Glossary of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms. A-show A wrestling event where a company's biggest draws wrestle. Compare B-show and C-show. A-team A group of a wrestling promotion's top stars who wrestle at an A-show. Compare B-team. Abort To discontinue a feud, angle, or gimmick due to a lack of fan interest without explanation. Ace A term only used in Japanese puroresu for a wrestler designated as the face of the promotion. Not the same as the top champion. Examples of aces include Hayabusa in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, Hiroshi Tanahashi in New Japan Pro Wrestling and Suwama in All Japan Pro Wrestling.
Agent Also producer. A management employee a former wrestler, who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, relay instructions from the bookers. Agents act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may help in training younger wrestlers, they are referred to by WWE as "producers". Alliance A cooperative relationship developed between two or more wrestlers, whether wrestling as a tag team or in individual matches. Differentiates from a stable and a faction as the wrestlers are not packaged together, but are presented as a group of individuals working together for a common short term goal. Alliances are formed for the specific purpose of retaining titles between the members of the alliance, or to counter a specific foe or group of foes; the formation of an alliance can be a storyline of its own. Angle A fictional storyline. An angle begins when one wrestler attacks another, which results in revenge. An angle may be as small as a vendetta that lasts for years.
It is not uncommon to see an angle become retconned due to it not getting over with the fans, or if one of the wrestlers involved in the angle is fired. Apter mag An old-style professional wrestling magazine; the term refers to the magazines at one time connected to journalist Bill Apter, such as Pro Wrestling Illustrated. B-show A wrestling event featuring the middle and lower-level talent of a wrestling promotion. Sometimes includes well-known wrestlers making a return or finishing up their career. Compare A-show and C-show. B-team The group of wrestlers on a B-show; the B-team will wrestle at a venue the same night wrestlers on the A-team are wrestling in a different event, although a promotion will sometimes schedule an event with B-team wrestlers to test a new market. Compare A-team. Babyface See face. Beat down An angle in which a wrestler or other performer is the recipient of a one-sided beating by a group of wrestlers. Blading Also juicing and getting color. A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves to provoke bleeding to sell the opponent's offense.
Blind tag 1. A tag made in a tag team match where the wrestler on the apron tags his partner unbeknownst to them or without their consent. 2. A tag where the tagger's opponent is unaware a tag has occurred, leaving them open to a blindside attack. Most occurs when the partner in the ring is thrown against the ropes or backed into their own corner. Blown spot See missed spot. Blow off The final match in a feud. While the involved wrestlers move onto new feuds, sometimes it is the final match in the promotion for one or more of the wrestlers. Blow up To become exhausted during a match. Book Also booking. To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling card; the person in charge of setting up matches and writing angles is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion; the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as " any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions".
Booking is the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show. Botch Something which does not go as planned due to a mistake. Bret's rope The second rope of a wrestling ring, the middle rope. Broadway Also going broadway. A match that ends in a time limit draw. Bump To fall on the mat or ground. A flat back bump is a bump in which a wrestler lands solidly on their back with high impact, spread over as much surface as possible. A "phantom bump" occurs when a referee takes a bump without a plausible reason. Burial Also buried; the worked lowering of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a push, it is the act of a promoter or booker causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in squash matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no-sell or kick out of said wrestler's finisher, or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or gimmick.
Business Professional wrestling. Bust
Juan Rivera is a Puerto Rican professional wrestler. He is known for his work in the World Wrestling Council, where he won the WWC Universal Heavyweight Championship three times and the WWC Puerto Rico Heavyweight Championship three times. During the 1990s, he worked for the World Wrestling Federation under a mask as Kwang, he portrayed Savio Vega, the eventual leader of a Puerto Rican stable, Los Boricuas. After leaving the WWF, Rivera returned to Puerto Rico and joined Victor Quiñones' promotion, the International Wrestling Association, where he was a long-time General Manager and won five titles, including the IWA Undisputed World Heavyweight Championship. In 2011, he was featured in the first interpromotional angle between IWA and WWC. Rivera was raised in Vega Alta, Puerto Rico. After graduating from high school, he went to Miami, where he tried out for the WWF, he was accepted and sent back to Puerto Rico to wrestle for the World Wrestling Council as TNT, adopting a gimmick based on his martial arts background and featuring several elements from stereotypical Hispanic gimmicks.
