Mobile Downtown Airport
Mobile Downtown Airport is a public use airport located three nautical miles south of the central business district of Mobile, a city in Mobile County, United States. The airport is a principal component of the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley, a 1,650-acre industrial complex, it is operated by the Mobile Airport Authority. Prior to 1969, the airport was part of an active military installation known as Brookley Air Force Base. According to the FAA's National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2009–2013, it is categorized as a general aviation facility; this was a change from the 2007 -- 2011 NPIAS Report. The airport has a control tower and has both a 9,600-by-150-foot runway and a 7,800-by-150-foot runway. Various instrument approaches to all runways are available, including an on-site VORTAC and instrument landing system; the complex is served by Signature Flight Services. Starting in late 2018, the Mobile Airport Authority began renovating an underutilized building occupied by Airbus into a low cost carrier passenger airport facility termed "Terminal 1."
Upon opening May 1, 2019, Terminal 1 will house five ticket counters. Frontier Airlines Flight 410 from Chicago's O'Hare International Airport will be the first scheduled revenue flight arriving at the facility, on May 1. In the summer of 2019, the authority plans to take over the remaining space in the building to build out Terminal 1. After this build-out, Terminal 1 will have additional holding and concession space; the total square footage will be around 50,000 square feet. Terminal 1 is located at the southern terminus of Michigan Avenue in the Brookley complex, less than 1 mile south of Interstate 10. For the 12-month period ending January 31, 2010, the airport had 82,820 aircraft operations, an average of 226 per day: 49% general aviation, 43% military, 5% air taxi, 3% scheduled commercial. At that time there were 34 aircraft based at this airport: 65% single-engine, 18% multi-engine, 15% jet and 3% helicopter. In 2018, the Mobile Airport Authority commissioned a study on whether to move passenger service to Downtown Airport from Mobile Regional Airport and announced ViaAir would start a route to Orlando in the spring.
Frontier Airlines plans to begin service in May 2019. Commercial Cargo List of airports in Alabama Aviation Photos: Mobile - Downtown from Airliners.net Aerial image as of 4 March 2002 from USGS The National Map FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for BFM, effective March 28, 2019 AC-U-KWIK information for KBFM Resources for this airport: AirNav airport information for KBFM ASN accident history for BFM FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KBFM FAA current BFM delay information
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk; these risks are the product of a combination of vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as in the case of uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater in developing countries than in industrialized countries; the word disaster is derived from Middle French désastre and that from Old Italian disastro, which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek pejorative prefix δυσ-, "bad" and ἀστήρ, "star".
The root of the word disaster comes from an astrological sense of a calamity blamed on the position of planets. Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, for more than forty years disaster research; the studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate emergency management measures. Hazards are divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster. A classic example is an earthquake. A natural disaster is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
Various phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, blizzards and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. However, the rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration in hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of disasters. With the tropical climate and unstable landforms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth proliferation, non-engineered constructions make the disaster-prone areas more vulnerable. Developing countries suffer more or less chronically from natural disasters due to ineffective communication combined with insufficient budgetary allocation for disaster prevention and management. Human-instigated disasters are the consequence of human hazards. Examples include stampedes, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills, nuclear explosions/nuclear radiation. War and deliberate attacks may be put in this category.
Other types of man-made disasters include the more cosmic scenarios of catastrophic global warming, nuclear war, bioterrorism. The following table notes first response initiatives. Note that whereas the sources of a disaster may be natural or man-made, the results may be similar; the Disaster Roundtable of the National Academy of Sciences EM-DAT International Disaster Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System – The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System is a joint initiative of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the European Commission UN-SPIDER – UN-SPIDER, the United Nations Programme for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response], a project of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
Azalea Trail Maids
The Azalea Trail Maids are a group of fifty high school seniors chosen yearly to serve as "Official Ambassadors" for the city of Mobile, Alabama. The Maids, wearing extravagant antebellum-style dresses meant to look like flowers, make appearances at many local and national events, they serve as greeters when foreigners and dignitaries visit the city, are required to be knowledgeable about the city landmarks and history. In addition, they must have a good grade point average to be accepted and have great interview skills; the Maids are selected through a dual interview process, interviewing at the school and county level. Hundreds of girls try out, but only fifty become Azalea Trail Maids; the Maids are meant to embody the ideals of "Southern hospitality", appeared at the inauguration of United States President Barack Obama. The group gained its name from Mobile's Azalea Trail, a garden trail within the city; the trail traces its beginnings to an effort by the Mobile Junior Chamber of Commerce during the 1920s that saw the planting of azaleas along the city's streets.
