Jiří Welsch is a Czech former professional basketball player for BK Pardubice of the Czech Republic National Basketball League. He has represented the senior Czech Republic national basketball team. Welsch has played in the National Basketball Association in the United States, having been drafted in 2002 by the Philadelphia 76ers. Welsch began his professional career as a teenager with BK JIP Pardubice of the Czech Republic League, where he played until 1998, he signed with CSA Sparta Prague of the Czech Republic League for the 1998–99 season, he moved to Union Olimpija Ljubljana of the Slovenian League, where he played until 2002. He was named the Slovenian League Most Valuable Player following the 2001–02 season campaign. Welsch was drafted by the NBA's Philadelphia 76ers with the 16th selection of the 2002 NBA draft, but he was traded to the Golden State Warriors for a future first-round draft pick and a future first- or second-round draft pick, he spent one season with the Warriors, averaging 1.6 points per game, 0.8 rebounds per game, 0.7 assists per game in 37 games in the 2002–03 season before he was traded to the Dallas Mavericks, along with Antawn Jamison, Chris Mills and Danny Fortson, in exchange for Evan Eschmeyer, Nick Van Exel, Avery Johnson, Popeye Jones and Antoine Rigaudeau on 18 August 2003.
Without playing a game for them, along with Mills, Raef LaFrentz and a lottery-protected 2004 NBA Draft pick, was traded by Dallas to the Boston Celtics on 20 October 2003 in exchange for Antoine Walker and Tony Delk. Welsch started 68 games for the Celtics in the 2003 -- 04 season. Welsch averaged 8.5 points, 3.2 rebounds, 2.0 assists per game in 136 games played in 2003–04 and 2004–05, while playing with the Celtics. On 24 February 2005, Welsch was traded to the Cleveland Cavaliers for a future 2007 first-round draft pick. On 28 June 2005, Welsch was traded by the Cavs to the Milwaukee Bucks for a 2006 second-round draft pick. In August 2006, Welsch decided to leave the NBA, he signed with the Spanish ACB league club Unicaja Málaga. After playing with Estudiantes Madrid, he signed a contract with Spirou Basket, of Belgium, in July 2011. In 2012, he signed with ČEZ Nymburk, he joined BK Pardubice in 2017. Welsch has been a member of the senior Czech Republic national basketball team, he played at the following EuroBasket tournaments: the 1999 EuroBasket, the 2007 EuroBasket, the 2013 EuroBasket, the 2015 EuroBasket, the 2017 EuroBasket.
Official Website NBA.com Profile – Jiri Welsch Euroleague.net Player Profile FIBA Profile FIBA Europe Profile Spanish League Profile
Amar'e Carsares Stoudemire is an American-Israeli professional basketball player for Hapoel Jerusalem of the Israeli Premier League and the Basketball Champions League. He won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award in 2003 with the Phoenix Suns, who selected him in the first round of the 2002 NBA draft with the ninth overall pick, he made six appearances in the NBA All-Star Game and was named to the All-NBA Team five times, including one first-team selection in 2007. Stoudemire played high school basketball for five different schools graduating from Cypress Creek High School in Orlando and declaring for the NBA draft as a prep-to-pro player, he won several prep honors, including being selected as Florida's Mr. Basketball, he spent his first 12½ seasons with the Suns and the New York Knicks, before finishing his NBA career with the Dallas Mavericks and the Miami Heat. The athletic Stoudemire suffered from chronic knee problems during his career, including undergoing microfracture surgery on his knees.
