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Mobipocket

Mobipocket SA was a French company incorporated in March 2000 that created the.mobi e-book file format and produced the Mobipocket Reader software for mobile phones, personal digital assistants and desktop operating systems. The Mobipocket software package was free and consisted of various publishing and reading tools for PDAs, mobile phones, the e-readers Kindle and iLiad, applications on devices using Symbian, Palm OS, Java ME and Psion. Amazon.com bought Mobipocket.com in 2005 and kept it running until October 2016, when it permanently shut down the Mobipocket website and servers. Amazon.com bought Mobipocket.com in 2005. Amazon's acquisition was believed to be a result of Adobe Systems' announcement that it would no longer sell its eBook-packaging and -serving software. An alpha release of the Java-based version of the Mobipocket reader became available for cellphones on June 30, 2008. There is a reader for desktop computers running Microsoft Windows, which works with computers running Mac OS X or Linux using Wine.

It has been reported that since Amazon's acquisition of Mobipocket, software support, user support, platform growth ended. In December 2011 Amazon officially notified the book publishers that it was ending support for Mobipocket; the status of Mobipocket Digital Rights Management content purchased by users remains unclear since no other ebook-reader supports its proprietary DRM method. On October 31, 2016, Amazon permanently shut down servers; the software provides: A personalized press review using the Mobipocket Web Companion, an automated content extraction tool dedicated to press articles. EBooks, including for each book a biography of the writer; each downloaded eBook is registered in the My Mobipocket personal virtual library, from which a user has access to any downloaded eBook. A secure reading system, as a result of the encryption of eBooks using DRM and unique signature, a timestamp added to each book at the time of purchase. Depending on the device, different functions are available.

Those are managing of books and their metadata, assigning books to arbitrary categories, auto-scroll, rotate by 90° or 180°, custom hyperlinks within one or between different documents, comments and by sketches. When transferring documents to other device types, functions that are not supported on the device will be ignored, but the information one is reading will not be altered or deleted; each book has two language attribute. As a typical example, reading a book in Fr language, a word may be selected and asked to translate with Fr → En dictionary provided the appropriate dictionary is installed on the reader-device. Dictionaries are always unidirectional so Fr → En dictionary cannot be used in reverse - a separate En → Fr dictionary is needed for that. There is a reader for personal computers that works with either encrypted or unencrypted Mobipocket books. Unencrypted Mobipocket books can be read on the Amazon Kindle natively, as well as in Amazon Kindle programs on Mac OS X, iOS devices, Android devices and Windows Phone devices.

By using third-party programs such as Lexcycle Stanza, calibre or Okular, unencrypted Mobipocket books can be read on Mac OS X, iOS, Android devices and Linux. Third party tools exist to decrypt encrypted Mobipocket books, allowing them to be read using software that does not support encryption. A user can thus create documents in the Mobipocket format.mobi and use personal comments and more on all devices supporting those features. Additionally, Amazon offers a free program called KindleGen that can convert or create documents in the Mobipocket format. User-added information, such as annotations and bookmarks, are kept in separate ".mbp" files by the official Mobipocket Reader and Kindle applications. In October 2012, Amazon introduced an encrypted variant of the file, preventing access to the information by third-party applications. Mobipocket has not released a version for Android. Owners of Android devices can download Amazon's Kindle application from the Android App store, which can read.mobi files, though no official Mobipocket reader for the Android platform has been released.

