No. 10 Squadron RAF
No. 10 Squadron is a Royal Air Force squadron. The squadron has served in a variety of roles over its 90-year history, it flies the Airbus Voyager in the transport/tanker role. Formed from a nucleus provided by No. 1 Reserve Aircraft Squadron, as part of the Royal Flying Corps, on 1 January 1915 during World War I at Farnborough Airfield, Hampshire, 10 Squadron served on the Western Front in France in the spotting and bombing roles with a variety of aircraft types. It was disbanded on 31 December 1919 following the end like many other squadrons; the squadron was reformed as a night bomber unit on Hyderabads at RAF Upper Heyford on 3 January 1928, before moving to RAF Boscombe Down in 1931 and on to RAF Dishforth in 1937 to form part of the newly created No. 4 Group of RAF Bomber Command. During this time, the unit operated a variety of types, including Hinaidis and Handley Page Heyfords, beginning the Second World War as the first unit equipped with the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley; the squadron remained a part of No. 4 Group throughout the war, re-equipping with the Halifax in December 1941.
On 8 July 1940 they moved to RAF Leeming and again on 19 August 1942 to RAF Melbourne, Yorkshire Following the end of the war in Europe in 1945, the Squadron spent four years with Transport Command flying Dakotas, first in India and after a disbandment between 20 December 1947 and 4 October 1948, in Europe, taking part in the Berlin Airlift and disbanding on 20 February 1950. No 10 Squadron reverted to its original bomber role in the 1950s and early 1960s, seeing it take part in the Suez Crisis, equipped upon reformation at RAF Scampton on 15 January 1953 with the Canberra until disbandment four years on 15 January 1957, after reforming at RAF Cottesmore on 15 April 1958 flying Victors until disbandment on 1 March 1964; the squadron's numberplate was transferred back from Bomber Command to Transport Command in 1965, on 1 July the following year the squadron reformed at RAF Fairford as the first operators to receive the new Vickers VC10 C.1. The unit moved to RAF Brize Norton in 1967, where it remained until disbanded in 2005.
The C.1 differs from marks of RAF VC10s in that they were delivered newly built as strategic transports. Fourteen VC10 C.1s were delivered to 10 Squadron between 1966 and 1967. The C.1 was a variant of the civil'Standard VC10' fitted with the wing and more powerful engines of the'Super VC10'. The C.1 can carry 139 passengers in rear-facing seats, eight standard pallets or up to 78 medical evacuation stretchers. These VC10s were named after airmen, awarded the Victoria Cross; the strengthened floor allowed the C.1 to transport 1,000 lb bombs for the Tornado GR1 force during the Gulf War, each aircraft carrying 50 per flight. During the war, 10 Sqn flew 1,326 sorties in more than 5,000 hours; the squadron took part in most other operations involving British forces, including the 1982 Falklands War and the 2003 war in Iraq. Introduced as air transport aircraft, the VC10 C.1 fleet was modified in 1993 to allow it to operate in the AAR role as well, by the installation of wing mounted refueling pods.
The aircraft were known as VC10 C.1s. The most visible role No. 10 Squadron's VC10s have played is that of VIP transport and aeromedical evacuations. In the VIP role the C1s have flown the British Royal Family, government ministers and Prime Ministers around the world; the VC10 VIP role was phased out, VIP transport being carried out by chartered British Airways 767s and the RAF BAe 146 fleet. However, former Prime Minister Tony Blair reverted to the VC10 for more sensitive flights, notably during his diplomacy to Pakistan and the Middle East after the 11 September 2001 attacks; the rationalisation of the VC10 force led to No. 10 Squadron being disbanded in October 2005, with their C.1 aircraft transferred to No. 101 Squadron. In 2011, with the closure of RAF Lyneham and the transfer of the RAF's Hercules force to Brize Norton, it was announced that No. 10 Squadron would be reformed as the first operator of the new Airbus Voyager. The squadron was reformed on 1 July 2011. English Electric Canberra B.6 Handley Page Victor B.1 Vickers VC10 C.1 Vickers VC10 C.1K Airbus A330 MRTT List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps
For the current active service branch, see United States Air ForceThe Aviation Section, Signal Corps, was the aerial warfare service of the United States from 1914 to 1918, a direct statutory ancestor of the United States Air Force. It absorbed and replaced the Aeronautical Division, Signal Corps, conducted the activities of Army aviation until World War I, when its statutory responsibilities were suspended for the duration of the war; the Aviation Section organized the first squadrons of the aviation arm and conducted the first military operations by United States aviation on foreign soil. The Aviation Section, Signal Corps was created by the 63rd Congress on 18 July 1914 after earlier legislation to make the aviation service independent from the Signal Corps died in committee. From July 1914 until May 1918 the aviation section of the Signal Corps was familiarly known by the title of its administrative headquarters component at the time, seen variously as the Aeronautical Division, Air Division, Division of Military Aeronautics, others.
For historic convenience, the air arm is most referred to by its official designation, the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, is the designation recognized by the United States Air Force as its predecessor for this period. The Aviation Section began in turbulence, first as an alternative to making aviation in the Army a corps independent of the Signal Corps with friction between its pilots, who were all young and on temporary detail from other branches, its leadership, who were more established Signal Corps officers and non-pilots. Despite the assignment of Lieutenant Colonel George O. Squier as chief to bring stability to Army aviation, the Signal Corps found itself wholly inadequate to the task of supporting the Army in combat after the United States entered World War I on 6 April 1917, it attempted to expand and organize a competent arm but its efforts were chaotic and in the spring of 1918 aviation was removed, first from the jurisdiction of the Office of the Chief of Signal where it had resided since its inception, from the Signal Corps altogether.
The duties of the section were not resumed following World War I and it was formally disestablished by the creation of the Air Service in 1920. The Aviation Section, Signal Corps was created by the Act of 18 July 1914, Chapter 38 Stat. 514, to supersede the Aeronautical Division, an administrative creation of the Signal Corps within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, as the primary agency for military aviation. Earlier legislation to make the aviation service independent from the Signal Corps died in committee after all officers connected with aviation save one, Captain Paul W. Beck, testified against it. Provisions of the National Defense Act, 3 June 1916, the Aviation Act, 24 July 1917, permitted aviation support functions to be transferred from the Aeronautical Division to newly established aviation section organizations; the new law established the purpose and duties of the section, authorized a significant increase in size of U. S. military aviation to 60 officers and 260 enlisted men, increased the size of the Signal Corps by an equal number of personnel to provide them, stipulated that pilots be volunteers from branches of the line of the Army, detailed them for four years.
The Aeronautical Division became the administrative component of the Aviation Section until its abolition in 1918. The first funding appropriation for the Aviation Section was $250,000 for fiscal year 1915; the new law decreed restrictions that only unmarried lieutenants of the line under the age of 30 could be detailed to the section, provisions which encouraged a lack of discipline and professional maturity among the aviators that handicapped the growth of the service, hampered retention of pilots, prevented flying officers from commanding flying units. Officers on aviation duty who were promoted to permanent captain in their branch arm were automatically returned to the line. Aggravating the situation, the 11 remaining pilots of the 24 rated as Military Aviators all had their ratings automatically reduced to Junior Military Aviator when requirements were changed to include three years experience as a JMA before qualifying for the higher rating; this placed them on the same level as newly graduated pilots, none of those so reduced regained their ratings before 1917.
At its creation, the Aviation Section had 101 enlisted men. The Aeronautical Division, a quasi-headquarters with three officers and 11 enlisted men, issued orders in the name of the Chief Signal Officer. All other personnel of the aviation section were organized on 5 August 1914, by Signal Corps Aviation School General Order No. 10 into the: Signal Corps Aviation School, 1st Aero Squadron, 1st Company, 1st Aero Squadron 2nd Company, 1st Aero Squadron,totaling 16 officers, 90 enlisted men, seven civilians, seven aircraft. Most of the air service had just returned to San Diego from detached service in Texas for the second time in as many years to support Army ground forces in a possible war with Mexico over the Tampico Affair; the impending war was defused by the resignation of Victoriano Huerta on 15 July. By December 1914, the Aviation Section consisted of 44 officers, 224 enlisted men, 23 aircraft. Chief Signal Officer Brigadier General George P. Scriven announced on 9 April 1915 that following the establishment of an aero company at San Antonio, three additional companies would be sent overseas, to the Philippine Depar
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a
No. 78 Squadron RAF
No. 78 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operated the Merlin HC3/3A transport helicopter from RAF Benson. Until December 2007 it was the operator of two Westland Sea King HAR3s from RAF Mount Pleasant, Falkland Islands. 78 Squadron was stood down on 30 September 2014 as the Merlin Force transferred to the Commando Helicopter Force of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm at RNAS Yeovilton. No. 78 Squadron was formed as part of the Royal Flying Corps on 1 November 1916 for home defence at Harrietsham and tasked with protecting the southern English coast. It was equipped with obsolescent BE2 and more modern BE12 fighters. On the night of 25 September 1917 a Captain Bell of the squadron encountered a German Gotha and attacked it over RAF Joyce Green. John Rawlings, writing in Fighter Squadrons of the Royal Air Force, stated that'it was believed that he damaged it for one of the German raiders failed to return that night, being lost at sea.' The squadron received Sopwith 1½ Strutters in late 1917, followed by Sopwith Camels in mid-1918.
It arrived at Sutton's Farm, under the command of Major Cuthbert Rowden, in September 1917 and was there until December 1919, with a detachment at Biggin Hill. The squadron disbanded on 31 December 1919 following the Armistice. During the buildup of the RAF in the period before World War II, No. 78 Squadron was reformed at RAF Boscombe Down on 1 November 1936, twenty-two years after it was first formed, by redesignating a flight of the Handley Page Heyford equipped No. 10 Squadron. The new squadron moved to RAF Dishforth in Yorkshire early in 1937, joining No. 4 Group RAF of RAF Bomber Command. In July 1937 it was equipped with Armstrong Whitworth Whitley night bombers. On the outbreak of the Second World War, the squadron was designated as a training squadron, it moved to RAF Linton-on-Ouse on 15 October 1939, returning to Dishforth in July when it returned to front-line duties as a night bomber squadron. In February 1941, Whitleys from 78 Squadron and No. 51 Squadron, flying from Malta, were used to drop paratroops over southern Italy for Operation Colossus, the first British paratroop operation of the Second World War.
In April 1941, the squadron moved to RAF Middleton St. George. In September, the squadron flew its first bombing raid against Berlin, it moved again, to RAF Croft, in October 1941. In early 1942, the squadron started to receive four-engine Handley Page Halifaxes to replace its Whitleys, with conversion being completed in March that year, flying its first operation with the Halifax, against Ostend on 29 April 1942. On the night of 30/31 May 1942, 78 Squadron contributed 22 Halifaxes to Operation Millennium, the first "1,000 bomber" raid against Cologne; the squadron moved back to Middleton St. George in June 1942 and to Linton-on-Ouse in September 1942. In June 1943, the squadron moved to RAF Breighton to free up Linton-on Ouse for the Canadian bomber force of No. 6 Group RAF. In January 1944 the squadron replaced its Merlin-powered Halifax B. IIs with Halifax B. IIIs, powered by Bristol Hercules radial engines; the squadron continued in the bomber mission until the end of the war in Europe, both against German cities and in direct support of allied ground forces during and after the invasion of France in June 1944.
In total, the squadron had dropped 17000 t of bombs and mines during 6,337 operational sorties, losing 182 aircraft but claiming 28 enemy fighters shot down. In May 1945 the squadron was transferred into Transport Command, re-equipping with Dakotas in July–August 1945 and moving to Cairo in September, flying transport operations around the Middle East and Air-Sea Rescue patrols over the Eastern Mediterranean, it remained active in the post-war period as a transport squadron, converting to Valettas in April 1950, before being disbanded at RAF Fayid in Egypt on 30 September 1954. The squadron was reformed on 24 April 1956 at RAF Khormaksar in Aden, operating Scottish Aviation Pioneer single-engine STOL transports; these were replaced by larger, twin-engined, Twin Pioneers in November 1958. In 1965 these were transferred to No. 21 Squadron and the squadron converted to a helicopter unit operating the Wessex. It transferred to RAF Sharjah in 1967, continuing to fly in the army support and Search and Rescue roles until being disbanded in 1971.
The Squadron reformed on 22 May 1986 when No. 1310 Flight, operating Boeing Chinooks, the Westland Sea King HAR.3 equipped No. 1564 Flight merged at RAF Mount Pleasant in the Falkland Islands. Operating the Chinook HC.1, these were replaced with HC.2s. From 1988 to 2007, No. 78 Squadron was the only RAF squadron permanently based in the Falkland Islands. The four Tornado F3s which provide air defence are operated by No. 1435 Flight, while No. 1312 Flight operated a single Vickers VC10 and one Lockheed Hercules C.3. In December 2007, No. 78 Squadron reverted to its previous identity of No. 1564 Flight and a new No. 78 Squadron formed at RAF Benson as part of the Joint Helicopter Command, flying the Merlin HC3 and the new Merlin HC3A helicopters purchased from Denmark. By 2008, the total fleet of twenty eight RAF Merlin helicopters will be operated in a pool with 28 Squadron based at RAF Benson. Following the transfer of the squadrons Merlins to the Fleet Air Arm, 78 Squadron was disbanded on 30 September 2014.
There was a suggestion that 78 Squadron will be re-formed as a Chinook squadron when the remaining HC.6 aircraft on order from Boeing come online. This will certainly be at RAF Benson, as RAF Odiham has three operational Chinook Squadrons and is near capacity. RAF Benson, following the transfer of the Merlin force to the Royal Navy, has enough room, as well as the newly reformed 28 Squadron as the com
No. 35 Squadron RAF
No. 35 Squadron was a squadron of the Royal Air Force. No. 35 Squadron was formed on 1 February 1916 at Thetford, training as a Corps reconnaissance squadron. In January 1917 the squadron moved to France, equipped with the Armstrong Whitworth F. K.8, beginning operations during the Battle of Arras, working alongside the Cavalry Corps, throughout 1917. It re-equipped with Bristol Fighters in the part of 1918, before returning to RAF Netheravon in March 1919 and disbanding on 26 June 1919. On 1 March 1929 the squadron reformed at Bircham Newton, was equipped with Airco DH.9As, re-equipping with the Fairey IIIF in November that year. In 1932, its IIIFs were replaced by the Fairey Gordon; as a response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, the squadron was posted to the Sudan in late 1935, returning to RAF Worthy Down in August 1936, re-equipping with the Vickers Wellesley. On 12 April 1938 the squadron converted to the Fairey Battle. On the outbreak of World War II, No. 35 Squadron was designated a training unit, supplementing its Battles with Avro Ansons and Bristol Blenheims late in 1939.
The squadron disbanded after being absorbed into No. 17 OTU along with No. 90 Squadron at RAF Upwood, on 8 April 1940. The squadron reformed on 5 November 1940 at RAF Linton-on-Ouse in Yorkshire as the first Handley Page Halifax squadron. In August 1942 it was one of the five squadrons selected to create the Pathfinder Force; the squadron was based at RAF Graveley. When the Pathfinder Force was enlarged 35 Squadron was a part of the newly designated No. 8 Group. In March 1944 the squadron converted to the Avro Lancaster. During 1946 the squadron participated in a goodwill tour of the United States returning to RAF Stradishall, due to Graveley's closure; the Lancasters were replaced by Avro Lincolns in September 1949, the squadron disbanded on 23 February 1950. On 1 September 1951 the squadron reformed at Marham equipped with the Boeing Washington. In April 1954 the squadron re-equipped with its first jet powered aircraft type, the English Electric Canberra twin engined light bomber; the squadron again disbanded on 11 September 1961.
No. 35 Squadron reformed for the last time on 1 December 1962 at RAF Coningsby as part of RAF Bomber Command's V-bomber force, equipped with eight Vulcan B2 aircraft and Yellow Sun free-falling bombs in a high-altitude strategic bombing role, moving to RAF Cottesmore on 7 November 1964. When the WE.177B strategic bomb became available from mid-1966, eight were issued to No. 35 Squadron at Cottesmore. These laydown bombs were designed for the low-level penetration role, did not require a pre-release'pop-up' manoeuvre, improved the survivability of the squadron's Vulcans. Following the transfer of responsibility for the nuclear deterrent to the Royal Navy the squadron joined the Near East Strike Force at RAF Akrotiri, still equipped with eight Vulcan B2s and eight WE.177 nuclear weapons and a variety of conventional weapons. The squadron remained at Akrotiri with 9 Squadron's equipped Vulcans assigned as part of the UK contribution to CENTO the Central Treaty Organisation, for use in the low-level penetration role until the end of 1974, returning to RAF Scampton in January 1975 where the squadron disbanded for the last time on 1 March 1982.
List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons Alan. Flying units of the RAF. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-086-6. Brookes, Andrew J. "Flying the Winged Horse – the history of No 35 Squadron RAF". Aircraft Illustrated, May 1979, Vol 12, No.5. Pp. 229–233. Halley, James J; the Squadrons of the Royal Air Force. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain, 1980. ISBN 0-85130-083-9. Stocker, Flt Lt Ted, DSO, DFC A Pathfinders war: An extraordinary tale of surviving over 100 bomber operations against all odds. London: Grubb Street, 2009. ISBN 978-1-906502-52-2. Humphrey Wynn. RAF Strategic Nuclear Deterrent Forces: their origins and deployment 1946–1969. Pps 128, 449–463. Pub MoD & HMSO. ISBN 0-11-772833-0 Air of Authority Squadron history page on official RAF website Weapon overview @ www.nuclear-weapons.info/vw.htm#WE.177 Carriage RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1973–74 RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1966–67