Stoudemire won a bronze medal with the United States national team at the 2004 Olympic Games. His off-court ventures include a record label, a clothing line, acting and a series of children's books for Scholastic Press. In addition, Stoudemire owns a significant share of Hapoel Jerusalem, the team he won a championship with in 2017. Stoudemire was born in Florida, a small city within an hour's drive of Orlando, Florida. Stoudemire's parents and Carrie, divorced when he was young. Together they had two sons: Hazell Jr. and Amar'e. Stoudemire's mother did agricultural work, picking oranges in Florida and migrating north to Upstate New York to pick apples during the fall. Upon divorcing Hazell, she met Artis Wilmore, with whom she had a son, Stoudemire's half-brother. Hazell died of a heart attack when Stoudemire was 12, his mother was in and out of prison for crimes such as petty theft and forgery during that time. In his parents' absence, Stoudemire had other outside influences to help guide him, including a policeman, Burney Hayes, he stayed with.
As a result of moving in-and-out with his mother and her problems with the law, Stoudemire transferred between five high schools in two states six different times. He first attended Lake Wales High School in Lake Wales, transferred to Mount Zion Christian Academy in Durham, North Carolina in October 1999, moved to Emanuel Christian Academy in Leland, North Carolina, returned to Lake Wales moved to West Orange High School in Winter Garden, Florida, his final move was to Cypress Creek High School in Orlando, where he graduated in 2002. Due to all the transfers, he missed his entire junior year of basketball, he told Isaac Perry in an article for Dime Magazine that what kept him going during that difficult time was "God" and the words of rapper Tupac Shakur. Apart from basketball, Stoudemire excelled in football, he was coached by his father in Pop Warner football and imagined himself a star receiver for the University of Miami, Florida or Florida State. Growing up he rooted for Shaquille O'Neal, center for the hometown Orlando Magic of the NBA.
Stoudemire did not start playing organized basketball until he was 14. He only played two years of it in high school, but in both he was named the MVP of the Nike Summer League. In his senior year he averaged 29.1 points, 15 rebounds, 6.1 blocked shots, 2.1 steals per game. Among Stoudemire's high school honors was being selected to play in the 2002 McDonald's All-American Game at Madison Square Garden in New York City, where he played with two future New York Knicks teammates, Carmelo Anthony and Raymond Felton, he was named Florida's Mr. Basketball, the Orlando Sentinel's Florida High School Player of the Year, to USA Today's's All-USA Basketball First Team. Considered a five-star recruit by Scout.com, Stoudemire was listed as the No. 1 player in the nation in 2002. With his biggest goal in high school being making it to the NBA, Stoudemire committed to the University of Memphis. However, he de-committed and declared for the NBA draft, being taken with the ninth pick in the 2002 NBA draft by the Phoenix Suns.
He was the only high school player taken that year in the first round. In his rookie season, Stoudemire averaged 13.5 points and 8.8 rebounds per game, with a season high of 38 points against the Minnesota Timberwolves on December 30, 2002, the highest score by a prep-to-pro player until broken a year by LeBron James. Stoudemire was selected to the Rookie squad in the Rookie Challenge. In the game, Stoudemire recorded 7 rebounds and 4 steals. Stoudemire won the NBA's Rookie of the Year award, beating out Yao Ming and Caron Butler and becoming the first player drafted out of high school to win the award. Stoudemire was selected to the NBA All-Rookie First Team; the Suns, led by Stoudemire, Stephon Marbury, Shawn Marion, Anfernee Hardaway and Joe Johnson, made it to the playoffs but were defeated in six games by the eventual champions, the San Antonio Spurs. The following season, Stoudemire improved statistically, but his team stumbled to a 29–53 record, point guard Marbury was traded to the New York Knicks.