Long term plans for the Mobipocket platform are in question in the wake of Amazon's announcement of the Kindle Format 8, which moves in the direction of HTML5 and CSS3. As one of the most popular e-readers, the Kindle has great sway in the popularity of e-reader formats; the Amazon Kindle's AZW format is just the Mobipocket format with a different serial number scheme. In late 2011, the Kindle Fire introduced "Kindle Format 8" known as AZW3 file format that supports a subset of HTML5 and CSS3 features, while acting as a container for a backwards-compatible MOBI content document. Comparison of e-book formats List of e-book readers Last available Internet Archive save of the Mobipocket Website. Official website

CANopen

CANopen is a communication protocol and device profile specification for embedded systems used in automation. In terms of the OSI model, CANopen implements the layers above and including the network layer; the CANopen standard consists of an addressing scheme, several small communication protocols and an application layer defined by a device profile. The communication protocols have support for network management, device monitoring and communication between nodes, including a simple transport layer for message segmentation/desegmentation; the lower level protocol implementing the data link and physical layers is Controller Area Network, although devices using some other means of communication can implement the CANopen device profile. The basic CANopen device and communication profiles are given in the CiA 301 specification released by CAN in Automation. Profiles for more specialized devices are built on top of this basic profile, are specified in numerous other standards released by CAN in Automation, such as CiA 401 for I/O-modules and CiA 402 for motion control.

Every CANopen device has to implement certain standard features in its controlling software. A communication unit implements the protocols for messaging with the other nodes in the network. Starting and resetting the device is controlled via a state machine, it must contain the states Initialization, Pre-operational and Stopped. The transitions between states are made by issuing a network management communication object to the device; the object dictionary is an array of variables with a 16-bit index. Additionally, each variable can have an 8-bit subindex; the variables can be used to configure the device and reflect its environment, i.e. contain measurement data. The application part of the device performs the desired function of the device, after the state machine is set to the operational state; the application is configured by variables in the object dictionary and the data are sent and received through the communication layer. CANopen devices must have an object dictionary, used for configuration and communication with the device.

An entry in the object dictionary is defined by: Index, the 16-bit address of the object in the dictionary Object name, a symbolic type of the object in the entry, such as an array, record, or simple variable Name, a string describing the entry Type, gives the datatype of the variable Attribute, which gives information on the access rights for this entry, this can be read/write, read-only or write-only The Mandatory/Optional field defines whether a device conforming to the device specification has to implement this object or notThe basic datatypes for object dictionary values such as booleans and floats are defined in the standard, as well as composite datatypes such as strings and records. The composite datatypes can be subindexed with an 8-bit index. For example, the device communication parameters, standardized in the basic device profile CiA 301 are mapped in the index range 0x1000–0x1FFF; the first few entries in this area are as follows: Given suitable tools, the content of the object dictionary of a device, based on an electronic data sheet, can be customized to a device configuration file to integrate the device into a specific CANopen network.

According to CiA 306, the format of the EDS-file is the INI file format. There is an upcoming XML-style format, described in CiA 311. CAN bus, the data link layer of CANopen, can only transmit short packages consisting of an 11-bit id, a remote transmission request bit and 0 to 8 bytes of data; the CANopen standard divides the 11-bit CAN frame id into a 4-bit function code and 7-bit CANopen node ID. This limits the number of devices in a CANopen network to 127. An extension to the CAN bus standard allows extended frame ids of 29 bits, but in practice CANopen networks big enough to need the extended id range are seen. In CANopen the 11-bit id of a CAN-frame is known as communication object identifier, or COB-ID. In case of a transmission collision, the bus arbitration used in the CAN bus allows the frame with the smallest id to be transmitted first and without a delay. Using a low code number for time critical functions ensures the lowest possible delay. Contents of an 11-bit CANopen frame: The data frame with an 11-bit identifier is called "base frame format".

