The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is caused by a member of the sac fungi affecting elm trees, is spread by elm bark beetles. Although believed to be native to Asia, the disease was accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native populations of elms that did not have resistance to the disease, it has reached New Zealand. The name "Dutch elm disease" refers to its identification in 1921 and in the Netherlands by Dutch phytopathologists Bea Schwarz and Christine Buisman who both worked with Professor Johanna Westerdijk; the disease affects species in the genera Ulmus and Zelkova, therefore it is not specific to the Dutch elm hybrid. The causative agents of DED are ascomycete microfungi. Three species are now recognized: Ophiostoma ulmi, which afflicted Europe from 1910, reaching North America on imported timber in 1928. Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, a species endemic to the western Himalaya. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, an virulent species from Japan, first described in Europe and North America in the 1940s and has devastated elms in both continents since the late 1960s.
DED is spread in North America by three species of bark beetles: The native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. The European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus; the banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi. In Europe, while S. multistriatus still acts as a vector for infection, it is much less effective than the large elm bark beetle, S. scolytus. H. rufipes is inefficient compared to the other vectors. S. schevyrewi was found in 2003 in Utah. Other reported DED vectors include Scolytus sulcifrons, S. pygmaeus, S. laevis, Pteleobius vittatus and Р. kraatzi. Other elm bark beetle species are likely vectors.'Field resistance' is an umbrella term covering the various factors by which some elms avoid infection in the first place, rather than survive it. A clear example would be the European White Elm Ulmus laevis which, while having little or no genetic resistance to DED, synthesizes a triterpene, rendering the bark distasteful to the vector beetles, obliging them to look further afield for more suitable elms.
Another would be the inability of the beetles to see elms which did not break the silhouette.'Weeping' elms are spared infection owing to the beetles' aversion to hanging upside-down while feeding. In an attempt to block the fungus from spreading farther, the tree reacts by plugging its own xylem tissue with gum and tyloses, bladder-like extensions of the xylem cell wall; as the xylem delivers water and nutrients to the rest of the plant, these plugs prevent them from travelling up the trunk of the tree, starving the tree of water and nutrients, therefore killing it. The first sign of infection is an upper branch of the tree with leaves starting to wither and yellow in summer, months before the normal autumnal leaf shedding; this progressively spreads with further dieback of branches. The roots die, starved of nutrients from the leaves. Not all the roots die: the roots of some species, notably the English elm, Ulmus procera, can engage in putting up suckers which flourish for 15 years, after which they too succumb.
Dutch elm disease was first noticed in continental Europe in 1910, spread and extending to all other countries except Greece and Finland. In Britain, the disease was first identified in 1927 by T R Peace on English elm in Hertfordshire; this first strain was a mild one, which killed only a small proportion of elms, more just killing a few branches, had died out by 1940 owing to its susceptibility to viruses. The disease was isolated in The Netherlands in 1921 by Bea Schwarz, a pioneering Dutch phytopathologist, this discovery would lend the disease its name. Circa 1967, a new, far more virulent, strain arrived in Britain via east coast ports on shipments of rock elm U. thomasii logs from Canada destined for the small-boat industry, confirmed in 1973 when another consignment was examined at Southampton Docks. This strain proved both contagious and lethal to European elms; the disease spread northwards, reaching Scotland within 10 years. By 1990 few mature elms were left in Britain or much of continental Europe.
One of the most distinctive English countryside trees, the English elm U. procera Salisb. is susceptible as it is the elm most favoured by the Scolytus beetles. Thirty years after the outbreak of the epidemic, nearly all these trees, which grew to more than 45 m high, are gone; the species still survives in hedgerows, as the roots send up root sprouts. These suckers reach more than 5 m tall before succumbing to a new attack of the fungus. However, established hedges kept low by clipping have remained healthy throughout the nearly 40 years since the onset of the disease in the UK; the largest concentrations of mature elms in Europe are now in The Hague. In 2005, Amsterdam was declared the "Elm City of Europe": the city’s streets and canals are lined with at least 75,000 elms, including several generations of research-elms; some 30,000 of the 100,000 mature trees in The Hague are elms, planted because of their tolerance of salty sea-winds. Since the 1990s, a programme of antifungal injections of the most prominent 10,000 elms, of sanitation felling, has reduc
All You Need Is Cash
All You Need Is Cash is a 1978 television film that traces the career of a fictitious British rock group called the Rutles. As TV Guide described it, the group's resemblance to the Beatles is "purely – and satirically – intentional"; the film was co-produced by the production companies of Eric Idle and Lorne Michaels, directed by Idle and Gary Weis. It was first broadcast on 22 March 1978 on NBC, earning the lowest ratings of any show on American Prime time network television that week, it did much better in the ratings when it premiered in the UK on BBC2 on 27 March 1978. All You Need Is Cash is a series of skits and gags that illustrate the fictional Rutles story following the chronology of the Beatles' career. Eric Idle as Dirk McQuickly, a parody of Paul McCartney. Press Agent & Lawyer, a parody of Derek Taylor George Harrison as The Interviewer Bianca Jagger as Martini McQuickly John Belushi as Ron Decline, the most feared promoter in the world, a parody of Allen Klein Dan Aykroyd as Brian Thigh, ex-record producer who turned down the Rutles, just as Decca had turned down the Beatles Gilda Radner as Mrs. Emily Pules Bill Murray as Bill Murray the K. Gwen Taylor as Mrs. Iris Mountbatten, a parody of Brian Epstein / Chastity, a parody of Yoko Ono Ron Wood as a Hell's Angel Terence Bayler as Leggy Mountbatten, a parody of Brian Epstein Henry Woolf as Arthur Sultan, the Surrey Mystic, a parody of the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Ollie Halsall as Leppo, the "fifth Rutle", a parody of the so-called "fifth Beatle", Stuart Sutcliffe Barry Cryer as Dick Jaws, a partial parody of music publisher and singer Dick James Frank Williams as record producer Archie Macaw, a partial parody of George Martin Jeannette Charles as Queen of England Mick Jagger as Himself Paul Simon as Himself Roger McGough as Himself The flim was co-written by Eric Idle and Neil Innes.
The music and events of the Rutles paralleled that of the Beatles, parodying many of the latter's career highlights. The animated film Yellow Submarine became the Yellow Submarine Sandwich, the song "Get Back" became "Get Up and Go"; the Rutles were played by Eric Idle, John Halsey, Ricky Fataar, Neil Innes. The band appeared in a sketch on Idle's programme Rutland Weekend Television in 1975; the film has many cameo appearances by both British and American comedians, including alumni of Monty Python, Saturday Night Live, Rutland Weekend Television. George Harrison has a cameo role as a television journalist conducting an interview outside the headquarters of Rutle Corps, oblivious to the stream of people coming out of the building carrying items stolen from the office; the interview ends abruptly. The film features cameos from Idle's fellow Python Michael Palin. Innes, a former member of the British musical comedy group Bonzo Dog Band and an associate of the Monty Python troupe, became acquainted with the Beatles when the Bonzo Dog Band had a cameo appearance in the film Magical Mystery Tour, in which they performed "Death Cab for Cutie".
Paul McCartney had produced the Bonzos' 1968 hit single, I'm the Urban Spaceman and sung by Innes. Fourteen of Innes' songs were released on a soundtrack album entitled The Rutles; the album was both critically and commercially successful and was nominated for a Grammy award for Best Comedy Recording of the year. The orchestrations and arrangements for the Rutles recordings were made by film composer John Altman. John Halsey, Ricky Fataar, Neil Innes performed their own respective musical and vocal parts, but Eric Idle's vocals were sung by Ollie Halsall, who played the lead guitar parts; the show has been released on DVD in a 66-minute version incorporating cuts for syndication in a "special edition" restored to its full length of 76 minutes and with extras including a commentary by Idle. The full-length version replaces a spoof newsreel voiceover by Idle with an American-sounding announcer. In 2013, the show was given a Blu-ray release in the form of a double pack with "The Rutles 2: Can't Buy Me Lunch", once again in its original 76 minute version.