During the season Stoudemire had a 10-block game against the Utah Jazz. During the summer of 2004, Stoudemire was selected to play for the eventual bronze medal-winning 2004 U. S. national team in the Summer Olympics. However, head coach Larry Brown declined to give him significant playing time. During the 2004–05 season, Stoudemire teamed up with point guard Steve Nash who the Suns signed as a free agent, to lead the Suns to
Qyntel Deon Woods is an American professional basketball player, who last played with AZS Koszalin of the Polish Basketball League. He plays at the small forward position, but he can play at the shooting guard position, on occasion. Woods was born in Memphis, grew up in the Mallory Heights neighborhood. After attending Carver High School, he spent one season of college basketball each at Moberly Area Community College and Northeast Mississippi Community College. Coming out of college, Woods was known to pro scouts as a player with exceptional potential, but with a history of off-court problems, he was an early entry candidate in the 2002 NBA Draft, he had committed to play at the University of Memphis, before making himself available for draft selection. Woods was selected with the 21st pick of the 2002 NBA draft. In his first two seasons with the Trail Blazers, Woods played in 115 games, averaging 2.4 and 3.6 points per game, appearing sparingly in the 2003 postseason. The 2004–05 season was packed with off-court trouble for Woods, as he was charged with animal cruelty, following an investigation.
He pleaded guilty to first-degree animal abuse, for staging dog fights in his house, some involving his pit bull named Hollywood. Both Hollywood and Woods' other pit bull, were confiscated, Woods was given 80 hours of community service, he agreed to donate $10,000 to the Oregon Humane Society. In response to these events, the Trail Blazers suspended and released Woods, in a settlement that involved pay withheld from Woods in 2004–05, when he was supposed to be paid $1.1 million for the third year of a three-year contract. The Trail Blazers kept about $500,000, said spokesman Art Sasse. Upon leaving Portland in January 2005, Woods subsequently joined the Miami Heat, he played with them in three regular season games. He was part of a 13-player mega deal that sent him to the Boston Celtics, on August 2, 2006, he ended up being waived by the Celtics, after having played in only three exhibition games with the team, he was subsequently signed by the New York Knicks, on December 6, 2005. He played more under Knicks head coach Larry Brown, starting sixteen games and averaging career highs in minutes per game, field goal percentage, points per game and assists.
However, he was not kept for the following season, he would end up playing a month in the NBA Development League, with the Bakersfield Jam. Woods signed a two-year contract with Greek Basket League team Olympiacos on July 16, 2007. In 10 appearances in the Greek League regular season, he averaged 12.5 points per game in 26.3 minutes per game. In the Greek Le`ague's 2007–08 playoffs, his numbers went down. Woods was caught using marijuana during the Greek League finals, thus committed a breach of his contract, which led to Olympiacos terminating the final year of his deal. Subsequently, he signed with the Italian league's Fortitudo Pallacanestro Bologna, after being released by Olympiacos. Woods played with Asseco Prokom Gdynia in Poland, where he contributed to their seventh straight Polish national league championship. Wood played a leading role in Asseco's run to the EuroLeague's Top 8 in the 2009–10 season. In the same season, he was awarded the Polish League MVP award. In November 2010, Woods signed a one-year contract with the Russian club Krasnye Krylya Samara, but he was waived in December.
Because of an unsatisfactory performance. On January 30, 2011, he returned to play with Asseco Prokom Gdynia, with whom he had the best years of his career in Europe. In the summer of 2011, he signed with the Israeli squad Maccabi Haifa. One year he signed with Lagun Aro GBC of Spain. On July 8, 2013, Woods signed with the French club Le Mans Sarthe Basket. On September 5, 2013, he left Le Mans, after he failed to pass the team's physical, due to a knee injury. In August, 2014 Woods signed of the Polish Basketball League. On July 16, 2015, Woods signed with the French club Cholet Basket. On October 15, 2017, Woods signed with AZS Koszalin. FIBA.com Profile Euroleague.net Profile Profile at Eurobasket.com
Kareem Lamar Rush is an American professional basketball player for the Kansas City Tornados of North American Premier Basketball. Rush's younger brother, last played for the Minnesota Timberwolves, while older brother JaRon played college basketball for UCLA. After graduating from Pembroke Hill School in Kansas City, Rush attended the University of Missouri in Columbia, where he was a standout guard on the basketball team. Rush averaged 19.8 points per game as a junior, leading the Tigers to the Western Regional finals in the NCAA tournament, where they lost to Oklahoma. As a sophomore in 2000 -- 01, he led the Big 12 in scoring. During this time, Rush worked with world-renowned conditioning coach Istvan Javorek. Rush entered the 2002 NBA draft after his junior season and was selected with the 20th pick overall by the Toronto Raptors, who traded his rights to the Los Angeles Lakers. Rush was projected to be a top 10 pick, but much like what happened to Kareem's elder brother JaRon—a former UCLA star—Kareem slipped down much further than anticipated.
