Nordic Mobile Telephone
NMT is the first automatic cellular phone system. It was specified by Nordic telecommunications administrations and opened for service on 1 October 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion and heavy requirements of the manual mobile phone networks: ARP in Finland, MTD in Sweden and Denmark, OLT in Norway. NMT is based on analogue technology and two variants exist: NMT-450 and NMT-900; the numbers indicate. NMT-900 carries more channels than the older NMT-450 network; the NMT specifications were free and open, allowing many companies to produce NMT hardware and pushing prices down. The success of NMT was important to Ericsson. First Danish implementers were Storno and AP. Initial NMT phones were designed to mount in the trunk of a car, with a keyboard/display unit at the driver's seat. "Portable" versions existed, though they were still bulky, with battery life still being a big problem. Models such as Benefon's were as small as 100 mm and weighed only about 100 grams; the NMT network was opened in Sweden and Norway in 1981, in Denmark and Finland in 1982.
Iceland joined in 1986. However, Ericsson introduced the first commercial service in Saudi Arabia on 1 September 1981 to 1,200 users, as a pilot test project, one month before they did the same in Sweden. By 1985 the network had grown to 110,000 subscribers in Scandinavia and Finland, 63,300 in Norway alone, which made it the world's largest mobile network at the time; the NMT network has been used in the Nordic countries, Baltic countries, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Turkey, Bosnia, Ukraine and in Asia. The introduction of digital mobile networks such as GSM has reduced the popularity of NMT and the Nordic countries have suspended their NMT networks. In Estonia the NMT network was shut down in December 2000. In Finland TeliaSonera's NMT network was suspended on 31 December 2002. Norway's last NMT network was suspended on 31 December 2004. Sweden's TeliaSonera NMT network was suspended on 31 December 2007; the NMT network however has one big advantage over GSM, the range.
In Iceland, the GSM network reaches 98% of the country's population but only a small proportion of its land area. The NMT system however reaches most of the country and a lot of the surrounding waters, thus the network was popular with fishermen and those traveling in the vast empty mainland. In Iceland the NMT service was stopped on 1 September 2010. In Denmark and Sweden the NMT-450 frequencies have been auctioned off to Swedish Nordisk Mobiltelefon which became Ice.net and renamed to Net 1 that built a digital network using CDMA 450. During 2015, the network has been migrated to 4G. Permission for TeliaSonera to continue operation of the NMT-450 frequencies ended on 31 December 2007. In Russia Uralwestcom shut down their NMT network on 1 September 2006 and Sibirtelecom on 10 January 2008. Skylink, subsidiary company of TELE2 Russia operates NMT-450 network as of 2016 in Arkhangelsk Oblast and Perm Krai; these networks are used in sparsely populated areas with long distance. License for the provision of services is valid until 2021 The cell sizes in an NMT network range from 2 km to 30 km.
With smaller ranges the network can service more simultaneous callers. NMT used full duplex transmission, allowing for simultaneous transmission of voice. Car phone versions of NMT used transmission power of up to 15 watt and 6 watt, handsets up to 1 watt. NMT had automatic switching and handover of the call built into the standard from the beginning, not the case with most preceding car phone services, such as the Finnish ARP. Additionally, the NMT standard specified billing as well as international roaming. NMT voice channel is transmitted with FM-modulation and NMT signaling transfer speeds vary between 600 and 1,200 bits per second, using FFSK modulation. Signaling between the base station and the mobile station was implemented using the same RF channel, used for audio, using the 1,200 bit/s FFSK modem; this caused the periodic short noise bursts, e.g. during handover, that were uniquely characteristic to NMT sound. A disadvantage of the original NMT specification is that voice traffic was not encrypted, therefore it was possible to listen to calls using e.g. a scanner.
