Edmund Roberts (diplomat)
Edmund Roberts, appointed by President Andrew Jackson as the United States' first envoy to the Far East, went on the USS Peacock on two consecutive non-resident diplomatic missions to the courts of Cochinchina and Muscat and Oman during the years 1832–6. Roberts concluded treaties with Thailand and Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, ratified in Washington, D. C. 30 June 1834. He returned in 1836 to exchange ratifications with Oman and Thailand and to the court of Minh Mạng in Cochinchina for a second attempt at negotiation, he fell ill with dysentery and died in Portuguese Macau, which precluded his becoming America's first envoy to Edo Japan. Roberts was born 29 June 1784 to Sarah Griffiths of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Royal Navy Captain Edmund Roberts, who died 15 November 1787 and was interred in North Cemetery leaving his son a half-orphan in his mother's care. Young Edmund at age 13 received through his congressman a Midshipman's warrant in the United States Navy, but waived the appointment at his mother's wish for him to remain at home while she lived.
Roberts put to sea in 1800 residing in London until age 24. Returning in 1808, he married Miss Catherine Whipple Langdon — daughter of Judge Woodbury Langdon and niece of Governor John Langdon, both of whom were engaged in the New England triangular trade between Portsmouth, the Caribbean and London. Of the couple's 11 children, 8 survived their parents. New Hampshire, with only 16 miles of coast line, the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Maine are credited with shaping Roberts' character. Roberts entered the New England triangular trade as shipowner and his own supercargo, but never as a captain. Robert Hopkins Miller says Roberts lost his accumulated wealth in a series of misfortunes, but succeeded in 1823 in being appointed US Consul at Demerara. However, Miller erroneously places Demerara on the east coast of Africa, does not mention the Demerara rebellion of 1823."The 1823 revolt had a special significance...t attracted attention in Britain inside and outside Parliament to the terrible evil slavery and the need to abolish it."
Roberts' own account mentions neither Demerara nor the slave revolt but his palpable aversion to slavery colors his negotiating stance, where subjects act as slaves to the king). By 1827, nearly impoverished by depredations of French and Spanish privateers on his ships in the West Indies, he chartered the Mary Ann to trade in the Indian Ocean. Roberts arrived in the port of Zanzibar in October 1827, the next year, had an audience with the newly arrived Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, so anxious to counterbalance British influence that he asked Roberts to escort some vessels to the United States to petition for trade. Upon returning, he wrote U. S. Senator Levi Woodbury, a personal friend, of the aggravations endured by American shipping, that might be alleviated by negotiating commercial treaties; the stage was set for Roberts diplomatic career by Salem's trade with the East Indies. Pursuits of members of the East India Marine Society, established in 1799 and composed of those who had sailed beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn as masters or supercargoes contributed to the beginnings of US international relations during the period of 1788 to 1845.
From 1826 to 1832, John Shillaber, American consul in Batavia, sent a series of letters suggesting that he be empowered to negotiate trade treaties. Martin van Buren replied in a letter dated 13 December 1830, sent over the signature of clerk Daniel Brent, requesting a more precise knowledge of the nature and character of the governments in question, more details on difficulties encountered. Matters came to a head after Charles Moses Endicott, master of the merchantman Friendship of Salem, engaged in the spice trade on the Sumatran coast, returned to report the brig Governor Endicott of Salem, the James Monroe of New York, had recaptured his ship from pirates who had plundered her, murdering several crewmen. In the wake of public outcry, President Jackson ordered Commodore John Downes of the frigate Potomac, preparing to sail for the west coast, to proceed instead on the first Sumatran expedition, departing New York harbour 19 August 1831. Fortune favours Roberts, his friend Woodbury, who as senator had been pressing for increased naval appropriations when he received Robert's letter on the need for trade negotiations, had just become Jackson's Secretary of the Navy and saw an opportunity.
As the Potomac was departing the schooner Boxer was nearing commissioning. Woodbury convinced Jackson to send both 10-gun ships to support Potomac – with Roberts as Jackson's "special agent". Secretary of State Edward Livingston's "Instructions to Special Agent Edmund Roberts" signed 27 January 1832, order him to embark upon Peacock in the guise of the captain's clerk, his mission's purpose concealed except from the Captain and those with a need to know. Livingston adds a postscript. Jackson explains to the Senate in his message of 30 May 1834, "The expenses of the agency have been defrayed out of the contingent fund for foreign intercourse". In mid-February 1832, Boxer is dispatched to Liberia. With orders to join the Peacock off the coast of Brazil, but the ships fail to rendezvous until 5 June 1834 – in the unhealthy roadstead of Batavia. In March 1832, Peacock sails for Brazil under Com
Harar, known to its inhabitants as Gēy, is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It was the capital of Hararghe and now the capital of the modern Harari Region of Ethiopia; the city is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands, about five hundred kilometers from the national capital Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 meters. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Harar had an estimated total population of 122,000, of whom 60,000 were males and 62,000 were females. According to the census of 1994, on which this estimate is based, the city had a population of 76,378. For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial center, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, through its ports, the outside world. Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage, it is sometimes known in Arabic as "the City of Saints".