Following the establishment of the trail, dignitaries were invited to open the trail each spring, with local debutantes serving as event hostesses. This arrangement changed with the establishment of the first Azalea Trail Court; the court featured two senior girls sent from each of the four local high schools. The Azalea Trail Festival was established in 1951, with additional girls from neighboring Jaycees organizations invited to serve on the court. During this period the reigning Miss America served on the court as the Queen of the Azalea Trail; the event became so popular that, by the mid-1950s, each Jaycee chapter in Alabama, a few from other states, had a representative at the festival. It was decided to limit the size of the court to fifty senior girls from Mobile County high schools; the court has remained in this arrangement since that time. A new program was started for the out-of-town girls, leading directly to the establishment of America's Junior Miss. Controversy erupted in January 2009, after the group was invited by the inauguration committee of Barack Obama to represent Alabama in the inaugural parade.
The president of the Alabama State Conference of the NAACP, Edward Vaughn, made the statements that another group should represent Alabama in the parade to better reflect the history of the state, that the antebellum-style costumes that the Maids wear are a reminder of the slave era, that the group would be a “laughingstock.” Advocates of the Maids defended the organization, citing that the dresses are meant to represent azalea blossoms and that the group is racially diverse. Following Vaughn's comments Sam Jones, the first African American mayor of Mobile, issued a written statement: The Azalea Trail girls represent the beauty of Mobile. After all, we are the Azalea city. We are proud of their participation in President-elect Barack Obama's inauguration and can think of no better group that represents the character and diversity of our city to showcase at this historic event; as it relates to diversity, we would compare Mobile with any city in the state of Alabama. We are a diverse city representing people from all walks of life.
These girls epitomize that, they are excellent ambassadors for Mobile. Alvin Holmes, Alabama's longest-serving African American state legislator, commented that: I think it would be better for the image of the state of Alabama to have another group participate also. We have some top high school bands around the state of Alabama, but the fact that the Trail Maids are integrated, makes it okay to me. They didn't have anything to do with slavery; the Mobile County Commission gave US$10,000 to help fund the Maids' trips to the inauguration. Vaughn apologized for calling the group a laughingstock, but continued to express his view that an additional group from Alabama representing the civil rights movement should march with the Maids for the inauguration of the first African American president of the United States. A segment concerning the controversy was filmed for NBC's Today show, but never aired because of other news coverage; the Maids participated in the parade on January 20, 2009. Azalea Trail Maid costumes
Mobile Regional Airport
Mobile Regional Airport is a public/military airport 13 miles west of Mobile, in Mobile County, Alabama. The airport is owned and operated by the Mobile Airport Authority, a self-funded entity that receives no local tax dollars; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. Federal Aviation Administration records show the airport had 286,956 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 280,491 in 2009 and 277,232 in 2010; the airport is home to U. S. Coast Guard Aviation Training Center, providing advanced training to U. S. Coast Guard pilots and aircrew in MH-65D Dolphin and MH-60T Jayhawk helicopters, as well as the HC-144A/B Ocean Sentry turboprop aircraft; the Alabama Army National Guard's 1st Battalion, 131st Aviation Regiment's "B" Company is located at the airport. Eastern Air Lines served Mobile from the 1930s until 1991. During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces used Mobile Regional Airport; the 533d Army Air Force Base Unit commanded the airport known as Bates Field.
The Army Air Forces operated an auxiliary airfield at St. Elmo Airport; the Army used this airport under contract to Waterman Airlines. They performed flying training with Fairchild PT-19 aircraft as the primary trainer; the Army assigned several Boeing-Stearman Model 75 aircraft. The Army used Bates for glider pilot training under contract to Mobile Area Soaring, which used Douglas C-47 Skytrain and Waco CG-4 unpowered gliders; the school aimed to train student pilots in proficiency in operation of gliders in various types of towed and soaring flight, both day and night, in servicing of gliders in the field. In 1944 with the reduced demand for pilots, the Army ended the flying training, Domestic Transport Division of Air Transport Command used the airport as a transport airfield. Air Transport Command moved operations to Brookley Army Airfield near downtown Mobile in late 1945; the U. S. Air Force returned to Bates Field in May 1959 when the Air Force Reserve activated the 78th Troop Carrier Squadron at the airport with Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar aircraft.