As a result, some scanners have had the NMT bands blocked. Versions of the NMT specifications defined optional analog scrambling, based on two-band audio frequency inversion. If both the base station and the mobile station supported scrambling, they could agree upon using it when initiating a phone call. If two users had mobile stations supporting scrambling, they could turn it on during conversation if the base stations didn't support it. In this case, audio would be scrambled all the way between the 2 mobile stations. While the scrambling method was not at all as strong as encryption of current digital phones, such as GSM or CDMA, it did prevent casual listening with scanners. Scrambling is defined in NMT Doc 450-1: System Description and NMT Doc 450-3 and 900-3: Technical Specification for the Mobile Station's Annex 26 v.1.1: Mobile Station
Before the development of photographic copiers, a carbon copy—not to be confused with the carbon print family of photographic reproduction processes—was the under-copy of a typed or written document placed over carbon paper and the under-copy sheet itself. When copies of business letters were so produced, it was customary to use the acronym "CC" or "cc" before a colon and below the writer's signature to inform the principal recipient that carbon copies had been made and distributed to the parties listed after the colon. With the advent of word processors and e-mail, "cc" is used as a formal indication of the distribution of letters to secondary recipients. A sheet of carbon paper is placed between two or more sheets of paper; the pressure applied by the writing implement to the top sheet causes pigment from the carbon paper to reproduce the similar mark on the copy sheet. More than one copy can be made by stacking several sheets with carbon paper between each pair. Four or five copies is a practical limit.
The top sheet is the original and each of the additional sheets is called a carbon copy. The use of carbon copies declined with the advent of photocopying and electronic document creation and distribution. Carbon copies are still sometimes used in special applications: for example, in manual receipt books which have a multiple-use sheet of carbon paper supplied, so that the user can keep an exact copy of each receipt issued, although here carbonless copy paper is used to the same effect, it is still common for a business letter to include, at the end, a list of names preceded by the abbreviation "CC", indicating that the named persons are to receive copies of the letter though carbon paper is no longer used to make the copies. An alternative etymology is that "c:" was used for copy and "cc:" indicates the plural, just as "p." means page and "pp." means pages. This alternative etymology explains the frequent usage of "c:" when only one recipient is listed, while "cc:" is used for two or more recipients of the copies.
This etymology can explain why originally, "cc:" was used to list recipients who received typed copies and not carbon copies. The term "carbon copy" can denote anything, a near duplicate of an original. Carbon copy can be used as a transitive verb with the meaning described under e-mail below related to the CC field of an e-mail message; that is. It is common practice to abbreviate the verb form, many forms are acceptable, including cc and cc:. Past tense forms in use are cc'd, cc ` ed, cc-ed and cc:'d. Present participle or imperfect forms in use include cc'ing. Merriam-Webster uses cc'd and cc ` ing, respectively. In common usage, an email message has three fields for addressees: the To field is for principal recipients of the message, the CC field indicates secondary recipients whose names are visible to one another and to the principal, the BCC field contains the names of tertiary recipients whose names are invisible to each other and to the primary and secondary recipients, it is considered good practice to indicate to the other recipients that a new participant has been added to the list of receivers.
Dot matrix and daisy wheel printers are able to use carbon paper to produce several copies of a document in one pass, most models feature adjustable impact power and head spacing to accommodate up to three copies plus the original printout. This feature is used in conjunction with continuous, prearranged perforated paper and carbon supplies for use with a tractor feeder, rather than with single sheets of paper, for example, when printing out commercial invoices or receipts; the dictionary definition of carbon copy at Wiktionary
AT&T Mobility LLC known as AT&T Wireless, marketed as AT&T, is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T Inc. that provides wireless services to 153 million subscribers in the United States including Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. AT&T Mobility is the second largest wireless telecommunications provider in the United States and Puerto Rico behind Verizon Wireless and the largest wireless telecommunications provider in North America when including AT&T Mexico. Known as Cingular Wireless from 2000 to 2007, a joint venture between SBC Communications and BellSouth, the company acquired the old AT&T Wireless in 2004. In January 2007, Cingular confirmed. Although the legal corporate name change occurred for both regulatory and brand-awareness reasons both brands were used in the company's signage and advertising during a transition period; the transition concluded in late June, just prior to the rollout of the Apple iPhone. On March 20, 2011, AT&T Mobility announced its intention to acquire T-Mobile USA from Deutsche Telekom for $39 billion.