According to UNESCO, it is "considered'the fourth holy city' of Islam" with 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, 102 shrines. The Fath Madinat Harar records that the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida and several other religious leaders settled in Harar circa 1216. Harar was made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Somali Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad; the city saw a political decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period. During the Ethiopian Empire, the city decayed. Today, it is the seat of the Harari Region, it is the original inhabitants of the region were the Harla people. In its early history, the city was under an alliance called the Zeila confederate states. According to twelfth century Jewish traveler Benjamin Tudela, Zeila region was the land of the Havilah, confined by Al-Habash in the west. In the ninth century, Harar was under the Makhzumi dynasty. Harar Called Gēy by its inhabitants Harari people, Harar emerged as the center of Islamic culture and religion in the Horn of Africa during end of the Middle Ages.
According to the Fath Madinat Harar, an unpublished history of the city in the 13th century, the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida, along with several other religious leaders, came from the Arabian Peninsula to settle in Harar circa 612H. Abadir was met by the Harla and Argobba. Abadir's brother Fakr ad-Din subsequently founded the Sultanate of Mogadishu. According to the 14th century chronicles of Amda Seyon I, Gēt was an Arab colony in Harla country. During the Middle Ages, Harar was part of the Adal Sultanate, becoming its capital in 1520 under Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad; the sixteenth century was the city's Golden Age. The local culture flourished, many poets lived and wrote there, it became known for coffee, weaving and bookbinding. From Harar, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi known as "Gurey" and "Grañ", launched a war of conquest in the sixteenth century that extended the polity's territory and threatened the existence of the neighboring Christian Ethiopian Empire, his successor, Emir Nur ibn Mujahid, built a protective wall around the city.
Four meters in height with five gates, this structure, called Jugol, is still intact and is a symbol of the town to the inhabitants. Silt'e, Wolane and Harari, lived in Harar while the former three moved to the Gurage region; the Emirate of Harar struck its own currency, the earliest possible issues bearing a date that may be read as AH 615. Following the death of Emir Nur, Harar began a steady decline in power. A ruler, Imam Muhammed Jasa, a kinsman of Ahmad Gragn, yielded to the pressures of increasing Oromo raids and in 1577 abandoned the city, relocating to Aussa and making his brother ruler of Harar; the new base not only failed to provide more security from the Oromos, it attracted the hostile attention of the neighboring Afars who raided caravans traveling between Harar and the coast. The Imams of Aussa declined over the next century while Harar regained its independence under `Ali ibn Da`ud, the founder of a dynasty that ruled the city from 1647 until 1875, when it was conquered by Egypt.
Harar was dependent on Berbera for trade since the Middle Ages. According to Sir Richard Burton, who visited both Berbera and Harar during his travels, he repeated a famous Harari saying he heard in 1854: "He who commands at Berbera, holds the beard of Harar in his hands." Much of the trade between the two historic towns was controlled by merchants belonging to the Habar Awal Somali clan, who partook in the trade of the renowned Harari coffee beans, named Berbera Coffee in the international market. During the period of Egyptian rule, Arthur Rimbaud lived in the city as the local functionary of several different commercial companies based in Aden. A house said to have been his residence. In 1885, Harar regained its independence, but this lasted only two years until 6 January 1887 when the Battle of Chelenqo led to Harar's incorporation into the Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia's growing Empire based in Shewa. Harar lost some of its commercial importance with the creation of the French-built Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway intended to run via the city but diverted north of the mountains between Harar and the Awash River to save money.
As a result of this, Dire Dawa was founded in 1902
Pasha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system granted to governors, generals and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, was one of the highest titles in the 20th century Kingdom of Egypt. According to Etymonline, pasha is derived from the earlier "basha", itself from Turkish "baş/bash", itself from Old Persian pati- "master", the root of the Persian word shah. According to the Oxford Online Dictionary, the word has its origins in the mid-17th century, was formed as a result of the combination of the Pahlavi words pati- "lord", shah. According to Josef W. Meri and Jere L. Bacharach, the word is "more than derived from the Persian Padishah"; the same view is held by Nicholas Ostler, who mentions that the word was formed as a shortening of the Persian word Padishah. According to etymologist Sevan Nişanyan, the word is derived from Turkish beşe, cognate with Persian baççe.
Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/, the word was spelled başa still in the 15th century. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b"; the English forms bashaw, bucha etc. general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval Latin and Italian word bassa. Due to the Ottoman presence in the Arab World, the title became used in Arabic, though pronounced basha due to the absence of the /p/ sound in Arabic. Within the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman Sultan had the right to bestow the title of Pasha, it was through this custom that the title came to be used in Egypt, conquered by the Ottomans in 1517. The rise to power in Egypt in 1805 by Muhammad Ali, an Albanian military commander established Egypt as a de facto independent state, however, it still owed technical fealty to the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, Muhammad Ali harboured ambitions of supplanting the Osman Dynasty in Constantinople, sought to style his Egyptian realm as a successor sultanate to the Ottoman Empire.
As such, he bore the title of Pasha, in addition to the official title of Wāli, the self-declared title of Khedive. His successors to the Egyptian and Sudanese throne, Abbas, Sa'id, Isma'il inherited these titles, with Pasha, Wāli ceasing to be used in 1867, when the Ottoman Sultan, Abdülaziz recognised Isma'il as Khedive; the title Pasha appears to have applied to military commanders and only high ranking family of the Sultans, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour. It was part of the official style of the Kapudan Pasha. Pashas below Khedives and Viziers. Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of horse-tails or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief; the following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha: The Vizier-i-Azam Mushir Ferik Liva The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapı Palace.
If a Pasha governed a provincial territory, it could be called a pashaluk after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. eyalet, vilayet/walayah. Both Beylerbeys and valis/wālis were entitled to the style of Pasha; the word pashalik designated any province or other jurisdiction of a Pasha, such as the Pasha or Bashaw of Tripoli. Ottoman and Egyptian authorities conferred the title upon both Muslims and Christians without distinction, they frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the Ottoman Empire, or of the Egyptian Khedivate, e.g. Hobart Pasha. In an Egyptian context, the Abaza Family is known as "the family of the pashas" for having produced the largest number of nobles holding this title under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was noted in Egyptian media as one of the main "families that rule Egypt" to this day, as "deeply rooted in Egyptian society and… in the history of the country." As an honorific, the title Pasha was an aristocratic title and could be hereditary or non-hereditary, stipulated in the "Firman" issued by the Sultan carrying the imperial seal "Tughra".
The title did not bestow rank or title to the wife nor was any religious leader elevated to the title. In contrast to western nobility titles, where the title is added before the given name, Ottoman titles followed the given name. In contacts with foreign emissaries and representatives, holders of the title Pasha were referred to as "Your Excellency"; the sons of a Pasha were styled Pasha-zade, which means just that. In modern Egyptian and Levantine Arabic, it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord" by older people. Among Egyptians born since the
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Aden is a port city and the temporary capital of Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea, some 170 km east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula joined to the mainland by a low isthmus; this harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 5th and 7th centuries BC. The modern harbour is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden gives its name to the Gulf of Aden. Aden consists of a number of distinct sub-centres: Crater, the original port city. Khormaksar, located on the isthmus that connects Aden proper with the mainland, includes the city's diplomatic missions, the main offices of Aden University, Aden International Airport, Yemen's second biggest airport. On the mainland are the sub-centres of Sheikh Othman, a former oasis area. Aden encloses the eastern side of a natural harbour that comprises the modern port; this city has no natural resources available in it.
However, Aden does have the Aden Tanks. These reservoirs accumulate rain water for the sole purpose of drinking for the city's citizens; the city is prosperous with Indian vessels arriving for trade. The volcanic peninsula of Little Aden forms a near-mirror image, enclosing the harbour and port on the western side. Little Aden became the site of the oil tanker port. Both were established and operated by British Petroleum until they were turned over to Yemeni government ownership and control in 1978. Aden was the capital of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen until that country's unification with the Yemen Arab Republic in 1990, again served as Yemen's temporary capital during the aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen, as declared by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi after he fled the Houthi occupation of Sana'a. From March to July 2015, the Battle of Aden raged between loyalists to President Hadi. Water and medical supplies ran short in the city. On 14 July, the Saudi Army launched an offensive to retake Aden for Hadi's government.