In 1961, the Air Force moved this squadron to Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana as a Douglas C-124 Globemaster II heavy-lift squadron. The 357th Troop Carrier Squadron replaced it and acquired the C-119s; the Air Force subsequently upgraded Bates to a Group level upon organizing the 908th Troop Carrier Group, Medium in 1963. However, the Air Force moved the reservists to the larger Brookley Air Force Base located near downtown Mobile in October 1964 due to budget restraints. In 1966 the U. S. Coast Guard acquired the vacant U. S. Air Force Reserve facility on the airfield. On December 17, 1966, the Coast Guard commissioned an Air Station in Mobile with Grumman HU-16 Albatross fixed wing aircraft from the Coast Guard's Air Station in nearby Biloxi, MS; the Coast Guard established a fixed wing and helicopter training facility at the airport. U. S. Coast Guard Air Station Mobile serves as an Aviation Training Center with a designated headquarters unit, under the direct control of the Commandant of the Coast Guard.
Eastern Airlines was first at Mobile, at the airport south of town until about 1941 when it and National moved to the present airport. In the 1960s Eastern Airlines flew Lockheed L-188 Electras to Mobile Boeing 727-100s and Douglas DC-9s to Atlanta. Eastern served Mobile until its demise in 1991. National Airlines Jacksonville-New Orleans flights stopped at the airport south of Mobile starting about 1939. National Lockheed L-188 Electras appeared in 1962-63. After its acquisition of National, Pan Am 727s served the airport until 1981. Capital Airlines began Mobile flights in 1948. Mobile's first jets were United Sud Aviation Caravelles to Newark via Birmingham in April 1962. United ended mainline service to Mobile in 1971, but United Express regional jets still serve the airport. Southern Airways arrived at Mobile in 1950-51. Southern merged with North Central Airlines to form Republic Airlines, acquired by Northwest Airlines which continued at Mobile with DC-9s to the Northwest hub in Memphis. Northwest merged into Delta Air Lines.
Starting in 1981 American Airlines Boeing 727-200s flew to Dallas/Fort Worth Airport via Jackson, MS or New Orleans, LA. American flew to its hub in Nashville from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s before the airline closed that hub. USAir flew nonstop to Charlotte, NC in the mid 1990s with McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s and Fokker 100s. Texas International arrived in 1979. Continental has since merged into United Airlines; the MC Farmer Terminal was completed in 1985. United Airlines via United Express served Mobile from its hubs in Chicago and Washington D. C.. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, United canceled all service at Mobile. United Express has since reinstated nonstop service to Chicago and flies nonstop to Houston after the merger of United with Continental Airlines. All United Express flights at Mobile are regional jets. In 2006 Delta Air Lines
Austal USA is the American branch of operations for Australian shipbuilder Austal. The facility, based on Blakeley Island in Mobile, Alabama employed more than 3,100 workers in early 2012, has since grown to a little over 4,000 employees and contractors as of 2016. Due to expanded shipbuilding contracts from the United States Navy, the company announced in March 2012 that it planned to invest an additional $160 million in upgrades to its facilities and to increase its workforce to 4,000 employees in the next few years; the company built the Lake Express for service across Lake Michigan, the Alakai for Hawaii Superferry. Huakai, the second high-speed vehicle-passenger catamaran for Hawaii Superferry has been launched at Austal USA. At 113 meters long, the new vessel is 6 meters longer than the Alakai, thanks to a bi-fold ramp, added by Austal to its stern, for use in austere ports without shore-side loading facilities, making it suitable for military use; the National Geographic Channel series MegaStructures featured an episode in September 2007 that detailed the construction and sea trials of the Alakai, the first catamaran Hawaii Superferry.