If it had received government and regulatory approval, AT&T would have had more than 130 million subscribers. However, the U. S. Department of Justice, the Federal Communications Commission, AT&T Mobility's competitors opposed the move on the grounds that it would reduce competition in the cellular network market. In December 2011, in the face of both governmental and widespread consumer opposition, AT&T withdrew its offer to complete the merger. Customers can choose to have one of the AT&T's Mobile Share Unlimited plans; as of January 8, 2016 AT&T no longer offers 2 year contracts for subsidized smart phones to its consumer customers. Customers who have 2 year contracts are grandfathered, until they upgrade to a new device they will have to choose from AT&T's NEXT installment plans for smartphones. AT&T reintroduced unlimited data plans for its customers who have either AT&T U-verse or AT&T's DirecTV. Unlimited data plans may be speed throttled. On the TV requirement was dropped for the Unlimited Plan followed by the introduction of the new Unlimited Plus and Choice plan series.
The new Unlimited Plans come with Entertainment perks for DirecTV, Uverse TV and DirecTV Now customers. With the inclusion of these new plans AT&T has introduced a free roaming in Mexico for its postpaid customers on select Mobile Share Plans and free Canada and Mexico roaming on Unlimited Plans. On May 21, 2018 AT&T dropped its roaming restrictions on the Unlimited Plans allowing customer to roam in Canada and Mexico without limits. AT&T allows existing customers to stay on legacy right plans. Within AT&T's 21-state landline footprint, other AT&T services are offered at the AT&T retail stores, including signing up for home phone, U-verse. AT&T stores outside of its footprint offer wireless services. All AT&T company-owned stores nationwide sell DirecTV. A large number of AT&T Mobility employees are unionized, belonging to the Communications Workers of America; the CWA represented 15,000 of the previous 20,000 AT&T Wireless employees as of early 2006. As of the end of 2009, the CWA website claims 40,000 workers of AT&T Mobility are represented by the union.
Cingular Wireless was founded in 2000 as a joint venture of SBC Communications and BellSouth. The joint venture created the nation's second-largest carrier. Cingular grew out of a conglomeration of more than 100 companies, with 12 well-known regional companies with Bell roots; the 12 companies included: Three companies spun off from Advanced Mobile Phone Service Ameritech Mobile Communications BellSouth Mobility Southwestern Bell Mobile Systems BellSouth Mobility DCS BellSouth Wireless Data CCPR Services d/b/a Cellular One of Puerto Rico and U. S. Virgin Islands Pacific Bell Wireless Pacific Bell Wireless Northwest SBC Wireless SNET Mobility Southwestern Bell WirelessSBC Wireless had operated in several northeast markets under the "Cellular One" brand, while BellSouth's wireless operations incorporated the former Houston Cellular. Cingular's lineage can be traced back to Advanced Mobile Phone Service, a subsidiary of AT&T created in 1978 to provide cellular service nationwide. AMPS was divided among the Regional Bell Operating Companies as part of the Bell System divestiture.
With the exception of Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS, the digital network consisted of D-AMPS technology. The Pacific Bell and BellSouth Mobility DCS networks used GSM technology on the PCS frequency band. In October 2007, AT&T's president and chief executive officer Stan Sigman announced his retirement. Ralph de la Vega, group president-Regional Telecom & Entertainment, was named as president and CEO of AT&T Mobility. In February 2004, after a bidding war with Britain's Vodafone Plc Cingular announced that it would purchase its struggling competitor, AT&T Wireless Services, for $41 billion This was more than twice the company's trading value; the merger was completed on October 26, 2004. The combined company had a customer base of 46 million people at the time, making Cingular the largest wireless provider in the United States. AT&T Wireless was legally renamed New Cingular Wireless Services. Shortly after, new commercials were shown with the "AT&T" transforming into the Cingular logo, with the Cingular logo's text turned blue to acknowledge the change.
Some of the companies that co
Rogers Wireless Inc. is a Canadian wireless telephone company headquartered in Toronto, providing service nationally throughout Canada. It is Canada’s largest wireless carrier, with 10.8 million subscribers as of Q4 2018, revenues of just under $15.1 billion in 2018. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rogers Communications. Rogers Wireless was founded by Ted Rogers, David Margolese, Marc Belzberg and Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien. In 1978, future Sirius XM Radio founder David Margolese dropped out of college and founded the paging company Canadian Telecom. Foreseeing that cellular wireless technology would be used for more than voice calls, Margolese proposed a plan to obtain a license for Canada’s cellular phone rights. At the time, there were no such licenses or commercial cellular services in existence, as the wireless technology was still in the laboratory and experimental. Needing significant financing, he approached Rogers Communications, owned by Ted Rogers, to partner with him. Rogers joined with Margolese, Marc Belzberg of First City Financial and Telemedia founder Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien to form Cantel, which Margolese named after Canadian Telecom.
In 1984, the group was granted Canada’s national cellular license. Cantel launched service on July 1, 1985. In 1986, Ted Rogers purchased a controlling stake in Cantel, at the time Canada’s only national supplier of cellular telephone service. Over the next four years, Rogers bought out his partners. Cantel was renamed Cantel AT&T, Rogers Cantel AT&T and Rogers AT&T Wireless. Through Spectrum auctions, Rogers has made the following purchases of spectrum: Rogers operates HSPA+, long-term evolution networks in all of Canada's provinces and offers roaming in Canada's territories; the following is a list of known frequencies that Rogers employs in Canada: Since 2002, the company's 2G GSM network with EDGE has operated in Canada. It provides compatibility for GSM-based devices, including those used by international travelers. However, this technology is limited to speeds up to 236 kilobits per second, only about four times the speed of dial-up; as of July 2018, some of Rogers coverage footprint is covered by its GSM network, but not its HSPA or LTE networks.
These areas include MacKenzie, BC and along the Highway 11 corridor east and west of Kapuskasing, ON. It is unclear what the future is for these areas given that Rogers has announced that it intends on shutting down its GSM network and because Rogers did not expand HSPA or LTE into these areas despite completing expansion of HSPA or LTE to all other areas by its GSM network years earlier. Rogers has informed its customers that its 2G GSM network will be discontinued on December 31, 2020. In 2006, Rogers became the first Canadian carrier to operate a 3G HSPA network, upgraded to HSPA+ in 2009. Enhancements included download speeds of up to a theoretical 21 Mbit/s. Rogers' HSPA+ network coverage is in all Canadian provinces and none of the territories and operating on 850 MHz, it is impossible to travel between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts in Canada without encountering a gap in cellular coverage as there are areas lacking cellular coverage in both British Columbia and Ontario. In July 2011, Rogers was the first Canadian telecom operator to launch a commercial long-term evolution network.
In May 2013, Rogers deployed LTE service on its 2600 MHz spectrum in some markets, which the company began marketing as LTE Max. LTE Max is available in a fraction of Rogers' LTE coverage area. On April 17, 2014, Rogers launched LTE service on its 700 MHz spectrum. Rogers has not announced its goals for expanding LTE coverage across Canada, but announced plans in June 2014 to have LTE coverage expanded to 98.3% of the population of British Columbia by the end of 2016. According to Rogers, as of December 31, 2016, its LTE coverage reached 95% of the Canadian population. On March 31, 2015, Rogers Wireless launched voice over LTE, the first carrier in Canada to offer this service. Cat-6 LTE-Advanced has been available since January 2015, through carrier aggregation of band 4 and band 7, with a maximum download speed of 225Mbit/s. Rogers Wireless carries feature phones, smartphones that support either Android OS or iOS. Customers with select smartphones, computers, LG Smart TVs, Xbox 360 and Xbox One gaming systems can use the Rogers On Demand mobile service, renamed Rogers Live before its current incarnation, Rogers Anyplace TV.
Rogers Anyplace TV offers TV shows and sports on demand. In April 2018, Communications Inc. announced that it has partnered with Swedish Telecom giant Ericsson to test 5G wireless technology. Trials will be conducted in two cities Ottawa. Rogers was two years behind its competitors in announcing 5G trials. Rogers' Chief technology officer Jorge Fernandes, who joined Rogers from Vodafone U. K. in February, believes that Rogers is not slow in responding to 5G and claimed that Rogers has been working on the technology and its partnerships. In 2004, Rogers bought Canada’s first and, at the time, only other GSM provider, along with Fido’s partner, Sprint Canada, for a total of $1.4 billion. At the time, Fido had nearly 1.3 million customers. In 2008, Fido was rebranded as a discount network operator with cheaper plans. Rogers launched the Chatr Mobile brand in mid-2010 in response to the emergence of new phone carriers Mobilicity, Public Mobile, Wind Mobile to directly compete with the new carriers in their coverage areas.
Chatr became a cheaper option than Fido, making Fido more of a mid-range offerin
Mobile radio telephone
Mobile radio telephone systems were telephone systems of wireless type that preceded the modern cellular mobile form of telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre-cellular systems. Technologies used in pre-cellular systems included the Push to Talk, Mobile Telephone Service, Improved Mobile Telephone Service, Advanced Mobile Telephone System systems; these early mobile telephone systems can be distinguished from earlier closed radiotelephone systems in that they were available as a commercial service, part of the public switched telephone network, with their own telephone numbers, rather than part of a closed network such as a police radio or taxi dispatch system. These mobile telephones were mounted in cars or trucks, although briefcase models were made; the transceiver was mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" mounted near the driver seat. They were sold through WCCs, RCCs, two-way radio dealers.
Early examples for this technology: Motorola in conjunction with the Bell System operated the first commercial mobile telephone service Mobile Telephone Service in the US in 1946, as a service of the wireline telephone company. The A-Netz launched 1952 in West Germany as the country's first public commercial mobile phone network. System 1 launch in 1959 in the United Kingdom, the'Post Office South Lancashire Radiophone Service', covering South Lancashire and operated from a telephone exchange in Manchester is cited as the country's first mobile phone network; however it was manual and with little coverage for several decades. First automatic system was the Bell System's IMTS which became available in 1964, offering automatic dialing to and from the mobile. "Altai" mobile telephone system was launched into the experimental service in 1963 in the Soviet Union, becoming operational in 1965, a first automatic mobile phone system in Europe. The Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in Norway in 1966.
Norway was the first country in Europe to get an automatic mobile telephone system. The Autoradiopuhelin launched in 1971 in Finland as the country's first public commercial mobile phone network The Automatizovaný městský radiotelefon launched in 1978 operational in 1983, in Czechoslovakia as the first analog mobile radio telephone in the whole Eastern Bloc The B-Netz launched 1972 in West Germany as the country's second public commercial mobile phone network Parallel to Improved Mobile Telephone Service in the US until the rollout of cellular AMPS systems, a competing mobile telephone technology was called Radio Common Carrier or RCC; the service was provided from the 1960s until the 1980s when cellular AMPS systems made RCC equipment obsolete. These systems operated in a regulated environment in competition with the Bell System's MTS and IMTS. RCCs were operated by private companies and individuals; some systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent RCCs to use their facilities but the universe of RCCs did not comply with any single interoperable technical standard.
For example, the phone of an Omaha, Nebraska–based RCC service would not be to work in Phoenix, Arizona. At the end of RCC's existence, industry associations were working on a technical standard that would have allowed roaming, some mobile users had multiple decoders to enable operation with more than one of the common signaling formats. Manual operation was a fallback for RCC roamers. Roaming was not encouraged, in part, because there was no centralized industry billing database for RCCs. Signaling formats were not standardized. For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile or hand-held that a wired phone was trying to call them. Other systems used DTMF; some used a system called Secode 2805 which transmitted an interrupted 2805 Hz tone to alert mobiles of an offered call. Some radio equipment used with RCC systems was half-duplex, push-to-talk equipment such as Motorola hand-helds or RCA 700-series conventional two-way radios. Other vehicular equipment had telephone handsets, rotary or pushbutton dials, operated full duplex like a conventional wired telephone.
A few users had full-duplex briefcase telephones. RCCs used paired UHF 454/459 MHz and VHF 152/158 MHz frequencies near those used by IMTS. Using the same channel frequencies as IMTS, the US Federal Communications Commission authorized Rural Radiotelephone Service for fixed stations. List of mobile phone generations 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G Mobile rig Mobile Telephone Service - Radiotelephone - Satellite telephone Mobile Phone History Mobile Phone Generations Storno.co.uk
A pager is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can acknowledge, reply to, originate messages using an internal transmitter. Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or more fixed transmitters, as well as a number of pagers carried by mobile users; these systems can range from a restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations. Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, became used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cellphones and smartphones has diminished the pager industry. Pagers continue to be used by some emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications, can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made disasters.
This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical messaging. The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of remaining pagers in 2017, with an annual cost of £6.6 million. Matt Hancock announced in February 2019; the first telephone pager system was patented in 1949 by Alfred J. Gross. One of the first practical paging services was launched in 1950 for physicians in the New York City area. Physicians paid $12 per month for the service and carried a 200-gram pager that would receive phone messages within 40 kilometres of a single transmitter tower; the system was operated by Telanswerphone. In 1960, John Francis Mitchell combined elements of Motorola's walkie-talkie and automobile radio technologies to create the first transistorized pager, from that time, paging technology continued to advance, pager adoption among emergency personnel is still popular, as of July 2016. In 1962 the Bell System—the U. S. telephone monopoly colloquially known as "Ma Bell"—presented its Bellboy radio paging system at the Seattle World's Fair.
Bellboy was the first commercial system for personal paging. It marked one of the first consumer applications of the transistor, for which three Bell Labs inventors received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Solid-state circuitry enabled the Bellboy pager, about the size of a small TV remote device, to fit into a customer's pocket or purse, quite a feat at that time; the Bellboy was a terminal. When the person received an audible signal on the pager, he found a telephone and called the service centre, which informed him of the caller's message. Bell System Bellboy radio pagers each used three reed receiver relays, each relay tuned to one of 33 different frequencies, selectively ringing a particular customer when all three relays were activated at the same time—a precursor of DTMF; the ReFLEX protocol was developed in the mid-1990s. While Motorola announced the end of its new pager manufacturing in 2001, pagers remained in use in large hospital complexes. Another is a facility handling classified information, where various radio transmitter or data storage devices are excluded to ensure security.
First responders in rural areas with inadequate cellular coverage are issued pagers. The 2005 London bombings resulted in overload of TETRA systems by the emergency services, showed that pagers, with their absence of necessity to transmit an acknowledgement before showing the message, the related capability to operate on low signal levels, are not outclassed by their successors. Volunteer firefighters, EMS paramedics, rescue squad members carry pagers to alert them of emergency call outs for their department; these pagers receive a special tone from a fire department radio frequency. Restaurant pagers were in wide use in the 2000s. Customers were given a portable receiver that vibrates, flashes, or beeps when a table becomes free or when their meal is ready. Pagers have been popular with birdwatchers in Britain and Ireland since 1991, with companies Rare Bird Alert and Birdnet Information offering news of rare birds sent to pagers that they sell; the U. S. paging industry generated $2.1 billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.
In Canada, 161,500 Canadians paid $18.5 million for pager service in 2013. Telus, one of the three major mobile carriers, announced the end to its Canadian pager service as of March 31, 2015, but rivals Bell and PageNet intend to continue service. Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email; this is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email. This can result in pager messages being lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, GOLAY, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include 5/6-tone. In the United States, pagers receive signals using the FLEX protocol in th
Rogers Communications Inc. is a Canadian communications and media company. It operates in the field of wireless communications, cable television and Internet connectivity with significant additional telecommunications and mass media assets; the company is headquartered in Toronto. The company claims the heritage of the Rogers Vacuum Tube Company, founded in 1925 by Edward Rogers, which started the CFRB radio station in Toronto, acquired by outside interests; the present enterprise dates to 1959, when Rogers' son, Ted Rogers, founded Baton Aldred Rogers Broadcasting. That company acquired CHFI in 1960, launched CFTO in 1961; the chief competitor to the company is Bell Canada, which has a extensive portfolio of radio and television media assets, as well as wireless, television distribution, telephone services in Eastern and Central Canada. However, the company competes nationally with Telus for wireless services, indirectly with Shaw Communications for television service. In 1925, Rogers Sr. invented the world's first alternating current heater filament cathode for a radio tube, which enabled radios to be powered by ordinary transformer-coupled household electric current.
This became a key factor in popularizing radio reception. In 1931, Rogers Sr. was awarded an experimental television licence in Canada. He was working on radar when, on May 6, 1939 he died due to complications of a hemorrhage, he was 38 years old. He left a widow, a five-year-old son, Edward. While his business interests were sold, his son determined to carry on his father's business. In 1959, Edward S. Rogers Jr. and Joel Aldred received funding from John Bassett to found Baton Aldred Rogers Broadcasting. In 1960, it bought CHFI FM, in 1961, established CFTO, Toronto's first private television station in 1961. In 1964, it established an AM radio station. In 1967, it established Rogers Cable TV in partnership with BARB. In 1971, new CRTC regulations forced BARB to sell its 50% stake in Rogers Cable. In 1979, Rogers acquired Canadian Cablesystems, became listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange as a result. In 1980, Rogers acquired Premier Cablevision becoming the largest cable company in Canada. In 1986, Rogers Cable was renamed Rogers Communications, established operational control over Cantel, a wireless telephone company in which Rogers had a stake.
Rogers Communications Inc. unveiled its new Mobius strip logo on January 17, 2000 marking the departure of its original logo. In 2000, Rogers acquired Cable Atlantic from Newfoundland businessman Danny Williams In July 2001, Rogers Media acquired CTV Sportsnet, renamed Rogers Sportsnet that November; the FAN 590 sports radio station joined Rogers Media in August 2001 along with 14 Northern Ontario radio stations. In fall 2004, several strategic transactions were executed that increased Rogers exposure to the potential of the Canadian wireless market. Rogers acquired the 34% of Rogers Wireless owned by AT&T Wireless Services Inc for $1.77 billion. On December 2, 2008, Edward S. Rogers died of heart failure. In 2012, Rogers Cable filed a complaint in an Ontario court against penalties levied under a'Truth in Advertising' law, claiming that the amount of the penalties, the requirements imposed by the law, are in violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the company has had to recognize the rising market trend of customers canceling or foregoing cable television service subscriptions in favour of cheaper alternate content delivery means such as streaming media services like Netflix, a demographic called "cord cutters" and "cord nevers."
In response, Rogers had acquired content with a speculated cost of $100 million to begin their own competing online streaming service, much like the American Hulu Plus, which launched November 4, 2014. Shomi subsequently shut down after only 2 years of operation on November 30, 2016. CEO Guy Laurence has spoken out about an upcoming change meant to jumpstart growth at the company. Laurence has not released any specific details, but says that the strategy will help allow the company's telecom and media units to work better together. In the summer of 2014, Rogers reported a 24% drop in profit compared to the previous year's second quarter. Rogers Communications is traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange and on the New York Stock Exchange under ticker "RCI". Following the death of Ted Rogers in 2008, control of Rogers Communications passed to the Rogers Control Trust, a trust for which a subsidiary of Scotiabank serves as trustee. Ted's son Edward Rogers III and daughter Melinda Rogers serve as Chair and Vice-Chair of the trust.
As of October 2018, members of the board of directors of Rogers Communications are: As of October 2018, senior corporate officers of Rogers Communications are: Rogers Communications Inc. Rogers Cable Rogers Wireless Rogers Communications Rogers Smart Home Monitoring Rogers Media Rogers Publishing Limited publishes more than 70 consumer magazines and trade and professional publications, digital properties and directories in Canada, including Maclean's, Canada's weekly newsmagazine; the publishing arm was once part of the Maclean-Hunter Publishing empire. Unlike Maclean-Hunter, Rogers does not have printing facilities and has contracted out services On