Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied by Amorites since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; this is when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is a part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, the Ottoman Empire's third-largest after Constantinople and Cairo; the city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia.
When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. In the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antakya and İskenderun to Turkey; the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage, it won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. The Battle of Aleppo occurred in the city during the Syrian Civil War, many parts of the city suffered massive destruction. Affected parts of the city are undergoing reconstruction. Modern-day English-speakers refer to the city as Aleppo, it was known in antiquity as Khalpe, to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used.
Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this. The original ancient name, has survived as the current Arabic name of the city, it is of obscure origin. However, the term Ḥalab might be derived from related to a folktale of Abraham, who milked his sheep to feed the poor. Others have proposed that Ḥalab means "iron" or "copper" in Amorite languages, since the area served as a major source of these metals in antiquity. Another possibility is that Ḥalab means'white', as this is the word for'white' in Aramaic, the local language which preceded regional Arabization; this may explain how Ḥalab became the Hebrew word for milk or vice versa, as well as offers a possible explanation for the modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa, which means "the white-colored mixed with black" and derives from the famous white marble of Aleppo. Abraham is said to have camped on the acropolis which, long before his time, served as the foundation of a fortress where the Aleppo citadel is standing now, he milked his grey cow there, hence Aleppo's name "Halab Al-Shahba".
From the 11th century it was common rabbinic usage to apply the term "Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, many Syrian Jews continue to do so. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists; the site has been occupied from around 5000 BC. Aleppo appears in historical records as an important city much earlier than Damascus; the first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, in the Ebla tablets when Aleppo was referred to as Ha-lam. Some historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Aleppo with the capital of an independent kingdom related to Ebla, known as Armi, although this identification is contested; the main temple of the storm god Hadad was located on the citadel hill in the center of the city, when the city was known as the city of Hadad. Naram-Sin of Akkad mention his destruction of Ebla and Armani/Armanum, in the 23rd century BC. but the identification of Armani in the inscription of Naram-Sim as Armi in the Eblaite tablets is debated, as there was no Akkadian annexation of Ebla or northern Syria.
In the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Empire period, Aleppo's name appears in its original form as Ḥalab for the first time. Aleppo was the capital of the important Amorite dynasty of Yamḥad; the kingdom of Yamḥad, alternatively known as the'land of Ḥalab,' was one of the most powerful in the Near East during the reign of Yarim-Lim I, who formed an alliance with Hammurabi of Babylonia against Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria. Yamḥad was devastated by the Hittites under Mursilis I in the 16th century BC. However, it soon resumed its leading role in the Levant when the Hittite power in the region waned due to internal strife. Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king Ilim-Ilimma I in c. 1525 BC, Parshatatar conquered Aleppo and the city found itself on the frontline in the struggle between the Mitanni, the Hittites and Egypt. Niqmepa of Alalakh who descends from the old Yamhadite kings controlled the city as a vassal to Mitanni and was attacked by Tudhaliya I of the Hittites as a retaliation for his alliance to
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
The Mekhitarists are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1717 by Abbot Mekhitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts and their research on classical and modern Armenian language; the congregation was long divided into two branches, with the respective motherhouses being in Venice and Vienna. In July 2000 they united to form one institute, their eponymous founder, Mekhitar of Sebaste, was born at Sebastia in Armenia part of the Ottoman Empire, in 1676. He entered a monastery, but was concerned about the level of culture and education in Armenia under Turkish rule at that period, sought to do something about it. Contacts with Western missionaries led him to become interested in translating material from the West into Armenian and setting up a religious order to facilitate education. Mekhitar set out for Rome in 1695 to make his ecclesiastical studies there, but he was compelled by illness to abandon the journey and return to Armenia.
In 1696 he was ordained a priest and for four years worked among his people. In 1700 Mekhitar began to gather disciples around him. Mechitar formally joined the Latin Church, in 1701, with sixteen companions, he formed a religious institute of which he became the superior, they encountered the opposition of other Armenians and were compelled to move to the Morea, at that time Venetian territory, where they built a monastery in 1706. In its inception the order was looked upon as an attempted reform of Eastern monachism. Filippo Bonanni, S. J. writes at Rome, in 1712 when the order received its approval, of the arrival of Elias Martyr and Joannes Simon, two Armenian monks sent by Mechitar to Pope Clement XI to offer the most humble subjection of himself and convent. There is no mention, at the moment, of the Benedictine Rule; the monks, such as St. Anthony instituted in Egypt, have begun a foundation in Modon with Mechitar as abbot. On the outbreak of hostilities between the Turks and Venetians they migrated to Venice, the island of San Lazzaro was given to them in 1717.