The soundtrack was reissued on CD. It included additional tracks from the original television sessions remixed in stereo by Neil Innes. Innes and Halsey returned in 1996 to record The Rutles Archaeology, but without the involvement of Eric Idle; the Rutles Soundtrack The Rutles 2: Can't Buy Me Lunch The Rutles Archaeology James, David E.. Rock'n' Film: Cinema's Dance with Popular Music. Oxford University Press. Pp. 177–179. ISBN 9780199387595. Retrieved 29 August 2016. All You Need Is Cash on IMDb Idle Thoughts, an interview with Eric Idle from March 2005 All You Need Is Cash on NBC-TV, part of an anonymous fan's website
Eugene Levy, is a Canadian actor, producer and writer. He is the only actor to have appeared in all eight of the American Pie films, in his role as Noah Levenstein, he plays nerdy, unconventional figures, with his humour deriving from his excessive explanations of matters and the way in which he deals with sticky situations. Levy is a regular collaborator of actor-director Christopher Guest, appearing in and co-writing four of his films, commencing with Waiting for Guffman. Levy received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts, in 2008, he was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011. Levy was born to a Jewish family in Ontario, his mother was a homemaker and his father was a foreman at an automobile plant. He went to Westdale Secondary School, attended McMaster University, he was vice-president of the McMaster Film Board, a student film group, where he met moviemaker Ivan Reitman. An alumnus of both the Second City and the sketch comedy series Second City Television, Levy plays unusual supporting characters with nerdish streaks.
His best-known role on SCTV is the dimwitted Earl Camembert, a newsanchor for the "SCTV News" and a parody of real-life Canadian newsman Earl Cameron. Celebrities impersonated by Levy on SCTV include: Perry Como, Ricardo Montalban, Alex Trebek, Sean Connery, Howard Cosell, Henry Kissinger, Menachem Begin, Bud Abbott, Milton Berle, John Charles Daly, Gene Shalit, Judd Hirsch, Jack Carter, Muammar al-Gaddafi, Tony Dow, James Caan, Lorne Greene, Rex Reed, Ralph Young, F. Lee Bailey, Ernest Borgnine, former Ontario chief coroner Dr. Morton Schulman, Norman Mailer, Neil Sedaka and Howard McNear as Floyd the Barber. Original Levy characterizations on SCTV are comic Bobby Bittman, scandal sheet entrepreneur Dr. Raoul Withers, "report on business" naïf Brian Johns, 3-D horror auteur Woody Tobias Jr. cheerful Leutonian accordionist Stan Schmenge, lecherous dream interpreter Raoul Wilson, hammer-voiced sports broadcaster Lou Jaffe, diminutive union patriarch Sid Dithers, fey current-events commentator Joel Weiss, buttoned-down panel show moderator Dougal Currie, smarmy Just for Fun emcee Stan Kanter, energetic used car salesman Al Peck, guileless security guard Gus Gustofferson, Phil the Garment King, the inept teen dance show host Rockin’ Mel Slirrup.
Though he has been the "above the title" star in only two films and Dangerous and The Man, he has featured prominently in many films. He is the co-writer and frequent cast member of Christopher Guest’s mockumentary features A Mighty Wind, where his sympathetic performance as unstable folksinger Mitch Cohen won kudos. In the 1980s and 1990s, he appeared in Splash, National Lampoon’s Vacation, Club Paradise, Stay Tuned and other comedies. Levy was the creator of Maniac Mansion, a television sitcom based on the LucasArts video game of the same name, he was seriously considered for the role of Toby Ziegler on The West Wing, a role that went to actor Richard Schiff. Levy, along with his son Dan Levy, is co-creator of Schitt's Creek, he stars in the show alongside his son as head of the Rose family, Johnny Rose. His daughter, Sarah Levy, portrays the waitress at the Schitt ` s Creek diner. Levy's career received a tremendous boost in 1999, when he was cast as the clueless but loving dad in the blockbuster American Pie.
Reprising the role in three film sequels and starring in four straight-to-video sequels made him something of a cult hero. Levy has been quoted as saying the American Pie series was a particular turning point in his career, affording him "a new perspective on his career at the time". Since working on the first two American Pie movies, Levy has worked with Steve Martin and Queen Latifah in Bringing Down the House, appeared with Martin in Cheaper by the Dozen 2. Levy again appeared as his famous character, Noah Levenstein, in the fourth theatrical film in the American Pie series, American Reunion, he is the only actor to appear in all eight American Pie films Levy, along with Christopher Guest and Michael McKean, was awarded the 2003 Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television, or Other Visual Media for the title song from A Mighty Wind. Levy appeared in the corner of a poster hanging outside the movie theatre in Springfield in the "See Homer Run" episode of The Simpsons..