He was managed by "El Profe" Ángel Pantoja Rivera, first feuded with Chicky Starr. He won his first championship, the WWC North American Heavyweight Championship, on May 2, 1987, by defeating Miguel Pérez. On July 11, he became a dual champion, winning the WWC World Tag Team Championship with Mr. Pogo and holding it for nineteen days. To close the year, he teamed up with Abdullah the Butcher in All Japan Pro Wrestling, losing to Hiroshi Wajima and Giant Baba, he wrestled early in his career at Mid-South Wrestling as the masked El Corsario. On January 30, 1988, TNT lost the North American title to Abdullah the Butcher. On June 18, he won the WWC Caribbean Heavyweight Championship from Hercules Ayala. Two months he dropped it to Buddy Landel, he regained it 28 days and held it for another two months before dropping it to Jason the Terrible. On February 4, 1989, he won the vacant WWC Puerto Rico Heavyweight Championship, holding it for 21 days before losing it to Abbuda Dein, he won his third Caribbean Heavyweight Championship on March 4, dropped it to Rip Rogers on May 14.
On June 17, he won the vacant WWC Television Championship. During the last half of 1989, TNT had a midcard feud with Leo Burke, interrupted midway through when Burke defeated Carlos Colón, Sr. for the WWC Universal Heavyweight Championship. TNT was expected to win the belt, given his status as a fan favorite and solid wrestling skills. On February 9, 1990, he defeated Burke for the Universal Heavyweight Championship, vacated the Television Championship, he held the title for a month, before dropping it to Abdullah the Butcher. On April 25, 1990, TNT won his second Television Championship, holding it until January 1991, when it was vacated. Prior to Aniversario 1990, the WWC's anniversary show, TNT turned heel and began feuding with Colón, who had won the Heavyweight Championship from Abdullah; the feud ended at Aniversario. On September 30, 1990, he lost to Masahiro Chono at New Japan Pro Wrestling's Antonio Inoki 30th Wreatling Anniversary event. In early 1991, he feuded with a wrestler who had used the name "TNT", winning the rights to the name on March 2, 1991.
The feud concluded that month, when Rivera defeated the wrestler for his third Television Championship. In the following three months, he lost and regained the championship lost it to David Sierra on October 19; the following week, he won it for a fifth time by defeating Sierra in a rematch, holding it for a month before losing it to Dick Murdoch. This was his final WWC championship. Having gained much wrestling experience, Rivera was recalled to the United States. In December 1991, he participated in the television tapings of Gordon Socozarri's American Wrestling Federation, he defeated Tom Manny Fernandez to win the AWF Americas Championship. On November 22, 1992, Rivera returned losing to Shinya Hashimoto; the next day, he teamed with Scott Norton to defeat Tony Halme. After losing two dark matches in the World Wrestling Federation as TNT in July 1993, Rivera debuted as Kwang on January 10, 1994; this gimmick incorporated clichéd elements used to portray mysterious "Asian" wrestlers, including a mask, a stereotypical martial arts moveset, Asian mist.
The WWF aired promotional vignettes in the weeks before his televised debut, which happened on January 22, 1994, when he, managed by Harvey Wippleman, was the fourth man to enter the 1994 Royal Rumble. During the match, he teamed with the fifth entrant, Owen Hart, battling the face wrestlers to a stalemate until Diesel entered seventh and eliminated all the previous entrants. Kwang's televised singles debut was on the January 30 episode of Wrestling Challenge, where he defeated Ray Hudson. On the April 18 episode of Monday Night Raw, he lost to Bret Hart. On the May 9 RAW, he lost a King of the Ring qualifying match to Razor Ramon. On September 12, he lost to The Undertaker. On January 9, 1995, he was at ringside when Howard Finkel won a Tuxedo match against Wippleman, who abandoned his role as Kwang's manager. Kwang faded from WWF programming, losing his final match to Hakushi on the April 29, 1995 episode of WWF Superstars. On May 14, 1995, Rivera appeared in street clothes during the WWF's first In Your House pay-per-view.