At the 2000 draft, JaRon, who left the Bruins after his sophomore season, was not selected. "No one wants to see something like that happen to his brother", JaRon said. "I mean, I knew he was going to get drafted but it was still hard." Over his first two seasons, he played a limited, back-up role on the Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant-led club. However, due to his three-point shooting accuracy, he would become a more used reserve player in the 2003–2004 playoffs for coach Phil Jackson. Although the Lakers would lose to the Pistons in the NBA Finals, Rush was able to make somewhat of a name for himself as a sharpshooter, averaging 14 minutes per game and hitting 40% of his three-point shots in the playoffs, he was a major contributor in helping the Lakers clinch the Western Conference Finals against Kevin Garnett and the Minnesota Timberwolves, when he scored 18 points in the sixth and final game, all from 3-point range, where he was 6 for 7. Fourteen games into the 2004–05 season, the Lakers traded Rush to the Charlotte Bobcats for two future second-round draft picks.
In Charlotte, Rush found a larger role starting and averaging more than 25 minutes and 11.5 points per game. He set a then-Bobcats franchise record by scoring 35 points against the Indiana Pacers, his season ended March 2. During the 2006–07 offseason, Rush signed with the Seattle SuperSonics, but recovered from a groin injury. In November 2006, the club waived him to make room for a replacement for two frontcourt players who had sustained injuries. Rush spent the next season playing in Lithuania. On December 21, 2006, he signed with ULEB Cup participant Lietuvos rytas from Vilnius, he was led his team to the cup final. On February 24, 2007, Rush was named the MVP of the 2007 LKL All-Star Game. On April 21, Rush's team became the champion of the Baltic Basketball League. On July 3, 2007, Rush signed with the Indiana Pacers. On July 28, 2008, Rush signed a deal with the Philadelphia 76ers. Rush signed for the Los Angeles Clippers, because of injuries to other players on the roster. However, Rush himself suffered an ACL tear in his right knee on November 18, 2009.
Rush was waived by the Clippers on January 22, 2010. On March 12, 2012, Los Angeles D-Fenders of the NBA D-League acquired Rush. For the 2012–13 season, Rush played for the Los Angeles Slam of the ABA. In November 2013, he was re-acquired by the Los Angeles D-Fenders. On January 22, 2014, Rush left the D-Fenders. In 2017, Rush joined the BIG3 basketball league, playing on a talent-stacked 3 Headed Monsters roster, highlighted by head coach Gary Payton, as well as Kwame Brown, Rashard Lewis, Jason Williams, Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf. In January 2018, he signed with the Kansas City Tornados of the first-year North American Premier Basketball. In 2010, Rush embarked on an R&B singing career, releasing his debut single "Hold You Down". Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com Missouri bio
Nenê is a Brazilian professional basketball player for the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association. His birth name was Maybyner Rodney Hilário, but he changed it to Nenê in 2003. Born Maybyner Rodney Hilário in São Carlos, Brazil, he was nicknamed "Nenê" because he was the youngest in both his family and his group of childhood friends. Like most Brazilian children, he played soccer from an early age. In the mid-1990s, he started playing basketball at Escola de Basquete Meneghelli in his hometown, he played professionally for Vasco da Gama from 1999 to 2002. In 2001, he participated in the Goodwill Games. Nenê's successful three-year stint playing in Brazil earned him an NBA pre-draft camp invitation in Chicago in 2002, he was selected with the seventh overall pick in the 2002 NBA draft by the New York Knicks, who traded him to the Denver Nuggets. He was the first Brazilian to be selected in the first round of the NBA draft. Nenê began the 2002–03 season as a bench player, but ended it as a starter, averaging 10.5 points, 6.1 rebounds and 1.6 steals.