The default CAN-ID mapping sorts frames by attributing a function code to the first 4 bits, so that critical functions are given priority. This mapping can however be customized for special purposes; the standard reserves certain CAN-IDs to network SDO transfers. Some function codes and CAN-IDs have to be mapped to standard functionality after device initialization, but can be configured for other uses later. For simple network structures, CANopen supports a predefined allocation of message identifiers. Different kinds of communication models are used in the messaging between CANopen nodes. In a master/slave relationship, one CANopen node is designated as the master, which sends or requests data from the slaves; the NMT protocol is an example of a master/slave communication model. A client/server relationship is implemented in the SDO protocol, where the SDO client sends data (the object dictionary index and s

Martín Cortés de Albacar

Martín Cortés de Albacar was a Spanish cosmographer. In 1551 he published the standard navigational textbook Arte de navigar Cortés was born in Bujaraloz, province of Zaragoza, Aragon. From 1530, in Cádiz, he taught the art of navigation to pilots. Cortés' book, Breve compendio... Arte de navegar was promoted by Steven Borough who had it translated into English by Richard Eden and published in 1561 entitled The Art of Navigation; as such it became the first English manual of navigation and the primary text for European navigation throughout the early 17thC, enjoyed by such as Martin Frobisher and Francis Drake. Arte de navegar was a practical book in which Cortés discussed, in a concise manner, navigation and problems such as magnetic declination for which he hypothesised a Celestial magnetic pole, he included many models for making instruments. And the text contained the earliest known description of the Nocturnal and how to make and use a sea astrolabeCortés' calculations were critical in allowing explorers to ascertain their location when out of sight of land.

In 1574, the mathematician William Bourne, produced a popular version of the book, entitled A Regiment for the Sea. Bourne was critical of some aspects of Arte de Navegar and produced a manual of more practical use to the seaman, he died aged 72

Pedro de Castro, 1st Duke of la Conquista

Pedro de Castro y Figueroa, 1st Duke of la Conquista, 1st Marquess of Gracia Real, KOS, OSJ was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain from August 17, 1740 to August 22, 1741. As a result of successful military action, King Philip V of Spain made Castro- Figueroa y Salazar Alvarado marqués de Gracia Real on October 4, 1729. Charles VII, king of the Two Sicilies, granted him the title of duque de la Conquista on October 4, 1735. In Spain he was lieutenant colonel of the royal guards of the Infantería Española field marshal captain general of the armies, he was lord of the bedchamber to the king and president of the Real Audiencia. He was a knight of the military orders of San Gennaro, he was named viceroy of New Spain by Philip V in 1740 to replace Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta. The Dutch merchant ship transporting him to New Spain was taken by an English frigate near Puerto Rico, but he was able to launch a boat and, together with some other passengers, avoid being captured.

He did, lose all of his luggage, including his credentials and the royal orders and instructions, arriving in San Juan, Puerto Rico without papers. He made his way to Veracruz, where he arrived on June 30, 1740. From Veracruz he wrote to the archbishop of Mexico, he made his formal entry into Mexico City on August 17, 1740. To compensate him for his losses to the English, the Crown increased his salary to the amount received by the viceroy of Peru. During his period as viceroy, he worked to improve the mines at Zacatecas by improving the drainage system, supporting the missions in the Philippines, clearing obstructions from the port of Veracruz and deepening the harbor, paying the costs of the one thousand soldiers sent by Spain to Cuba to protect against the English; the new viceroy found the colony poorly defended and beset by the French from the north and the English on the Caribbean coasts. He reinforced the garrison of St. Augustine, Florida by provisions; the English, under Admiral Edward Vernon, had created havoc in the Spanish trade with the Indies, taking Portobelo, Panama in 1739, laying siege to Cartagena, which they did not succeed in taking.

Fearing that Veracruz was next, Castro y Figueroa ordered construction of new batteries at San Juan de Ulúa, more supplies, the drafting of a militia, the raising of a battalion of marines named La Corona. He went to Veracruz to supervise the new measures, but he soon came down with hemorrhagic dysentery, he was transported back to Mexico City, where he died August 22, 1741. The Audiencia took over the government of the colony pending the arrival of a new viceroy, with its president, Pedro Malo de Villavicencio, serving in an acting capacity until the arrival of Castro de Figueroa's replacement in 1742. Castro y Figueroa was interred in the convent of La Piedad, south of Mexico City. José de Escandón Lorenzo Boturini Bernaducci