When Razor Ramon was attacked by Jeff Jarrett and The Roadie, portraying a fan in the audience, jumped the guardrail to rescue him. That night, Razor introduced him as his childhood friend, Savio Vega. Vega made his wrestling debut on the May 28 episode of WWF Action Zone, he then
Tracy Stanton Smothers is an American professional wrestler. He is best known for his appearances with World Championship Wrestling, Smoky Mountain Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation and Extreme Championship Wrestling. Smothers was from Springfield, TN, he graduated from Springfield High School, where he played football and wrestled. Smothers was the first person in Springfield High School history to go to the state championship in wrestling. Smothers started his career in the Memphis promotion on Saturday morning TV. Steve Armstrong and Tracy Smothers started teaming as The Wild-Eyed Southern Boys in Florida Championship Wrestling in 1987 where they feuded with The New Breed, they moved on to Southeast Championship Wrestling. In 1989, he won the CWF Tag Team Championship in the newly renamed Continental Wrestling Federation. While in Continental, Smothers wrestled an unmuzzled bear, announced as 550 lbs. Smothers and Armstrong competed in World Championship Wrestling for a number of years and were known as the Southern Boys and the Young Pistols upon turning heel.
Smothers and Armstrong had a long feud with The Fabulous Freebirds. Smothers' last major appearance for WCW was on January 21, 1992 at Clash of the Champions, as he teamed with Terry Taylor in a loss to Marcus Alexander Bagwell and Brian Pillman. Smothers achieved his greatest singles success in Jim Cornette's Smoky Mountain Wrestling promotion, based out of Knoxville, Tennessee. Between 1992 and 1995, "The Wild Eyed Southern Boy", competed as a babyface for SMW and won the Heavyweight title twice, the tag team titles once, the "Beat the Champ" TV title on three separate occasions. Smothers had notable feuds during this time against "Prime Time" Brian Lee, Chris Candido, Tony Anthony, The Heavenly Bodies, The Gangstas, he competed as a heel in the United States Wrestling Association during the SMW vs. USWA feud in 1995. After SMW folded, Smothers continued to work for the USWA. Smothers and at one point joined the USWA branch of the Nation of Domination, changing his name to Shaquille Ali. In the summer of 1996, Smothers began wrestling in the WWF as Freddie Joe Floyd, a babyface jobber to various up and comers, most notably Hunter Hearst-Helmsley and Stone Cold Steve Austin.
His only meaningful win under the Floyd gimmick was an upset of Justin "Hawk" Bradshaw in his debut, which resulted in Bradshaw beating Floyd in a subsequent rematch. He scored a count out win over Triple H, thanks to Mr. Perfect distracting Helmsley, his entire gimmick was a rib on Gerald Brisco and Jack Brisco, as they both came from Bowlegs, Oklahoma. Jack Brisco’s real name is Fred Joe Brisco, Gerald’s full name is Floyd Gerald Brisco. In his career he joined Extreme Championship Wrestling as "The Main Man" Tracy Smothers, he was mocked by the crowd with chants of "Freddy Joe!!" regarding his WWF stint and was most notably remembered for doing a goofy dance, that ECW announcer Joey Styles commented on by saying "what the hell is with that awful dance." He was part of The Full Blooded Italians, a comedy heel tag team, which included Little Guido, "The Big Don" Tommy Rich, the "Italian Stallion" John T. Smith. Smothers, long associated with being a stereotypical southern wrestler, was billed as being from "Nashville, Italy" or "Southern Italy" during this time.
Smothers wrestled at both of the June 2005 ECW reunion shows, defeating The Blue Meanie at Hardcore Homecoming with the help of J. T. Smith, accompanying Little Guido to ringside for his match with Yoshihiro Tajiri and Super Crazy at ECW One Night Stand 2005. On June 18, 2005 at a Championship Wrestling event, Smothers challenged WWE employee John "Bradshaw" Layfield to a fight after JBL shot on The Blue Meanie during a brawl at the end of One Night Stand, he wrestled at all four of the Hardcore Homecoming events. Smothers still competes on a regular basis in various independent promotions throughout the country, although based in the south/mid-south/midwest area, he formed a tag team with fellow SMW and ECW alumni Chris Hamrick known as "Southern Comfort" and together they won several tag team championships on the indy circuit. In late 2005 and early 2006, Smothers worked a full-time schedule at various independent promotions in Tennessee and around the midwest and eastern United States, he toured the United Kingdom and teaming with Chris Hamrick on One Pro Wrestling shows as'Southern Comfort', where they competed in a tag team ladder match for the Tag Team Championship against Team SHAG and Jonny Storm and Jody Fleisch losing to Team SHAG.