He ranked sixth in the NBA in field goal percentage and 20th in steals. He subsequently earned NBA All-Rookie first team honors. In his second season, Nenê played and started in 77 games, averaging 11.8 points, 6.5 rebounds and 1.5 steals in 32.5 minutes per games. He ranked fourth in the NBA in field goal percentage. In his third season, Nenê missed 27 games – 13 games due to a sprained medial collateral ligament in his left knee, two games due to a right hip contusion, eight games due to a strained left hamstring, four games due to an NBA suspension, he played 55 games in 2004–05, averaging 9.6 points and 5.9 rebounds in 23.9 minutes per game. In 2005–06, Nenê missed 81 games after suffering a torn ACL in his right knee after just three minutes of action against the San Antonio Spurs in the Denver's season opening game on November 1. After re-signing with the Nuggets to a six-year, $60 million contract on July 20, 2006, Nenê returned to action in 2006–07, averaging 12.2 points and 7.0 rebounds in 64 games.
In 2007–08, Nenê played in just 16 games, averaging 5.3 points and 5.4 rebounds in 16.6 minutes per game. He suffered a torn ulner collateral ligament in his left thumb against the Boston Celtics on November 7 and missed the next 22 games, he missed 37 games between January 11 and March 24 after a bout with testicular cancer. A right groin strain forced him to miss the final six games of the season as well. In response to his poor run of injuries and missed time, Nenê had a career-best year in 2008–09, he appeared in 77 games and averaged career-highs of 14.6 points, 7.8 rebounds and 1.31 blocks, in addition to 1.23 steals in 32.6 minutes per game. He subsequently finished fifth in voting for the 2008–09 NBA Most Improved Player award, he ranked second in the NBA in field goal percentage, the best single-season mark in Nuggets' franchise history. In 2009–10, Nenê played and started all 82 games for the first time in his career and averaged 13.8 points, 7.6 rebounds, a career-high 2.5 assists, 1.4 steals and 1.0 blocks in a career-high 33.6 minutes per game.
In 2010–11, Nenê appeared in 75 games, averaging 14.5 points, 7.6 rebounds, 2.0 assists, 1.12 steals while shooting an NBA-leading.615 from the field in 30.5 minutes per game. On December 14, 2011, Nenê re-signed with the Nuggets to a five-year, $67 million contract. On March 15, 2012, Nenê was traded to the Washington Wizards in a three-way trade involving the Nuggets and the Los Angeles Clippers, he averaged 13.7 points and 7.5 rebounds in 39 total games with Washington and Denver during the lockout-shortened 2011–12 season. In 2012–13, Nenê averaged 12.6 points, 6.7 rebounds and 2.9 assists in 27.2 minutes per game in 61 games. On January 21, 2013, he scored a season-high 24 points in a 98–95 win over the Portland Trail Blazers. On November 26, 2013, Nenê scored a career-high 30 points in a 116–111 win over the Los Angeles Lakers; that season, on February 22, Nenê matched that career-high in a 94–93 win over the New Orleans Pelicans. In 2014–15, various injuries and ailments limited Nenê's ability to produce at an optimum level, though he appeared in the most games in five years.
Towards the end of the season, when Nenê was relegated to more a supporting role to Marcin Gortat, he was a better rebounder and did more of the dirty work required. He averaged 5.1 rebounds on 51.1 % shooting during the season. Nenê appeared in 12 of team's first 13 games to begin the 2015–16 season, but between November 28 and January 3, he missed 19 straight games with a strained left calf. On March 14, 2016, he scored a season-high 20 points off the bench in a 124–81 win over the Detroit Pistons, Washington's largest victory since the 2002–03 season. On July 20, 2016, Nenê signed with the Houston Rockets, he made his debut for the Rockets in their season opener on October 26, 2016, scoring seven points off the bench in a 120–114 loss to the Los Angeles Lakers. On January 5, 2017, he scored a season-high 18 points for his 12th double-digit game of the season in a 118–116 win over the Oklahoma City Thunder. On April 23, 2017, he scored a playoff career-high 28 points on a perfect 12-of-12 shooting from the field to help the Rockets go up 3–1 in the team's first-round playoff series against the Oklahoma City Thunder.
