United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
U.S. Route 191
U. S. Route 191 is a spur of U. S. Route 91 that has two branches; the southern branch runs for 1,465 miles from Douglas, Arizona on the Mexican border to the southern part of Yellowstone National Park. The northern branch runs for 440 miles from the northern part of Yellowstone National Park to Loring, Montana, at the Canada–US border. Unnumbered roads within Yellowstone National Park connect the two branches; the highway passes through the states of Arizona, Utah and Montana. The highway was designated in 1926 and its routing has changed drastically through the years; the modern US 191 bears no resemblance to the original route, in the state of Idaho. Most of the current route of US 191 was formed in 1981. Since the extensions in the 1980s and 1990s, U. S. Route 191 is much longer than its parent route which it no longer connects to, one of the longest U. S. three-digit routes. US 191 begins at the Mexico border in Douglas. US 191 has a ten-mile overlay with US 70 east of Safford; the route links to State Route SR 266 to the south of Safford.
US 191 intersects Interstate 10 in Cochise County. The route between Springerville and Morenci was designated a National Scenic Byway and given the name of Coronado Trail Scenic Byway, as this approximates the path taken by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado between 1540 and 1542; this is a dangerous mountain road with many sharp curves and little or no shoulders on steep cliffs. North of the byway, the highway is the primary route to access Canyon de Chelly National Monument. US 191 traverses the Navajo Nation before entering Utah. In 2010 the route was extended from the original end at its intersection with SR 80 near Douglas and, with a overlay on SR 80, extended to Pan American Ave in the city along Pan American Ave to the US Customs/Immigration Port of Entry at the border with Mexico; the portion of this route between its intersection with SR 80 near Douglas and the intersection with Interstate 40 at Sanders was the major Arizona portion of US 666. Part of US 191 through the Navajo Nation is designated by the Arizona Department of Transportation as the Tse'nikani Flat Mesa Rock Scenic Road.
US 191 serves the eastern half of the state. The road enters Utah in a remote portion of the Navajo Nation; the highway passes through desolate areas of eastern Utah. Several portions are Utah Scenic Byways, it passes through Bluff, Blanding and Moab, the largest city in southeastern Utah and the seat of Grand County. In addition to linking many rural towns in Utah to I-70 and US 40, the highway served to interconnect several national and state parks for tourism, namely Canyonlands National Park, Arches National Park, Bears Ears National Monument, Dead Horse Point State Park; the highway exits Utah just after crossing the Flaming Gorge Reservoir. US 191 enters Wyoming near a geographical feature known as Minnie's Gap, just east of Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area; the route proceeds north through rugged desert country following an alignment constructed during the 1970s, to a junction with Interstate 80 at Exit 99, just west of Rock Springs. This segment of the route is known locally as "East Flaming Gorge Road."
The route is concurrent with Interstate 80 eastward for five miles, passing just north of Rock Springs. US 191 diverges northward at Exit 104, following the former route of US 187. Traveling through high desert country, the route passes through Eden and Pinedale before meeting US 189 at Daniel Junction. Continuing north, the road traverses mountainous terrain, entering the Bridger-Teton National Forest and passing through the small community of Bondurant before descending through the narrow Hoback River Canyon to an intersection with US 26 and US 89 at Hoback Junction; the route follows the Snake River valley northward to Jackson. US 191 is concurrent with US 189 between Daniel Junction and Jackson, with US 26 and US 89 between Hoback Junction and Jackson. North of Jackson, US 191 soon enters Grand Teton National Park, running concurrently with US 26 and US 89; the highway meets US 287 at Moran Junction, inside the park. Continuing through forested, mountainous country, the route passes through the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, from Yellowstone National Park's South Entrance to the state line, the route is unsigned.
No official routing of US 191 through Yellowstone has been designated as of 2016. US 191 in Montana begins at the West Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, at the edge of the town of West Yellowstone; the highway heads north, running concurrently with US 287 for eight miles before veering east and entering Yellowstone. US 191 continues northward through Yellowstone, traversing forested, mountainous terrain and looping into the state of Wyoming, before leaving the park in the upper reaches of the Gallatin River canyon; the route travels northward through the narrow canyon, past the resort community of Big Sky entering the Gallatin Valley near the town of Gallatin Gateway, Montana. US 191 travels north and east through the valley to the city of Bozeman, the largest city along the entire US 191 route. From Bozeman, US 191 is concurrent with I-90 eastward 58 miles to Big Timber, where it proceeds north; the road travels through hilly ranch country near the eastern edge of the Crazy Mountains to Harlowton, where US 191 is concurrent with US 12.