This has remained the headquarters of the congregation to this date. The order became wealthy from gifts; the behaviour of the Abbot Melkhonian caused a group of monks to leave in disgust and elect their own abbot, first at Trieste and in 1810 at Vienna. They established a printing press; the work of printing of Armenian books was by this time of great financial importance and the Venetian Republic made considerable efforts to encourage their return, but in vain. In 1810 all the other monastic institutions in Venice were abolished by Napoleon, but the Mekhitarists were exempted by name from the decree. Lord Byron visited the monastery, his companion John Cam Hobhouse has left this account of the visit on Wednesday November 13, 1816: Byron and I went in gondola to establishment of St Lazare, it was some time before we were let in – the brothers were at prayer, but when we walked into their church one of them bowed out and most courteously showed us about. The key to the library was not to be found – the keeper of it was out.
We saw little chambers of the fathers, with Armenian letters over them. Our conductor showed us a man’s dictionary of Armenian and Latin – told us there were about forty frati and eighteen pupils, some few from Armenia, but Constantinople. One talks English; the youths learn Latin, all of them, some Greek – German and French some – and all Italian – English will now be taught. Those who please of the pupils enter the order. Zanetto said Napoleon despoiled them, but our conductor contradicted this, said that he gave a decree from Paris saving this brotherhood from the fate of the other monasteries on account of their patriotic labours for their countrymen. We saw their press, they are now on a translation of Rollin. Their average is four books a year, they are all for the use of the Armenian nation, all printed, as our guide said, in the literal Armenian. They are shipped for Constantinople, there sold; the dining-hall set out there looked like a Cambridge dining-hall – and the establishment is about 100 years old founded by one, whose picture is in the refectory.
It did our hearts good to see the place. We are to see the library, they are all Catholics. In every one of their many undertakings their founder, Mechitar showed them the way. To him they owe the initiative in the study of the Armenian writings of the fourth and fifth centuries, which has resulted in the development and adoption of a literary language, nearly as distinct from the vulgar tongue as Latin is from Italian; this provided modern Armenian with a literary connection to its ancient literature. Mechitar, with his Armenian "Imitation" and "Bible", began that series of translations of great books, continued unceasingly during two centuries, ranging from the early Fathers of the Church and the works of St. Thomas of Aquin to Homer and Virgil and the best known poets and historians of days. Artist, Ariel Agemian, illustrated the "Imitation" and contributed several major portraits of Mekhitarist Monks and religious scenes, he is known for documenting the Turkish Massacre from his own recollections.
See examples of Agemian's
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Patma-Banasirakan Handes is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian National Academy of Sciences. It covers research on Armenian history, art history and linguistics; the journal publishes discussions and debates, book reviews and has special sections devoted to science news and Armenian Diasporan affairs. It publishes obituaries and biographies and commemorates the lives of noted scholars involved in Armenian studies, it was established in 1958 by academician Mkrtich G. Nersisyan, the journal's first editor-in-chief until his death in 1999. According to Razmik Panossian "it became a trend-setting journal for historians, linguists and for scholars in the humanities in general; this influential journal brought together all branches of Armenian studies, systematically consolidating research on culture, ancient law and philosophy, architecture and history."Most articles that were published in Armenian during the Soviet era included a Russian abstract, while those articles published in Russian had an Armenian abstract.
In recent years, following Armenia's independence in 1991, most articles have come to include English abstracts. The journal's archives have undergone digitalization and articles can now be accessed from its official website; the current editor is Vardkes Mikayelyan. Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri Bazmavep Haigazian Armenological Review Handes Amsorya Revue des Études Arméniennes
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia. The academy was founded on November 10, 1943 on the basis of the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, established 10 years earlier, in 1935. Among its founders were Joseph Orbeli, Stepan Malkhasyants, Ivan Gevorkian and Victor Ambartsumian. Joseph Orbeli Victor Ambartsumian Fadey Sargsyan Radik Martirosyan Division of Mathematical and Technical SciencesInstitute of Mathematics Institute of Mechanics Institute for Informatics and Automation ProblemsDivision of Physics and AstrophysicsByurakan Astrophysical Observatory Institute of Radiophysics & Electronics Institute of Applied Problems of Physics Institute for Physical ResearchDivision of Natural SciencesCenter for Ecological Noosphere Studies Institute of Biochemistry Institute of Botany G. S. Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems Scientific and Production Center Armbiotechnology Institute of Biotechnology Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” “Institute of Microbiology” Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” Division of Natural Sciences Microbial Depository Center Institute of Molecular Biology Institute of Physiology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Zoology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Hydroecology and IchthyologyDivision of Chemistry and Earth SciencesScientific Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Molecular Structure Research Center of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Chemical Physics Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry Institute of Geological Sciences Institute of Geophysics and Engineering Seismology after A. NazarovDivision of Armenology and Social SciencesInstitute of History Institute of Philosophy and Law M. Kotanyan Institute of Economics Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Institute of Oriental Studies H. Acharian Institute of Language M. Abeghyan Institute of Literature Institute of Art Museum-Institute of Genocide Shirak Armenology Research Center Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing House All Armenian Foundation Financing Armenological Studies Karlen G. Adamyan Official website International Scientific-Educational Center of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Mesrop Mashtots listen known as Mesrob the Vartabed, was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian and hymnologist. He is best known for inventing the Armenian alphabet c. 405 AD, a fundamental step in strengthening Armenian national identity. He was the creator of the Caucasian Albanian and Georgian alphabets, according to a number of scholars and contemporaneous Armenian sources. Mesrop Mashtots was born in a noble family in the settlement of Hatsekats in Taron, died in Vagharshapat, he was the son of a man named Vardan. Koryun, his pupil and biographer, tells us that Mashtots received a good education, was versed in the Greek and Persian languages. On account of his piety and learning Mesrop was appointed secretary to King Khosrov IV, his duty was to write in Persian characters the decrees and edicts of the sovereign. Leaving the court for the service of God, he took holy orders, withdrew to a monastery with a few chosen companions. There, says Koryun, he practiced great austerities, enduring hunger and thirst and poverty.