Within three days the Houthis had been removed from the city. Since February 2018, Aden has been seized by the Southern Transitional Council. A local legend in Yemen states; some believe that Cain and Abel are buried somewhere in the city. The port's convenient position on the sea route between India and Europe has made Aden desirable to rulers who sought to possess it at various times throughout history. Known as Eudaemon in the 1st century BC, it was a transshipping point for the Red Sea trade, but fell on hard times when new shipping practices by-passed it and made the daring direct crossing to India in the 1st century AD, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea; the same work describes Aden as "a village by the shore," which would well describe the town of Crater while it was still little-developed. There is no mention of fortification at this stage, Aden was more an island than a peninsula as the isthmus was not so developed as it is today. Although the pre-Islamic Himyar civilization was capable of building large structures, there seems to have been little fortification at this stage.
Fortifications at Mareb and other places in Yemen and the Hadhramaut make it clear that both the Himyar and the Sabean cultures were well capable of it. Thus, watch towers, since destroyed, are possible. However, the Arab historians Ibn al Mojawir and Abu Makhramah attribute the first fortification of Aden to Beni Zuree'a. Abu Makhramah has included a detailed biography of Muhammad Azim Sultan Qamarbandi Naqsh in his work, Tarikh ul-Yemen; the aim seems to have been twofold: to keep hostile forces out and to maintain revenue by controlling the movement of goods, thereby preventing smuggling. In its original form, some of this work was feeble. After 1175 AD, rebuilding in a more solid form began, since Aden became a popular city attracting sailors and merchants from Egypt, Gujarat, East Africa and China. According to Muqaddasi, Persians formed the majority of Aden's population in the 10th century. In 1421, China's Ming dynasty Yongle Emperor ordered principal envoy grand eunuch Li Xing and grand eunuch Zhou Man of Zheng He's fleet to convey an imperial edict with hats and robes to bestow on the king of Aden.
The envoys set sail from Sumatra to the port of Aden. This event was recorded in the book Yingyai Shenglan by Ma Huan. In 1513, the Portuguese, led by Afonso de Albuquerque, launched an unsuccessful four-day naval siege of Aden. Before British administration, Aden was ruled by the Portuguese between 1513–1538 and 1547–1548, it was ruled by the Ottoman Empire between 1538–1547 and 1548–1645. In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. British interests in Aden began in 1796 with Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, after which a British fleet docked
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the internationally recognized Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. Houthi forces controlling the capital Sanaʽa, allied with forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, have clashed with forces loyal to the government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, based in Aden. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have carried out attacks, with AQAP controlling swathes of territory in the hinterlands, along stretches of the coast. On 21 March 2015, after taking over Sanaʽa and the Yemeni government, the Houthi-led Supreme Revolutionary Committee declared a general mobilization to overthrow Hadi and further their control by driving into southern provinces; the Houthi offensive, allied with military forces loyal to Saleh, began on the next day with fighting in Lahij Governorate.
By 25 March, Lahij fell to the Houthis and they reached the outskirts of Aden, the seat of power for Hadi's government. Concurrently, a coalition led by Saudi Arabia launched military operations by using airstrikes to restore the former Yemeni government. According to the UN and other sources, from March 2015 to December 2017, 8,670–13,600 people were killed in Yemen, including more than 5,200 civilians, as well as estimates of more than 50,000 dead as a result of an ongoing famine due to the war; the conflict has been seen as an extension of the Iran-Saudi Arabia proxy conflict and as a means to combat Iranian influence in the region. In 2018, the United Nations warned that 13 million Yemeni civilians face starvation in what it says could become "the worst famine in the world in 100 years."The international community have condemned the Saudi Arabian-led bombing campaign, which has included widespread bombing of civilian areas. The bombing campaign has killed or injured an estimated 17,729 civilians as of March 2019 according to the Yemen Data Project.
Despite this, the crisis has not gained as much international media attention compared to the Syrian civil war until recently. Ansar Allah, known popularly as the Houthis, is a Zaidi group with its origins in the mountainous Sa'dah Governorate on Yemen's northern border with Saudi Arabia, they led a low-level insurgency against the Yemeni government in 2004 after their leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, was killed in a government military crackdown following his protests against government policies. The intensity of the conflict waxed and waned over the course of the 2000s, with multiple peace agreements being negotiated and disregarded; the Houthi insurgency heated up in 2009 drawing in neighbouring Saudi Arabia on the side of the Yemeni government, but quieted the following year after a ceasefire was signed. During the early stages of the Yemeni Revolution in 2011, Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi declared the group's support for demonstrations calling for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.