Austal USA is currently constructing the Independence class of littoral combat ships for the United States Navy, based on a 127 m advanced trimaran seaframe, with one completed and a second under construction as of 2010. In March 2015, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus testified before Congress that the Navy intends to purchase a total of 52 the vessels; the final 20 will be upgraded with new capabilities. The cost of each ship is about $350 million, it was announced on November 12, 2008 that Austal USA had won a U. S. Navy contract to build ten high-speed transport ships, known as the Spearhead class Joint High Speed Vessel; the design, with a catamaran seaframe, is drawn from the Austal-built MV Westpac Express. Unlike the Littoral Combat Ship, the Joint High Speed Vessel will be for transport, not combat; the bankruptcy of Hawaii Superferry and the construction problems on their first Littoral Combat Ship reduced Austal's profit margin to only $9.2 million on revenue of $500 million in 2009. On July 22, 2010, Austal USA hosted a keel-laying ceremony at its shipyard in Mobile, Alabama to signify the erection of the first modules on USAV Spearhead, lead ship in the 10-ship Joint High Speed Vessel program, The JHSV program has a potential worth of over $1.6 billion for the company.
On December 27, 2012, the navy awarded its final option under its current contract, ordered JHSV-10. On March 31, 2015, Austal USA signed a contract with US Navy worth $691 million for two Independence-class ships. Shipyard builds for the Independence class is in Alabama. Under this contract, the company plans to request three LCSs per year through 2025. Austal USA signed a contract for 10 Joint High Speed Vessels. One of them, the Trenton completed acceptance trials March 13 and was delivered on April 13, 2015 to the Navy's Military Sealift Command. On May 5, 2016, Austal USA has been awarded a $18.5 million contract from the Navy for the 12th Expeditionary Fast Transport vessel. Austral has been selected as one of the five finalists entered for the FFG competition for the US Navy's new class of 20 frigates. In April 2017 Austal unveiled a larger more armed design based on the proven Independence LCS trimaran hull called the "Austal Frigate". Following complaints from the Sheet Metal Workers' International Association, Austal USA has twice been found to have engaged in unfair labor practices with respect to the organizing effort of unions by the National Labor Relations Board.
Unionization had been rejected by employees in elections held in May 2002 and April 2008. A third attempt in August 2011 was again rejected with a vote of 613 against unionization to 367 for it; the SMWIA filed a new complaint with the labor board after the result. In March 2008, the company was sued by 22 employees for alleged racial discrimination and a hostile work environment; the company was found not guilty in separate discrimination trials that culminated in October 2011 and January 2012. A request for a new discrimination trial was rejected in March 2012 by a federal court. After appeals, seven of the plaintiffs were allowed to proceed to trial. Juries found in favor of Austal USA in April 2015. Austal USA Website
A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, may include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships. Wharfs are considered to be a series of docks in which boats are stationed. A wharf comprises a fixed platform on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as interim storage: where it is sufficient a single wharf with a single berth constructed along the land adjacent to the water is used. A pier, raised over the water rather than within it, is used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on flotation devices to keep them at the same level as the ship during changing tides. In everyday parlance the term quay is common in the United Kingdom, Canada and many other Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland, whereas the term wharf is more common in the United States.
In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean berth, or jetty. In old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as "wharves"; the term was carried over from marine usage. The person, resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a "wharfinger". One explanation is that the word wharf comes from the Old English "warft" or the Old Dutch word "werf", which both evolved to mean "yard", an outdoor place where work is done, like a shipyard or a lumberyard. Werf or werva in Old Dutch referred to inhabited ground, not yet built on, or alternatively to a terp; this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that many places in England with "wharf" in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence, for example the Norfolk broads. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used.
The two terms have had a geographical distinction: those to the north in the Kingdom of Northumbria used the Old English spelling staith, southern sites of the Danelaw took the Danish spelling staithe. Both referred to jetties or wharves. In time, the northern coalfields of Northumbria developed coal staiths for loading coal onto ships and these would adopt the staith spelling as a distinction from simple wharves: for example, Dunston Staiths in Gateshead and Brancaster Staithe in Norfolk. However, the term staith may be used to refer only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships and barges. Quay, on the other hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key, keye or caye; this in turn came from the Old Norman cai, both meaning "sand bank". The Old French term came from Gaulish caium tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose".
Modern cognates include Welsh cae "fence, hedge" and Cornish ke "hedge", the Dutch kade. Bollard Canal basin Dock Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro