Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department. Situated on the Pirai River in the eastern Tropical Lowlands of Bolivia, the city of Santa Cruz and its metropolitan area are home to over 70% of the population of the department and it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world; the city was first founded in 1561 by Spanish explorer Ñuflo de Chavez about 200 km east of its current location, was moved several times until it was established on the Pirai River in the late 16th century. For much of its history, Santa Cruz was a small outpost town, after Bolivia gained its independence in 1825 there was little attention from the authorities or the population in general to settle the region, it was not until after the middle of the 20th century with profound agrarian and land reforms that the city began to grow at a fast pace. The city is Bolivia's most populous, produces nearly 35% of Bolivia's gross domestic product, receives over 40% of all foreign direct investment in the country.
This has helped make Santa Cruz the most important business center in Bolivia and the preferred destination of migrants from all over the country. Like much of the history of the people of the region, the history of the area before the arrival of European explorers is not well documented because of the somewhat nomadic nature and the absence of a written language in the culture of the local tribes. However, recent data suggests that the current location of the city of Santa Cruz was inhabited by an Arawak tribe that came to be known by the Spanish as Chané. Remains of ceramics and weapons have been found in the area, leading researchers to believe they had established settlements in the area. Among the few known facts of these tribes, according to accounts of the first Spanish explorers that came into contact with the Chané, are that they had a formal leader, a cacique, called Grigota for several years but his reign came to an end after one of the several Guarani incursions in the area; the first Europeans to set foot in the area were Spanish conquistadores from the created Governorate of New Andalusia that encompassed the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.
In 1549, Captain General Domingo Martinez de Irala became the first Spaniard to explore the region, but it was not until 1558 that Ñuflo de Chaves, who had arrived in Asuncion in 1541 with Alvar Nuñez/Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, led a new expedition with the objective of settling the region. After discovering that a new expedition from Asuncion was underway, he traveled to Lima and persuaded the Viceroy to create a new province and grant him the title of governor on February 15, 1560. Upon returning from Lima, Chaves founded the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra on February 26, 1561, 220 km east of its present-day location, to function as the capital of the newly formed province of Moxos and Chaves; the settlement was named after Chaves's home town in Extremadura, where he grew up before venturing to America. Shortly after the founding, attacks from local tribes became commonplace and Ñuflo de Chaves was killed in 1568 by Itatine natives. After Chaves's death, the conflicts with the local population as well as power struggles in the settlement forced the authorities in Peru to order the new governor, Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa to relocate the city to the west.
Many of the inhabitants, chose to stay behind and continued living in the original location. On September 13, 1590 the city was moved to the banks of the Guapay Empero river and renamed San Lorenzo de la Frontera; the conditions proved to be more severe at the new location forcing the settlers to relocate once again on May 21, 1595. Although this was the final relocation of the city, the name San Lorenzo continued to be used until the early 17th century, when the settlers who remained behind in Santa Cruz de la Sierra were convinced by the colonial authorities to move to San Lorenzo. After they moved the city was consolidated in 1622 and took its original name of Santa Cruz de la Sierra given by Ñuflo de Chaves over 60 years before. Remnants of the original settlement can be visited in Santa Cruz la Vieja, an archaeological site south of San José de Iquitos. Over the next 200 years, several tribes were either incorporated under Spanish control or defeated by force; the city became an important staging point for Jesuit Missions to Chiquitos and Moxos, leading to the conversion of thousands of Guaranies, Moxeños, Chiquitanos and Chiriguanos that became part of the racially mixed population of the modern Santa Cruz, Beni and Tarija departaments of Bolivia.
Another important role the small town played in the region for the Spanish Empire was to contain the incursions of Portuguese Bandeirantes, many of which were repelled by the use of force over the years. The efforts for consolidating the borders of the Empire were not overlooked by the authorities in Lima, who granted the province a great degree of autonomy; the province was ruled by a Captain General based in Santa Cruz, and, in turn, the city government was administered by two mayors and a council of four people. Citizens of Santa Cruz were exempt from all imperial taxes and the mita system used in the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was not practiced. However, in spite of its strategic importance, the city did not grow much in colonial times. Most of the economic activity was centered in the mining centers of the west and the main source of income of the city was agriculture. Animosity towards imperial author
Chapare called The Chapare and is pronounced Cha-pa-reh, is a rural province in the northern region of Cochabamba Department in central Bolivia. The majority of the territory consists of valley rainforests that surround the area's main waterway, the Chapare River, a tributary of the Amazon River; the provincial capital is Sacaba, 11 km east of Cochabamba, its principal town is Villa Tunari, a popular tourist destination. In recent decades, the Chapare province has become a haven for illegal cultivation of the coca plant, which can be used to produce cocaine; this is due to Bolivian drug law, which until only permitted the Yungas region to grow coca, despite Chapare being a historical area for growth due to its fertility. For this reason, Chapare has been a primary target for coca eradication in recent years, with frequent and heated clashes between the U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration and Bolivian cocaleros; the law has since been changed by a deal, struck between Evo Morales and former President Carlos Mesa.
This deal permits the region to grow a limited amount of coca every year. Chapare Province is divided into three municipalities. Carrasco National Park Inkachaka Isiboro Sécure National Park and Indigenous Territory Tunari National Park Q'ara Apachita Q'inqu Mayu Uqi Salli Punta Villa Tunari – San Ignacio de Moxos Highway Map of Chapare Province Provincia Chapare
Punata is a province in the middle of the Cochabamba Department, located about 45 km south of the city of Cochabamba. Its capital is Punata; the province is limited to the north by the Chapare Province, to the north-east by the Tiraque Province, to the east by the Arani Province, to the south-east by the Mizque Province, to the south by the Esteban Arze Province and to the west by the Germán Jordán Province. Its archaeological and historical sites are the main interest for foreign tourists. Punata Province is divided into five municipalities which are further subdivided into cantons; the people are predominantly indigenous citizens of Quechuan descent. By 2001 census was counted 47735 inhabitants and it rose to 54409 inhabitants by the 2012 census; the economic center is the city of Punata with 28707 inhabitants. Ref: obd.descentralizacion.gov.bo The languages spoken in the Punata Province are Quechua and Spanish. The following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers.
Reference: The Punata-Tiraque irrigation project near Cochabamba, BoliviaThe alluvial fan of Punata in the Valle Alto is fed by The Rio Paracaya river with a high average discharge. The fan is flat; the region of Punata, at the upper end of the Valle Alto, at about 2800 m altitude, has a summer rainfall of 400 to 450 mm starting in the second half of November end ending in March. Maize is here the most important food crop, followed by potatoes. Alfalfa is the dominant fodder crop, followed by maize straw.. These crops could, of old, only be planted because of the existence of additional water resources like runoff, river base-flow and groundwater. In the winter months, crop growth is restricted due to the occurrence of night frosts in June and July, absence of rains; the total rural population in Punata is estimated at 25 000. There are about 4000 families of; the farms are small. The average size is 1.3 ha. The modal size of farm is smaller, about 0.7 ha. The rainfall distribution in Punata is characterized by a wet season from December to March, a dry season from May to October, transition months in April and November.
The average yearly total is 428 mm. The rainfall with a probability of exceedance of 75% on a year basis is 360 mm. Rainfall is not reliable: in the period from 1966 to 1983, the yearly total varied between 246 mm to 591 mm; the river floods during the rainy summer period can be used for irrigation by anyone. When the river flow recedes, the stream can only be used for rotational irrigation by those who are entitled to take part in it. By the month of May the river base-flow becomes reduced, a drought period sets in, lasting into November. Irrigation is considered desirable to start the cropping season in August/September, so that an early harvest can be obtained; the early harvest reduces peak labor requirements. Further, the irrigation reduces the risk of crop failure and it permits diversification of agricultural produce. There are some farming communities that have refrained in the past from the extra effort to obtain additional irrigation water and who seemed to be content with purely rain-fed cropping.
At a modest scale, irrigation from deep-wells is practiced. In order to satisfy the needs of the majority of the farmers who wish to have additional irrigation water, the irrigation project Punata-Tiraque began to be developed from 1970 onwards; the project entailed the construction of a complicated system of dams and reservoirs up in the Andean mountains. The gross area of the Punata projects is estimated at 4600 ha, 90% of which can be used for agriculture or animal husbandry. About 1150 ha of this presently receive irrigation water, either surface water derived from the Laguna Robada or Lluska Kocha dam, or water pumped from the 16 deep wells in the project area. In addition there are a few hundred hectares; the traditional irrigation method is based on handling large irrigation flows per farm at large intervals. The intake structures in the Pucara Mayu river, at the place where it enters the alluvial fan of Punata, would alternately pass water from each of the reservoir systems and the natural mita water.
The new system has been designed for smaller flows with shorter rotation intervals, but it works continuously for the whole area, so that there is no need anymore to separate the various sources of water. It covers a much larger area than the traditional system and it incorporates the associations of the mita systems, the associations of tube-well systems as well as the persons who had no previous water rights. Hence, the new irrigation system makes it necessary to replace the traditional water rights by a new set of rights. In addition, the farmers will have to get used to new water distribution methods and new field irrigation techniques; because the new irrigation zones do not correspond to the boundaries of the existing, Comité’s de Riego, not only the water management but the organizational structure will have to be adjusted to the new situation. Illustrations of the Punata alluvial fan Atuq Wachana K'illi K'illi Wila Jaqhi Map of Punata Province www.ine.gov.bo Informe sobre Desarollo Humano, Cochabamba
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2,810 meters; this high altitude gives the city a cool temperate climate year-round. On November 30, 1538, Sucre was founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo by Pedro Anzures, Marqués de Campo Redondo. In 1559, the Spanish King Philip II established the Audiencia de Charcas in La Plata with authority over an area which covers what is now Paraguay, southeastern Peru, Northern Chile and Argentina, much of Bolivia; the Audiencia de Charcas was a subdivision of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1776, when it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1601 the Recoleta Monastery was founded by the Franciscans and in 1609 an archbishopric was founded in the city. In 1624 St Francis Xavier University of Chuquisaca was founded. Much a Spanish city during the colonial era, the narrow streets of the city centre are organised in a grid, reflecting the Andalusian culture, embodied in the architecture of the city's great houses and numerous convents and churches.
Sucre remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Bolivia, a common sight is members of religious orders dressed in traditional costume. For much of its colonial history, Sucre's temperate climate was preferred by the Spanish royalty and wealthy families involved in silver trade coming from Potosí. Testament to this is the Glorieta Castle. Sucre's University is one of the oldest universities in the new world. On May 25, 1809 the Bolivian independence movement was started with the ringing of the bell of the Basilica of Saint Francisco; this bell was rung to the point of breakage, but it can still be found in the Basilica today: it is one of the most precious relics of the city. Until the 19th century, La Plata was the judicial and cultural centre of the region, it was proclaimed provisional capital of the newly independent Alto Peru in July 1826. On July 12, 1839, President José Miguel de Velasco proclaimed a law naming the city as the capital of Bolivia, renaming it in honor of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre.
After the economic decline of Potosí and its silver industry, Sucre lost the Bolivian seat of government when it was moved to La Paz in 1898. Many argue Sucre was the location of the beginning of the Latin American independence movement against Spain; the first "Grito Libertario" in any Western Hemisphere Spanish colony is said to have taken place in Sucre in 1809. From that point of view, Bolivia was the last Spanish imperial territory in South America to gain its independence, in 1825. In 1991 Sucre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city attracts thousands of tourists every year due to its well-preserved downtown with buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Nestled at the foot of the twin hills of Churuquella and Sika Sika, Sucre is the gateway to numerous small villages that date from the colonial era, the most well-known of, Tarabuco, home of the colorful "Pujllay" festival held each March. Most of these villagers are members of one of the indigenous ethnicities. Many dress in clothing distinctive to their respective villages.
Sucre is the capital of Chuquisaca department and one of the capitals of Bolivia, where the Supreme Court is located. The government of the City of Sucre is divided into legislative branches; the Mayor of Sucre is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of the Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President and Secretary from a group of eleven members; the current mayor of Sucre is Iván Arciénega, who defeated former mayor Jaime Barrón in elections held on March 30, 2015. The current Municipal Council was elected in the regional election of April 4, 2010; the election was by proportional representation with the Pact of Social Integration and the Movement Towards Socialism gaining the largest and second largest shares of the vote. The council elected in April 2010 and seated in late December 2010 is as follows: Sucre is divided into eight numbered districts: the first five of these are urban districts, while Districts 6, 7, 8 are rural districts.
Each is administered by a Sub-Mayor, appointed by the Mayor of Sucre. The rural districts include numerous rural communities outside the urban area. Sucre is served by Alcantari Airport, situated 30 km to the South. Sucre has a subtropical highland climate, with mild temperatures year round; the highest record temperature was 34.7 °C while the lowest record temperature was −6 °C Each of the well known names represent a specific era of the city's history. Charcas was the indigenous name for the place upon. La Plata was the name given to the emerging Hispanic city of honor; the name Chuquisaca was bestowed upon the city during the independence era. Sucre honors the great marshal of the Battle of Antonio José de Sucre. "La Ciudad Blanca" is a nickname, bestowed upon the city because many of the colonial style houses and structures are painted white. Sucre has the most important sport facilities in Bolivia, the most practiced sport in the city is football. Sucre has the second-biggest football and Olympic stadium in the Estadio Patria.
It is the home ground of Sucre's first-division team in the Bolivian professional league, Universitario de Sucre, t
Arani is a province in Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its capital is Arani, situated about 53 km from Cochabamba. Arani is known for its bread but for the town's artisan wickerwork; some of the highest mountains of the province are listed below: The province is divided into two municipalities which are further subdivided into four cantons. Arani Municipality consists of three cantons, Arani and Collpaciaco. Vacas Municipality is not further subdivided, so Vacas Canton and Vacas Municipality are identical; the people in the Arani Province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. The languages spoken in the Arani Province are Quechua and Spanish; the following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers. Festivals and Fairs: August 14–15: Saint Isidore the Laborer in Qullpayaku, 2 days August 24–25: Virgen la Bella in Arani, 2 days September 20: Farmers' fair in Tacopaya, 1 day 3rd week in November: Bread fair in Arani, 1 day December 4: Saint Barbara in VacasOther tourist attractions include the church of Saint Bartholomew in Arani, built in 1610, dedicated to the Virgen la Bella, the lakes in Vacas Municipality: Parqu Qucha, Asiru Qucha, Junt'utuyu, Pilawit'u, Qullpa Qucha and Yanatama.
Ismael Montes Teacher Training College www.bolivia-online.net Map of Arani Province
Aiquile Municipality is the first municipal section of the Narciso Campero Province in the Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its seat is Aiquile; the municipality is divided into three cantons. They are: Aiquile Canton - Quiroga Canton - Villa Granado Canton - The languages spoken in the Aiquile Municipality are Quechua and Spanish. Chhijmuri Instituto Nacional de Estadistica de Bolivia Population data and map of Aiquile Municipality
Cochabamba is a city and municipality in central Bolivia in a valley in the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cochabamba Department and the fourth largest city in Bolivia, with a population of 630,587 according to the 2012 Bolivian census, its name is from a compound of the Quechua words qucha "lake" and pampa, "open plain." Residents of the city and the surrounding areas are referred to as cochalas or, more formally, cochabambinos. It is known as the "City of Eternal Spring" or "The Garden City" because of its spring-like temperatures all year round, it is known as "La Llajta," which means "town" in Quechua. The Cochabamba valley has been inhabited for thousands of years due to its fertile productive soils and mild climate. Archaeological evidence suggests that the initial inhabitants were of indigenous ethnic groups: Tiwanaku, Mojocoya and Inca inhabited the valley at times before the Spanish arrived; the area got its name, as part of the Inca civilization. The area was conquered by Topa Inca Yupanqui.
His son Huayna Capac turned Cochabamba into a large production enclave or state farm to serve the Incas. Depopulated during the conquest, Huayna Capac imported 14,000 people, called mitimas, to work the land; the principal crop was maize which could not be grown in much of the high and cold heartland of the Inca Empire. The maize was stored in 2,400 storehouses in the hills overlooking the valley or transported by llama caravan to storage sites in Paria, Cusco, of other Inca administrative centers. Most of the maize was used to sustain the Inca army during its campaigns; the first Spanish inhabitant of the valley was Garci Ruiz de Orellana in 1542. He purchased the majority of the land from local tribal chiefs Achata and Consavana through a title registered in 1552 at the Imperial City of Potosí; the price paid was 130 pesos. His residence, known as the House of Mayorazgo, stands in the Cala Cala neighborhood; the city, called Villa de Oropesa, was founded on 2 August 1571 by order of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa.
It was to be an agricultural production centre to provide food and wood for the mining towns of the nearby Altiplano region Potosí which became one of the largest and richest cities in the world during the 16th and 17th centuries — funding the vast wealth that made Spain a world power. In fact, Anthropologist Jack Weatherford and others have cited the city of Potosí as the birth of capitalism because of the money it and materialism it provided Spain. Thus, with the silver mining industry in Potosi at its height, Cochabamba thrived during its first centuries. However, the city entered a period of decline during the 18th century. In 1786, King Charles III of Spain renamed the city to the ` valiant' Villa of Cochabamba; this was done to commend the city's pivotal role in suppressing the indigenous rebellions of 1781 in Oruro by sending armed forces to Oruro to quell the uprisings. Since the late 19th century it has again been successful as an agricultural centre for Bolivia; the 1793 census shows.
There were 12,980 mestizos, 6,368 Spaniards, 1,182 indigenous natives, 1,600 mulattos and 175 African slaves. In 1812, Cochabamba was the site of a riot against the Spanish Army. On May 27, thousands of women took up arms against the Spanish. According to historian Nathaniel Aguirre: "From Cochabamba, many men have fled. Not one woman. On the hillside, a great clamor. Cochabamba's plebeian women, at bay, fight from the center of a circle of fire. Surrounded by five thousand Spaniards, they resist with a few arquebuses. Whenever his army weakens, General Manuel Belgrano will shout those words which never fail to restore courage and spark anger; the general will ask his vacillating soldiers:'Are the women of Cochabamba present?"To celebrate their bravery, Bolivia now marks May 27 as Mother's Day. In 1900, the population was 21,886. Besides a number of schools and charitable institutions, the diocese has 55 parishes, 80 churches and chapels, 160 priests. In 1998, the International Monetary Fund agreed to give Bolivia a loan of $138 million to control inflation and promote economic growth.
However, it only agreed to do so on the condition that Bolivia sell "all remaining public enterprises," including its national oil refineries and the local water company, SEMAPA. In 1999, a group of private investors the Bechtel Corporation, came together under the name of Aguas del Tunari and bought the rights for the privatization of the city's water. In that same year, the World Bank refused to subsidize the water to help lower the cost for the people. In 2000, the people of Cochabamba began to protest as water priced hiked to a 50% increase that the majority could not afford; the Coalition for the Defense of Water and Life, its leader Oscar Olivera, started a demonstration in La Plaza 14 de Septiembre known as La Plaza Principal. The march was meant to be peaceful, but after two days the police used tear gas against the protestors and injured about 175 people and blinded two. Soon after, news reports were made about the violence; the Defense of Water and Life held an unofficial referendum and 96% of 50,000 people want Aguas del Tunari's contract to terminate, but the government refused.
The protests only grew and the entire world began to watch forcing Bechtel to leave its contract and return SEMAPA to the public. Bechtel as well tried to sue the Bolivian government for $50 million but it withdrew its claim shortly afte