worked as a nurse for many years in the local community, but grew tired of the isolation and decided to become a journalist in 1890. She founded a newspaper called New Tide, which would become the mouthpiece of the Finnish women's organization. In 1899, Furuhjelm met with other likeminded women, including Lucina Hagman, Alli Nissinen, Sofia Rein, to help Hagman organize the Martha organisation, a humanitarian organization to help women manage their homes. Since assembly was banned at that time by the Finnish government, the women met clandestinely in different members homes. Furuhjelm served as the first secretary of the organization. In 1904, Furuhjelm attended the 5th congress of the International Council of Women in Berlin and asked for help from the organization to found a Finnish suffrage organization.

The ICW refused as Finland was still ruled by the Russian Empire, but Carrie Chapman Catt gave reassurances that the International Women Suffrage Alliance would support a Finnish suffrage organization. Furuhjelm returned from the conference energized and organized a conference, attended by 1,000 women; the following year, she established the Committee for Women's Suffrage. Following the general strike, Finland re-gained its autonomy from Russia which de facto had been under dispute since 1899. Universal suffrage was granted to all Finnish citizens in 1906; when Finland's suffrage organization was approved for alliance with the IWSA in 1906, Furuhjelm became the first enfranchised European delegate of the association. Between 1909 and 1920, she was a board member of the IWSA and attended congresses of the organization from Finland's admittance in 1906 until 1929, she was the keynote speaker of the 1906 Copenhagen conference of the IWSA and was given a standing ovation for her speech. The Swedish Women's Association of Finland was founded in 1907 with Furuhjelm elected to the presidency.

She would maintain that position for her lifetime. She became a regular speaker at international suffrage meetings. In 1913, Furuhjelm was elected to the Parliament of Finland, one of the first twenty-one females elected. In the following year, she accompanied Catt. In 1917, she served as part of the Law Committee which reestablished the Finnish Monarchy and issued the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which led to the Finnish Republic. In 1919, she began working as an editor of the journal Astra and would continue in that capacity until 1927. Furuhjelm served in the Diet until she was defeated in 1924 despite her campaign to end Finland's Prohibition Law, she was reelected to serve in 1927 as a representative of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. When Furuhjelm retired from politics in 1929, she was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland. In her last years, Furuhjelm dedicated her time to women's rights organizations, she continued to push for the repeal of prohibition believing that the law was creating an upsurge in crime and smuggling and was not controlling the consumption of alcohol.

She published two volumes of memoirs, shortly before her death on 17 July 1937. Kvinnorna och lantdagsvalen Människor och öden Den stigande oron Gryning List of members of the Parliament of Finland, 1919–22 List of members of the Parliament of Finland, 1922–24