In the year, as Saleh prepared to leave office, the Houthis laid siege to the Salafi-majority village of Dammaj in northern Yemen, a step toward attaining virtual autonomy for Sa'dah. The Houthis boycotted a single-candidate election in early 2012 meant to give Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi a two-year term of office, they participated in a National Dialogue Conference, but withheld support from a final accord in early 2014 that extended Hadi's mandate in office for another year. Meanwhile, the conflict between the Houthis and Sunni tribes in northern Yemen spread to other governorates, including the Sanaʽa Governorate by mid-2014. After several weeks of street protests against the Hadi administration, which made cuts to fuel subsidies that were unpopular with the group, the Houthis came to blows with Yemen Army forces under the command of General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar. In a battle that lasted only a few days, Houthi fighters seized control of Sanaʽa, the Yemeni capital, in September 2014; the Houthis forced Hadi to negotiate an agreement to end the violence, in which the government resigned and the Houthis gained an unprecedented level of influence over state institutions and politics.
In January 2015, unhappy with a proposal to split the country into six federal regions, Houthi fighters seized the presidential compound in Sanaʽa. The power play prompted the resignation of his ministers; the Houthi political leadership announced the dissolution of parliament and the formation of a Revolutionary Committee to govern the country on 6 February 2015. On 21 February, one month after Houthi militants confined Hadi to his residence in Sanaʽa, he slipped out of the capital and traveled to Aden. In a televised address from his hometown, he declared that the Houthi takeover was illegitimate and indicated he remained the constitutional president of Yemen, his predecessor as president, Ali Abdullah Saleh—who had been suspected of aiding the Houthis during their takeover of Sanaʽa the previous year—publicly denounced Hadi and called on him to go into exile. On April 2015, United States National Security Council spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan stated that: "It remains our assessment that Iran does not exert command and control over the Houthis in Yemen".
The Houthis have long been accused of being proxies for Iran. The United States and Saudi Arabia have alleged that the Houthis receive weapons and training from Iran; the Houthis and the Iranian government have
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the latter's ill health, his rule extended over the other dominions that his father had brought under Egyptian rule, namely Syria, Morea and Crete. Ibrahim pre-deceased his father, dying 10 November 1848, only four months after acceding to the throne. Upon his father's death the following year, the Egyptian throne passed to Abbas. Ibrahim remains one of the most celebrated members of the Muhammad Ali dynasty for his impressive military victories, including several crushing defeats of the Ottoman Empire. Among Egyptian historians, his father Muhammad Ali, his son Ismail the Magnificent are held in far higher esteem than other rulers from the dynasty, who were viewed as indolent and corrupt.
Today, a statue of Ibrahim occupies a prominent position in Cairo. His Mother Emine, born at Nusretli in 1770 and died in Cairo 1824, she was the widow of Ottoman Turk Serezli Ali Bey, a daughter of Major Ali Aga of Nusretli. Ibrahim was her first born son, it is further known that he was born in the village of Nusratli, near the town of Drama, the Ottoman province of Rumelia, in what is now the eastern parts of Macedonian region in Greece. In 1805, during his father's struggle to establish himself as ruler of Egypt, the adolescent Ibrahim, at 16, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman captain Pasha. However, Ibrahim was allowed to return to Egypt once his father was recognised as Wāli of Egypt by the Ottoman Sultan, had defeated the British military expedition of Major General Alexander Mackenzie Fraser; when Muhammad Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Ibn Saud in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command of Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mameluks. In 1816, he succeeded his brother Tusun Pasha in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia.
Muhammad Ali had begun to introduce European discipline into his army, Ibrahim had received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his operations. The campaign lasted two years, ended in the destruction of the House of Saud as a political power. Muhammad Ali landed at Yanbu, the port of Medina, on 1813; the holy cities had been recovered from the Saudis, Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field, but the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Saudis stronghold of Diriyah, some 400 miles east of Medina made the conquest a arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818, he had forced the Saudi leader to surrender, had taken Diriyah, which he sacked. On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo.
After his return Ibrahim gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève, employed to drill the army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. In 1824, Muhammad Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. Mahmud required the assistance of the well-trained Egyptian army against the contemporary Greek Revolution, which his forces had been unable to quell: in 1822, the Greeks had decisively defeated an army of some 30,000 men under Sultanzade Mahmud Dramali Pasha. Ibrahim was sent to the Peloponnese with an army of 17,000 men; the expedition sailed on July 4, 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea; when the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, Ibrahim was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea until the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.
He defeated the Greeks in the open field, though the siege of Missolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Ottoman forces who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on April 24, 1826. But he was defeated in Mani three times in a row; the Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe and led to the intervention of the naval squadrons of the United Kingdom, the Restored Kingdom of France and Imperial Russia in the Battle of Navarino, their victory was followed by the landing of a French expeditionary force in the so-called Morea expedition. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country. In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria, he took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated an Ottoman army at Homs on July 8