On February 25, 2007 in Cincinnati, Smothers defeated Corporal Robinson to win the Pro Wrestling Unplugged Hardcore Championship. Smothers was the Cleveland All Pro Wrestling heavyweight champion until he was defeated by the Blue Meanie on June 3, 2007. Smothers shows up in Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South wrestling from time to time. Most Recently beating the legendary Ricky Morton from The Rock'n' Roll Express on July 22 at Gory Days 3 in Sellersburg, Indiana. On October 19, 2008 in Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South's Double Death Tag Team Tournament, Smothers teamed with Corporal Robinson to face Cult Fiction's Vulgar Display of Power, Brain Damage and Deranged managed by Halfbreed Billy Gram. Smother's joined Cult Fiction. Tracy Smothers debuted in Juggalo Championship Wr
Jacqueline DeLois Moore is an American professional wrestler and professional wrestling manager. She is best known for her time in WWE from 1998 to 2004, as well as working for World Championship Wrestling in 1997-98 and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling as a wrestler and road agent, she began her career in World Class Championship Wrestling, but was well known in the United States Wrestling Association, where she was a fourteen-time USWA Women's Champion. She moved to World Championship Wrestling, where she managed the team Harlem Heat. In 1998, she joined the World Wrestling Federation, she began managing Marc Mero and had her first rivalry with Sable, which culminated in the re-establishment of the WWF Women's Championship, which Moore held twice during her time with the WWF. In 1999, she formed an all-female alliance with Terri Runnels and Ryan Shamrock called the Pretty Mean Sisters. In the early 2000s, Moore worked as both a referee and trainer for the WWF, she held the WWE Cruiserweight Championship, a title predominantly held by men.
She was the third woman to accomplish the feat. In 2004, she joined TNA, where she worked as a manager and occasional wrestler. On April 2, 2016, Moore was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame. Moore began her wrestling training at a local gym after meeting professional wrestling manager Skandor Akbar, she was the only female in Akbar's professional wrestling school in Dallas. She made her in-ring debut for World Class Championship Wrestling in 1988, under the name "Sweet Georgia Brown; as Sweet Georgia Brown, Moore had wrestled in Japan for Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, wrestling the likes of Megumi Kudo and Combat Toyoda. She competed in all-women's promotions Ladies Professional Wrestling Association and Women's Pro Wrestling. Moore moved on to the United States Wrestling Association in Memphis, where she was known as Miss Texas, she made her debut as a Heel Valet to Eric Embry and Tom Prichard as part of team Texas during the Texas vs Tennessee feud. She was involved in a feud with the Dirty White Girl Kim Anthony and was involved in a Mudpit Match and a Hair vs Hair match which Anthony won and in the latter Moore had her hair shaved off.
She was the first USWA Women's Champion, winning the newly created title in a tournament on March 2, 1992. Between March 1992 and August 1996, Moore held the title a total of eight times, swapping it with Lauren Davenport, Luna Vachon, Debbie Combs. In 1993, Moore became the first female to be included in the Pro Wrestling Illustrated 500, detailing the top 500 professional wrestlers in the world. In 1995, Moore became involved in a feud with the valet of Reggie B. Fine and Don Bass, Sweet Georgia Brown. Brown was jealous of Texas after the USWA aired a music video of Moore, they were involved in several catfights. In 1995, Moore feuded with Uptown Karen, the lover of Downtown Bruno. During the feud, Moore formed an alliance with former foe Sweet Georgia Brown; the Miss Texas/Uptown Karen feud culminated in a Hair vs. Hair match, won by Texas, she competed in Herb Abrams's Universal Wrestling Federation, winning the promotion's women's title in 1994. In late 1993, she appeared in a Jeff Jarrett promo for the WWF where Jarrett would be criticizing a young man's singing voice.