He lived on vegetables, wore a hair shirt, slept upon the ground, spent whole nights in prayer and the study of the Holy Scriptures. This life he continued for a few years. Armenia, so long the battle-ground of Romans and Persians, lost its independence in 387, was divided between the Byzantine Empire and Persia, about four-fifths being given to the latter. Western Armenia was governed by Byzantine generals, while an Armenian king ruled, but only as feudatory, over Persian Armenia; the Church was influenced by these violent political changes, although the loss of civil independence and the partition of the land could not destroy its organization or subdue its spirit. Persecution only quickened it into greater activity, had the effect of bringing the clergy, the nobles, the common people closer together; the principal events of this period are the invention of the Armenian alphabet, the revision of the liturgy, the creation of an ecclesiastical and national literature, the readjustment of hierarchical relations.
Three men are prominently associated with this work: Mesrop, Patriarch Isaac, King Vramshapuh, who succeeded his brother Khosrov IV in 389. In 394, with the help of blessing of Armenia's Catholicos, Sahak Partev, Mesrop set out on a mission of spreading the word of God to a pagan or semi-pagan people. Mesrop, as noted, had spent some time in a monastery preparing for a missionary life. With the support of Prince Shampith, he preached the Gospel in the district of Goghtn near the river Araxes, converting many heretics and pagans. However, he experienced great difficulty in instructing the people, for the Armenians had no alphabet of their own, instead using Greek and Syriac scripts, none of which were well suited for representing the many complex sounds of their native tongue. Again, the Holy Scriptures and the liturgy, being written in Syriac, were, to a large extent, unintelligible to the faithful. Hence the constant need of interpreters to explain the Word of God to the people. Mesrop, desirous to remedy this state of things, resolved to invent a national alphabet, in which undertaking Isaac and King Vramshapuh promised to assist him.
It is hard to determine what part Mesrop had in the fixing of the new alphabet. According to his Armenian biographers, he consulted Daniel, a bishop of Mesopotamia, Rufinus, a monk of Samosata, on the matter. With their help and that of Isaac and the king, he was able to give a definite form to the alphabet, which he adapted from the Greek. Others, like Lenormant, think it derived from the Avestan. Mesrop's alphabet consisted of thirty-six letters. Medieval Armenian sources claim that Mashtots invented the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets around the same time. However, most scholars link the creation of the Georgian script to the process of Christianization of Iberia, a core Georgian kingdom of Kartli; the alphabet was therefore most created between the conversion of Iberia under King Mirian III and the Bir el Qutt inscriptions of 430, contemporaneously with the Armenian alphabet. The first sentence in Armenian written down by St. Mesrop after he invented the letters is said to be the opening line of Solomon’s Book of Proverbs: The invention of the alphabet in 405 was the beginning of Armenian literature, proved a powerful factor in the upbuilding of the national spirit.
"The result of the work of Isaac and Mesrop", says St. Martin, "was to separate for the Armenians from the other peoples of the East, to make of them a distinct nation, to strengthen them in the Christian Faith by forbidding or rendering profane all the foreign alphabetic scripts which were employed for transcribing the books of the heathens and of the followers of Zoroaster. To Mesrop we owe the preservation of the language and literature of Armenia. Anxious that others should profit by his discovery, encouraged by the patriarch and the king, Mesrop founded numerous schools in different parts of the country, in which the youth were taught the new alphabet, it is proven, that Saint Mesrop himself taught in Amaras monastery of Artskah region of Armenia (located in contemporary Martuni region of unrecogn