North of Harlowton, US 191 is concurrent with Montana Highway 3 for 37 miles, to Eddie's Corner. US 191 proceeds eastward from Eddie's Corner to Lewistown, on a roadway shared wi
Interstate 70 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from I-15 near Cove Fort, Utah, to I-695 near Baltimore, Maryland. I-70 traces the path of U. S. Route 40 east of the Rocky Mountains. West of the Rockies, the route of I-70 was derived from multiple sources; the Interstate runs through or near many major cities, including Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, Columbus and Baltimore; the sections of the interstate in Missouri and Kansas have laid claim to be the first interstate in the United States. The Federal Highway Administration has claimed the section of I-70 through Glenwood Canyon, completed in 1992, was the last piece of the Interstate Highway system, as planned, to open to traffic; the construction of I-70 in Colorado and Utah is considered an engineering marvel, as the route passes through the Eisenhower Tunnel, Glenwood Canyon, the San Rafael Swell. The Eisenhower Tunnel is the highest point along the Interstate Highway system, with an elevation of 11,158 ft. Interstate 70 begins at an interchange with Interstate 15 near Cove Fort.
Heading east, I-70 crosses between the Tushar and Pahvant ranges via Clear Creek Canyon and descends into the Sevier Valley, where I-70 serves Richfield, the only town of more than a few hundred people along I-70's path in Utah. Upon leaving the valley near Salina, I-70 crosses the 7,923 ft Salina Summit and crosses a massive geologic formation called the San Rafael Swell. Prior to the construction of I-70, the swell was inaccessible via paved roads and undiscovered. Once this 108 mi section was opened to traffic in 1970, it became the longest stretch of interstate highway with no services and the first highway in the U. S. built over a new route since the Alaska Highway. It became the longest piece of interstate highway to be opened at one time. Although opened in 1970, this section was not formally complete until 1990, when a second steel arch bridge spanning Eagle Canyon was opened to traffic. Since I-70's construction, the swell has been noted for its desolate beauty; the swell has since been nominated for National Park or National Monument status on multiple occasions.
If the swell is granted this status, it arguably would be the first time a National Park owes its existence to an interstate highway. Most of the exits in this span are rest areas, brake check areas, runaway truck ramps with few traditional freeway exits. I-70 exits the swell near Green River. From Green River to the Colorado state line, I-70 follows the southern edge of the Book Cliffs. Entering from Utah, I-70 descends into the Grand Valley, where it meets the Colorado River, which provides its path up the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. Here I-70 serves the Grand Junction metro area before traversing more mountainous terrain; the last section of I-70 to be completed was the 15-mile Glenwood Canyon. This stretch was completed in 1992 and was an engineering marvel, due to the difficult terrain and narrow space in the canyon, which requires corners that are sharper than normal Interstate standards. Construction was delayed for many years due to environmental concerns; the difficulties in building the road in the canyon were compounded by the fact the Denver & Rio Grande Western railroad occupied the south bank, many temporary construction projects took place to keep US 6 open, at the time the only east–west road in the area.
Much of the highway is elevated above the Colorado River. The speed limit in this section is due to the limited sight distance and sharp corners; the Eisenhower–Johnson Memorial Tunnel, the highest vehicular tunnel in North America and the longest tunnel built under the Interstate program, passes through the Continental Divide. Because of the rugged and narrow terrain of the Rocky Mountains, I-70 is one of few roads connecting Colorado's ski resorts with Denver. Descending through the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains, one can see the Denver skyline on a clear day; this can fool truckers and other unsuspecting drivers, because one must still traverse 10 miles of steep grade road before reaching the city. A series of signs warns truckers of the steep grade; as I-70 leaves the foothills, it goes through Denver and intersects Interstate 25, serving as the central east-west artery through the city. Leaving Denver, I-70 levels out and traverses the wide plains through eastern Colorado. East of Denver, I-70 makes a broad turn to the south-southeast for 30 miles before reaching Limon and resuming its eastward journey toward Kansas.