Through the WWF's partnership with the USWA Jacqueline was scheduled to debut in the WWF under the name Wynonna as a manager for Jeff Jarrett. Jackie filmed vignettes, she appeared in the February 1994 edition of the WWF Magazine. Moore joined Smoky Mountain Wrestling in October 1995 under the name Sgt. Rock and joined Jim Cornette's Militia, which included Tommy Rich, Robert Gibson, Terry Gordy, The Punisher. However, her stint in SMW didn't last, as the company folded at the end of November. Moore began submitting pictures of herself to the Atlanta, Georgia-based World Championship Wrestling and was contacted by WCW employee J. J. Dillon, who offered her a contract. Jacqueline debuted in WCW as the manager of Kevin Sullivan, she helped Sullivan by body slamming his opponents, she feuded with Sullivan's ex-wife, Woman. Her alliance with Sullivan came to an end at Bash at the Beach 1997, when she smashed a wooden chair over Sullivan's head causing him to lose a Loser Must Retire bout to Chris Benoit.
At Road Wild on August 9, Jacqueline became the manager of Harlem Heat. She engaged in a brief feud with Disco Inferno, whom she defeated at Halloween Havoc on October 26. Moore rejoined the World Wrestling Federation in mid-1998, debuting on the June 1 episode of Raw as the new on-screen girlfriend of Marc Mero, to began a feud with the estranged wife of Mero, Sable. Sable defeated Moore in a bikini contest on July 26, 1998 at Fully Loaded: In Your House after Sable removed her halter top to reveal a painted on bikini top. WWF Chairman Vince McMahon, disqualified Sable for not wearing a traditional bikini, Moore was declared the winner. Moore and Mero were defeated by Edge on August 30 at SummerSlam. In September with the revived WWF Women's Championship on the line, Moore defeated Sable to become the new champion, the first African-American Women's Champion. Two months at Survivor Series, Sable defeated Moore to become the new champion. Moore and Mero separated on the November 22 episode of Sunday Night Heat, the jilted Moore formed a new alliance of women known as the Pretty Mean Sisters with Te
Jeffrey Leonard Jarrett is an American professional wrestler, professional wrestling promoter and businessman signed to WWE as a backstage producer and occasional on-air talent. Beginning his career in his father's Continental Wrestling Association in 1986, Jarrett first came to prominence upon debuting in the World Wrestling Federation in 1992. Over the next nine years, he alternated between the WWF and its main competitor, World Championship Wrestling. After WCW was purchased by the WWF in 2001, Jarrett joined the upstart World Wrestling All-Stars promotion. In 2002, Jarrett and his father together founded Total Nonstop Action. After departing the promotion in 2014, Jarrett founded another new promotion, Global Force Wrestling. After a failed merger with TNA and GFW, he cut ties with TNA. Jarrett wrestled in Mexico for Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide before returning to WWE in January 2019 as an on-screen talent and producer. A third-generation wrestler and promoter, Jarrett has had 81 championship reigns throughout his career, among them the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, WCW World Heavyweight Championship, WWA World Heavyweight Championship, USWA Unified World Heavyweight Championship, AAA Mega Championship.
He was inducted into the TNA Hall of Fame in 2015 and the WWE Hall of Fame in 2018. Born in Hendersonville, Jarrett became involved with basketball when he was in high school, but he worked for his father Jerry Jarrett's Continental Wrestling Association as a referee in March 1986 and trained as a wrestler under his father and Tojo Yamamoto. Jarrett made his in-ring debut at the age of 18 on April 6, 1986 when jobber Tony Falk attempted to end his lengthy losing streak by challenging Jarrett a referee, to a match. Jarrett accepted the challenge. Jarrett is a third-generation wrestler: his father wrestled, as did his maternal grandfather, Eddie Marlin, while his paternal grandmother, was employed by Nashville-based wrestling promotion Gulas/Welch Promotions, he wrestled with the American Wrestling Association and the Continental Wrestling Federation in the late 1980s. In 1989, his father Jerry purchased the Texas-based World Class Championship Wrestling promotion and merged it with the CWA to create the United States Wrestling Association.
Over the following years, Jarrett won the USWA Southern Heavyweight Championship on 10 occasions and the USWA World Tag Team Championship on 15 occasions. Jarrett wrestled on the independent circuit for 7 years, appearing in Japan and Puerto Rico. In 1990, he wrestled his first tour of Japan for Super World Sports. In 1993, he was hired by the World Wrestling Federation. Jarrett would continue wrestling for USWA full-time until losing the championship to Jerry Lawler on December 20, 1993, but return sporadically for future dates. Jarrett's first involvement with World Wrestling Federation came on August 9, 1992, when he participated in the kick-off to the first cross-promotional angle between the WWF and the USWA. Sitting at ringside along with Jerry Lawler at the WWF house show, being held at the Pyramid in Memphis, Tennessee, he issued an open challenge to any WWF wrestler. After defeating Kamala by disqualification that night, Bret Hart accepted Jarrett's challenge for a match the next time that the WWF came to Memphis.
Beginning in October, Jarrett himself began making appearances on WWF house show events, defeating Mondo Kleen and Barry Horowitz. At a WWF Wrestling Challenge taping in Louisville, Kentucky on October 28, Jarrett scored his biggest victory of his nascent WWF career by upsetting Rick Martel. However, the scheduled match between Bret Hart and Jarrett on October 31 in Memphis was cancelled due to poor weather. Following the cancelled Memphis show, he returned to the USWA. Jarrett would go on to lose many WWF house show matches with Bret Hart starting in early December 1993 again in early January 1994, but not in his hometown of Memphis. Nearly a year Jarrett returned to the WWF, he made his televised debut on October 23, 1993 on WWF Superstars as a heel under the gimmick of "Double J" Jeff Jarrett, a country music singer who intended to elevate his singing career through his exposure as a wrestler. Jarrett's character would strut to the ring wearing flashing "Double J" hats and ring attire, while he punctuated his promos with the phrase "Ain't I great?".
He ended his interviews by distinctly spelling out his name. Jarrett had his first televised match with the WWF on the December 20th, 1993 episode of Raw, defeating PJ Walker. Jarrett made his pay-per-view debut in January 1994 at the Royal Rumble, entering the Royal Rumble match as the 12th participant and was eliminated less than 90 seconds by Randy Savage. At the Royal Rumble, Jarrett participated in attacking The Undertaker and forcing him into the casket, an incident that would be a focal point in Undertaker's rematch that year. Jarrett was scheduled to wrestle in a five vs. five tag match at WrestleMania X, but the match did not take place due to time constraints. However, the match did take place with Jarrett's team winning. During this time, Jarrett started having what would be a long string of matches with Doink during house shows in which he won the match. Despite getting past Lex Luger by countout in the first round, Jarrett lost in the second round of the 1994 King of the Ring tournament, being pinned by the 1-2-3 Kid.
Only weeks before SummerSlam, the WWF promoted a match as part of a "rap v
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
In Your House 2
In Your House 2 was a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Federation. It was the second pay-per-view of the In Your House series, it took place on July 1995, at the Nashville Municipal Auditorium in Nashville, Tennessee. The pay-per-view consisted of six professional wrestling matches, while three other matches were only shown to the live audience in the arena. In the main event WWF World Champion Diesel defeated Sid in a Lumberjack match. In the undercard, Shawn Michaels defeated Jeff Jarrett for the Intercontinental Championship and The Roadie defeated 1–2–3 Kid. Both Jarrett and the Roadie legit quit WWF the following day; the pay-per-view received a 0.7 buyrate, equivalent to 280,000 buys. The most prominent feud heading into the pay-per-view was between then-WWF Champion Sid. At WrestleMania XI, Diesel had retained the championship against his former partner, Shawn Michaels due to an interference by Michaels' bodyguard Sid backfiring; when Michaels said that for a potential rematch, he would give Sid the night off, he was attacked by his bodyguard and saved by Diesel.