On May 8, 2017, Nenê was ruled out for the remainder of the postseason with a left adductor tear. He suffered the injury the previous day in Game 4 of the Rockets' second-round playoff series agai
The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation. The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"; the Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games. The most recent games were in 2017: the Winter Universiade was in Almaty, while the Summer Universiade was held in Taipei, Taiwan; the 2019 Winter Universiade took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, between 2 and 12 March 2019, the 2019 Summer Universiade will be held in Naples, Italy between 3 and 14 July. The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation, which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport.
This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event. At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name. Petitjean, the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants, was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships; this was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games; the CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.
A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany. The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged; the Union Internationale des Étudiants incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries. After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week; the Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were Western-led sports competitions. Division between the Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games.
This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France, but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade, it was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had been a European competition became a global one, with the inclusion of Brazil and the United States among the competing nations; the increased participation led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship. 1 The Republic of China is recognised as Chinese Taipei by FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China. World University Championships International University Sports Federation International Children's Games Official website of the International University Sports Federation Official website of the German University Sports Federation Official report of the Winter Universiade Innsbruck / Seefeld 2005 Yahoo News: 2017 Taipei Universiade, 87% box-office success as the highest ever
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. In Croatian and Bosnian, only the Latin alphabet is used. Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous "Slavonic-Serbian" script, following the principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels, introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles; as a result of this joint effort and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, Dž counting as single letters. Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period.
Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Due to the shared cultural area, Gaj's Latin alphabet saw a gradual adoption in Serbia since, both scripts are used to write modern standard Serbian and Bosnian. In Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, has the official status, it is an official script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov and Venko Markovski. Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the Bosnian language "officially accept both alphabets", the Latin script is always used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whereas Cyrillic is in everyday use in Republika Srpska; the Serbian language in Croatia is recognized as a minority language, the use of Cyrillic in bilingual signs has sparked protests and vandalism. Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity.
In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only though, according to a 2014 survey, 47% of the Serbian population write in the Latin alphabet whereas 36% write in Cyrillic. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, along with the equivalent forms in the Serbian Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet value for each letter: According to tradition, Glagolitic was invented by the Byzantine Christian missionaries and brothers Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, amid the Christianization of the Slavs. Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyril's disciples at the Preslav Literary School in the 890s; the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek.
There was no distinction between lowercase letters. The literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Sava's Nomocanon, Dušan's Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, others; the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution to Vienna. There he met a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform its orthography, he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić reformed the Serbian literary language and standardised the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet by following strict phonemic principles on the Johann Christoph Adelung' model and Jan Hus' Czech alphabet. Karadžić's reforms of the Serbian literary language modernised it and distanced it from Serbian and Russian Church Slavonic, instead bringing it closer to common folk speech to the dialect of Eastern Herzegovina which he spoke.
Karadžić was, together with Đuro Daničić, the main Serbian signatory to the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850 which, encouraged by Austrian authorities, laid the foundation for the Serbian language, various forms of which are used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina and Croatia today. Karadžić translated the New Testament into Serbian, published in 1868, he wrote several books. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used: Ю, Я, Ы and Ѳ. In his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ; the alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death. From the Old Slavic script Vuk retained these 24 letters: He added one Latin letter: And 5 new ones: He removed: Orders issued on the 3 and 13 October 1914 banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, limiting it for use in religious instruction. A decree was passed on January 3, 1915, that banned Serbian Cyrillic from public use. An imperial order in October 25, 1915, banned the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, except "within the scope of Serb Orthodox Church