Coming from Colorado, I-70 enters the prairie and rolling hills of Kansas. This portion of I-70 was the first segment to start being paved and to be completed in the Interstate Highway System, it is given the nickname "Main Street of Kansas", as the interstate extends from the western border to the eastern border of the state, covering 424 miles and passing through most of the state's principal cities in the process. In Salina, I-70 intersects with I-135, the longest "spur" route in the Interstate system, forming the latter's northern terminus. In Topeka, I-70 intersects I-470, twice. At the eastern intersection, the Kansas Turnpike merges, with I-70 becoming a toll road; this is one of only two sections of I-70. I-70 carries this designation from Topeka to the eastern terminus of the turnpike. About halfway between Topeka and Kansas City, Kansas, I-70 passes through Lawrence; the tolled portion of the turnpike ends near Bonner Springs, just west of Kansas City. There is a third child route in Topeka, I-335, which runs from I-470 south to meet up wit
James David Matheson is an American politician who served as a United States Representative from Utah from 2001 to 2015. He represented Utah's 2nd district from 2001 to 2013 and its 4th district from 2013 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party, he held the distinction of being the only Democratic congressman from Utah and represented a more Republican-leaning district than any other Democratic member of Congress. On December 17, 2013, Matheson announced. There was speculation that Matheson, a moderate Democrat, might run in 2016 for Governor of Utah or for the Utah U. S. Senate seat coming open but this did not happen. In 2015, he joined the law firm of Squire Patton Boggs as a lobbyist. On June 13, 2016 he was named the CEO of National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, a trade organization for rural electric cooperatives, on July 19, he succeeded fellow former Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Matheson was born in Salt Lake City and obtained an A. B. from Harvard College and his M. B. A. from the UCLA Anderson School of Management.
His father, Scott M. Matheson, served as governor of Utah from 1977 to 1985, his brother, Scott Matheson, Jr. was the 2004 Democratic nominee for Governor. Matheson is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Prior to entering politics, Matheson worked in the energy field, working for several different companies and studying environmental policy, he started his own energy consulting firm. His wife, Amy, is a pediatrician and they have two sons and Harris, he joined a group, in favor of increased compensation for people who were affected by the radiation from Cold War atomic testing. The radioactive fallout from nuclear tests caused the cancer. Matheson was co-chairman of the Blue Dog Coalition, a conservative group of 25 Democrats in the House, he was a member of the New Democrat Coalition. During his congressional tenure, he was the only Democrat in Utah's Congressional Delegation. During his time in Congress, Matheson was conservative by national party standards. In the National Journal ratings in 2010, Matheson was more conservative than 51% of his colleagues, but more liberal than 49%, making him one of the most conservative Democrats, yet a centrist overall.
On November 3, Matheson voted against requiring public disclosure of bonuses and golden parachute arrangements. This was a bill that the Democrats supported and the Republicans opposed. In March 2007, Matheson was one of 14 Democrats who voted against a bill that would require President George W. Bush to bring combat troops home from Iraq by September 1, 2008. Matheson voted in favor of the wars in the Middle East, having voted for the 2003 Iraq invasion and opposing the bill to remove troops from Libya in 2011 and Pakistan in 2010, he did, vote in favor of requiring a time-table for withdrawal from Afghanistan, after opposing the bill in two previous votes. In 2011, Matheson voted to extend expiring provisions of the PATRIOT Act and voted in favor of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. Matheson supports expanding federal funding for embryonic stem cell research, he was rated 55% from National Right to Life Committee indicating a mixed record on abortion and 30% from NARAL indicating a pro-life voting record.
However, Matheson's NARAL Pro-Choice America rating dropped to 0% in 2010, while he garnered a 50% rating from the National Right to Life Committee. Matheson voted against raising the federal debt limit, as well as against both Republican and Democratic budgets that did not reduce the deficit. Matheson, a former energy industry businessman, voted against authorizing the construction of new oil refineries. Matheson was a strong supporter of Wall Street regulation, voting in favor of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the strongest set of Wall Street reforms since the 1930s. In a comment on this legislation, Matheson stated, "Nearly two years ago the subprime mortgage meltdown triggered the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. We've been living under the same set of rules that were in place before the financial crisis sparked the job-killing recession. Now, about to change."In July 2011, Matheson was one of five Democrats to vote for the Cut and Balance Act.
In January 2013, Matheson was one of sixteen Democrats that voted against the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the last minute solution to the U. S. fiscal cliff. Matheson released a statement saying that "to address the fiscal cliff, legislation must include a strong framework for real deficit reduction. Sadly, this bill falls short." Matheson is opposed to the No Child Left Behind Act, believing that education is a local issue and federal funds should come with minimal strings attached. Matheson believes that the "Highly Qualified Teacher" requirements should be more flexible, that states should have alternative options to the single standardized test used in No Child Left Behind. In November 2009, during intense debates over American health care reform, Matheson voted against the Affordable Health Care for America Act; when President Obama named Matheson's brother Scott M. Matheson to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit at a time where he needed Matheson's vote for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, The Weekly Standard posted an article that said "Barack Obama will host ten House Democrats who voted against the health care bill in November at the White House.