Phạm Hồng Sơn

Phạm Hồng Sơn is a Vietnamese dissident. In 2003, he was sentenced to a 5 years imprisonment for political dissent against the government of Vietnam. Son graduated from medical school as a physician, but earned an MBA, he worked as a business manager for a pharmaceutical company in Hanoi. In 2001, he became an open advocate for democracy, posting pro-democracy articles and essays to Internet forums. In early 2002, he downloaded an essay from the US State Department's website titled "What is Democracy?" He translated the essay into Vietnamese and forwarded it to friends. He translated an essay of his own, titled "Encouraging Signs of Democracy" and written in French, forwarded it to both friends and Communist Party officials. On March 25, police interrogated him. In June 2003, he was sentenced to thirteen years in prison for espionage following a half-day trial; the prosecution accused Son of contact with "political opportunists" and "reactionary forces overseas". According to Human Rights Watch, his wife was the only witness called, she was only allowed to answer two yes-or-no questions.

In August, Son's sentence was reduced to five years' imprisonment. Foreign journalists and human rights observers were not allowed to attend either the original trial or the appeal. Reporters Without Borders condemned the imprisonment of Son and fellow online activists Nguyen Khac Toan and Nguyen Vu Binh stating that the men's "only crime was to express themselves on the Internet". On 7 April 2006, the US House of Representatives passed a resolution calling for Son's release as a condition of Vietnam joining the World Trade Organization; the European Union objected on Son's behalf. Amnesty International designated Son a prisoner of conscience and described Son's espionage conviction as "a travesty of justice". HRW called for his immediate release and awarded him one of its Hellman/Hammett grants, which support persecuted writers in need of financial assistance. More than 4000 Australians signed a petition calling for Son's release. In 2005, RSF reported; the Committee to Protect Journalists expressed concerns for Son's well-being, stating, "The harsh conditions of Pham Hong Son's imprisonment add to the cruel tally of human costs in Vietnam's continued repression of the media...

Authorities should release him and without condition and give him access to urgently needed medical attention as soon as possible."In 2003, Pham Hong Son, together with Nguyen Vu Binh, Le Chi Quang and Nguyen Khac Toan, were presented with Vietnam Human Rights Award by Vietnam Human Rights Network. Son was released from prison on 30 August 2006 as part of a general amnesty and placed under house arrest; the amnesty came three months in advance of Vietnam's hosting an Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Hanoi, Son stated to reporters that his release had been timed to improve the nation's image before the meeting. He pledged to continue working for democratic reform. On 5 April 2011, he was rearrested along with Le Quoc Quan when attempting to observe the trial of democracy activist Cu Huy Ha Vu; the pair were held for "causing public disorder". Son's wife Vu Thu Ha stated. Both were released without charge 13 April

Xu Caidong

Xu Caidong was a Chinese metallurgist and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Xu was born in Jiangxi, he graduated from Tangshan Engineering College, Chiao Tung University in 1943. He went to France in 1946 and obtained a doctor's degree from École Nationale Supérieure d'Électrochimie et d'Électrométallurgie de Grenoble in 1949. After returning to China, he joined the faculty of the Guizhou University School of Engineering in the same year, he joined Jiusan Society in 1956. Xu's research was focused on the physical chemistry of metallurgy, he operated the blast furnace in smelting mercury, the industrial synthesis of potassium permanganate by the electrolytical method, the industrial synthesis of calcium-magnesium phosphate in the shaft furnace. Xu was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1980, he became the vice-governor of Guizhou Province in 1983. He was elected as the executive vice chairman of the central committee of Jiusan Society in 1990, he was appointed as the president of Guizhou University in 1997 when Guizhou Agricultural College, the Guizhou Institute of Arts, the Guizhou Agricultural Cadre-Training School were merged into Guizhou University.

Xu died on 14 April 2016 in Beijing, at the age of 97