This turned Michaels, a heel for over three years, into a face and set up a title match between Diesel and Sid, now a member of Ted DiBiase's Million Dollar Corporation. At the first In Your House pay-per-view. Diesel retained the WWF World Championship, when an interference by fellow Corporation member Tatanka resulted in Sid being disqualified. At King of the Ring in late June and Tantanka were defeated by Diesel and Bam Bam Bigelow in a tag team match. A rematch between Diesel and Sid was scheduled for the second In Your House pay-per-view in the form of a Lumberjack match In the following weeks, both rivals chose out fourteen lumberjacks, who would surround the ring during the match. At the first In Your House pay-per-view, Razor Ramon and the 1–2–3 Kid had been scheduled against the WWF Intercontinental Champion Jeff Jarrett and his Roadie but as the Kid was unable to wrestle due to the Kid's neck injury, the match was changed to a Handicap match, which Ramon won. After the match, an unknown man revealed as Savio Vega, attacked both Jarrett and The Roadie before being escorted backstage.
During a match between Vega and Jarrett on Raw, Roadie pushed Vega into guest commentator Shawn Michaels, who in turn shoved the Roadie away and on attacked both Roadie and Jarrett. At the same time, Jarrett focused on his music career. On the July 1, 1995 episode of Superstars of Wrestling, Jarrett's music video, "With My Baby Tonight", premiered for the first time; the music video played over again at forthcoming WWF shows during July 1995. At the King of the Ring, one half of the Men on a Mission tag team, won the eponymous tournament, defeating Savio Vega in the finals. After the match Mabel and his partner Mo assaulted Razor Ramon, at ringside supporting Vega during the match; the 1–2–3 Kid returned and tried to help Ramon, but Men on a Mission had the upper hand. The assault on Ramon further injured his ribs after suffering an injury on June 9, 1995; the attack led to a tag team match at the second In Your House pay-per-view, with Ramon and Vega teaming up to take on Men on a Mission. At Wrestlemania XI, Owen Hart and Yokozuna had joined forces to win the WWF Tag Team Championship from the Smoking Gunns.
The Allied Powers, consisting of The British Bulldog, seemed as obvious challengers. Luger had feuded with Yokozuna over the WWF World Championship between 1993 and 1994, whereas Bulldog had supported his brother-in-law Bret Hart in his freud against Bret's brother Owen. At Wrestlemania XI, the Allied Powers proved themselves by defeating the Blu Brothers and were given a title shot at this event. Before the event went live on pay-per-view, accompanied to the ring by his valet Sunny, defeated Aldo Montoya in a dark match; the pay-per-view started with the 1 -- 2 -- 3 Kid. 1–2–3 Kid surprised the Roadie with an attack outside the ring and had the early advantage, but the Roadie soon took control, performing a clothesline, grounding Kid. At several points during the match, Jeff Jarrett was shown preparing for his performance of "With My Baby Tonight" in his dressing room, ignoring The Roadie's performance. At the end of the match, Kid missed a dropkick from the second-rope; the Roadie capitalized with a powerbomb and a piledriver off the top rope, allowing him to pin the Kid.
In the second pay-per-view match Men on a Mission faced Savio Vega. Mabel and Mo had the upper hand throughout most of the match, with Mabel dominating Vega. Vega managed to tag in Ramon, who got control and powerslammed Mabel from the top rope; the advantage for Ramon and Vega was short-lived, as Mabel executed an avalanche on Ramon in the corner, followed by a belly to belly suplex to get the victory. After the second match, WWF Intercontinental Champion Jeff Jarrett made his live singing debut, performing the song "With My Baby Tonight". Notably, Jarrett's personal enforcer, remained unseen during the performance. Next, Bam Bam Bigelow squared off against Henry O. Godwinn. After several near-falls from both Bigelow and Godwinn, Godwinn missed a knee drop from the second rope. Bigelow capitalized by rolling up Godwinn for the win; that ending was rushed, i.e. not planned, as Godwinn had sustained a legit injury during the missed knee drop. In the following match, Jeff Jarrett defended his Intercontinental Championship against Shawn Michaels.
The match first went back and forth, with both Michaels and Jarrett taking control for certain periods. The first highspot occurred when Jarrett backdroppe