Charles Augustus Steen, was a geologist who made and lost a fortune after discovering a rich uranium deposit in Utah during the uranium boom of the early 1950s. Charlie Steen was born in 1919 in Caddo, Stephens County, the son of Charles A. and Rosalie Wilson Steen, attended high school in Houston. As a teen Steen worked summers for a construction company that helped finance his education, this is the same company that his first stepfather Lisle had died working at, he went on to study at John Tarleton Agricultural College in Stephenville, Texas where he met his wife Minnie Lee Holland, in 1940 transferred to the Texas College of Mines and Metallurgy, receiving a B. A. degree in geology in 1943. Ineligible for the draft because of his poor eyesight, Steen spent World War II working as a petroleum geologist in the Amazon Basin of Bolivia and Peru. Returning to Texas in 1945, he married Minnie Lee, he started graduate school at the University of Chicago but after a year returned to Houston to take a job doing field work for the Standard Oil Company of Indiana.
However, within two years he had been fired for insubordination and had trouble getting any job as a geologist anywhere in the oil industry. Down on his luck, Steen read in the December 1949 issue of The Engineering and Mining Journal that the United States federal government had issued incentives for domestic uranium prospectors. Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission had the authority to withdraw lands from the private sector in order to examine them as possible sites for uranium mining. During World War II, the Manhattan Project had received most of its uranium from foreign sources in Canada and the Belgian Congo. However, it had received some from vanadium miners in the American Southwest, where uranium was a by-product of mining. There was a concern that the United States would not have enough domestic supply of uranium for its nuclear weapons program. In the late 1940s and early 1950s the Atomic Energy Commission established itself as the only legal buyer of uranium in the U.
S. and artificially manipulated prices to reflect their current uranium needs. By raising the price of uranium, they created an incentive for prospectors in the Four Corners region. Despite the fact that his three sons, Johnny and Charles Jr. were all less than four years old and his wife was expecting another child, Steen borrowed $1,000 from his mother and headed for the Colorado Plateau, determined to strike it rich. After being in Colorado for several months the Steens moved into a tarpaper shack in Utah. Steen and his family were struggling to get by and were hungry so Charlie made the decision to move his family to Tucson, Arizona. Steen worked as a carpenter in Tucson for about a year, he and his family headed to their claims. This final trip back to Utah would be the most detrimental for the family because M. L. Steen's wife contracted pneumonia, her medical bills consumed the $350 remaining from the sale of Steen's trailer. Steen could not afford the standard radiation-detecting equipment used by uranium prospectors - the Geiger counter.
Instead, he used his geologic training for his prospecting. At the time, each prospector had his own idiosyncratic theory about; the uranium industry was composed of individual prospectors and geologists who would attempt to find a large deposit and either mine it for themselves or mine it for a large company who would transport the ore from the mine to the uranium mill where it could be converted into yellowcake. Steen's theory on uranium deposits was that they would collect in anticlinal structures in the same manner as oil, which others on the Plateau dismissed as "Steen's Folly." On July 6, 1952, Steen hit it big but he didn't realize until three weeks later. He was drilling down through the layers of sandstone when his drill bit broke off at a depth of 197 feet, just 3 feet short of his goal. Finding this massive deposit of uranium ore only became apparent when he took a piece of the blackish core he found while drilling weeks earlier back to Cisco, he stopped to fill up his jeep and decided to have the core tested by a friend with a Geiger counter and they found that the piece made the Geiger counter needle go crazy.
The high grade uranium deposit was located at Big Indian Wash of Lisbon Valley, southeast of Moab, Utah.. Sometimes recognized as one of the most important deposits of any kind found during the last century, Steen named the claim the "Mi Vida" mine; the Mi Vida mine was one of the first big strikes of the uranium boom. Steen made millions off his claims, provoked a "Uranium Rush" of prospectors into the Four Corners region, similar to the Gold Rush of the 1850s in California. In Moab, Steen built a $250,000 hilltop mansion to replace his tarpaper shack, with a swimming pool and servants' quarters; the home he built still stands today and has been transformed into a restaurant called The Sunset Grill named so because the house looks over the valley towards the sunset in the west. He formed a number of companies to continue his uranium work, including the Utex Exploration Company, the Moab Drilling Company, the Mi Vida Company, Big Indian Mines, Inc. and the Uranium Reduction Company. He made his money well known, inviting the entire population of Moab to annual parties in a local airport hangar, having his original worn prospecting boots bronzed, flying to Salt Lake City in his private plane for weekly rumba lessons.
He donated $50,000 towards a n