In March 2006, it was announced. In 2002, the entire cast of SCTV was given a group star, although Levy is not mentioned on the actual star, he was still inducted as a part of the group; this makes him one of only four two-time honourees, alongside fellow SCTV alumni John Candy, Martin Short and Catherine O'Hara. Levy is one of only a handful of people who have won at least five Canadian Comedy Awards, including two for Best Writing and three for Best Male Performer. In 2008, the Governor General of Canada presented Levy with the Governor General's Performing Arts Awards, a lifetime achievement award considered "for their outstanding body of work and enduring contribution to the performing arts in Canada.". In 2010, Levy was a
I clowns is a 1970 film by Federico Fellini about the human fascination with clowns and circuses. The film was made for the Italian TV station RAI with an agreement that it would be released as a cinema feature. RAI and co-producer Leone Film compromised on its release, with RAI broadcasting it on Christmas Day, 1970, Leone Film releasing it theatrically in Italy the following day, December 26, 1970, it is a docufiction: part fantasy. The film has sometimes been referred to as the first mockumentary in film history, although 1964's A Hard Day's Night may have a superior claim to that distinction. Being documentary and fiction in one, The Clowns distinguishes itself by being a mockumentary with unique characteristics, not the least of, reflecting Fellini's own increasing fascination with how documentary films reflect "reality". Fellini would further explore this semi-fictional documentary genre in 1972's Fellini's Roma and 1987's Intervista, both of which contain unreliable depictions of Fellini himself making the film within the film narrative.
Riccardo Billi as Himself – Italian Clown Federico Fellini as Himself Gigi Reder as Himself – Italian Clown Tino Scotti as Himself – Italian Clown Valentini as Himself – Italian Clown Fanfulla as Himself – Italian Clown Merli as Himself – Italian Clown Carlo Rizzo as Himself – Italian Clown Colombaioni as Themselves – Italian Clowns Pistoni as Himself – Italian Clown Martana as Themselves – Italian Clowns Giacomo Furia as Himself – Italian Clown Alvaro Vitali as Himself Dante Maggio as Himself – Italian Clown Galliano Sbarra as Himself – Italian Clown Peppino Janigro as Himself – Italian Clown Carini as Himself – Italian Clown Maunsell as Himself – Italian Clown Nino Terzo as Himself – Italian Clown Osiride Pevarello as Clown Nino Vingelli as Himself – Italian Clown Alberto Sorrentino as Himself – Italian Clown Fumagalli as Himself – Italian Clown Valdemaro as Himself – Italian Clown Luigi Zerbinati as Himself – Italian Clown Ettore Bevilacqua as Himself – Italian Clown Maya Morin as Maya Anna Lina Alberti as Herself – Alvaro's mother Gasparin as Gasparino Alex asHimself – French Clown Georges Loriot as Himself – French Clown Maïs as Himself – French Clown Bario as Himself – French Clown Ludo as Himself – French Clown Nino as Himself – French Clown Charlie Rivel as Himself Pierre Étaix as Himself Annie Fratellini as Herself Victor Fratellini as Himself Jean-Baptiste Thiérrée as Himself Tristan Remy as Himself Liana Orfei as Herself Rinaldo Orfei as Himself Nando Orfei as Himself Franco Migliorini as Himself – Animal Tamer Anita Ekberg as Herself Maria Grazia Buccella as Herself Aristide Caporale as Railwayman Victoria Chaplin as Herself Liliana Chiari as Herself Dante Cleri as Fascist Shirley Corrigan as Audience member Feverello as Himself – Italian Clown Gustavo Fratellini as Himself – Italian Clown Adelina Poerio as Dwarf nun The Clowns at Rotten Tomatoes I clowns on IMDb
Land Without Bread
Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan is a 1933 documentary film directed by Luis Buñuel and co-produced by Buñuel and Ramón Acin. The narration was written by Buñuel, Rafael Sanchez Ventura, Pierre Unik, with cinematography by Eli Lotar. Abel Jacquin Alexandre O'Neill The film focuses on the Las Hurdes region of Spain, the mountainous area around the town of La Alberca, the intense poverty of its occupants, who were so backwards and isolated that bread was unknown. A main source of income for them was taking in orphan children, for whom they received a government subsidy. Buñuel, who made the film after reading the ethnographic study Las Jurdes: étude de géographie humaine by Maurice Legendre, took a Surrealist approach to the notion of the anthropological expedition; the result was a travelogue in which the narrator’s extreme descriptions of human misery of Las Hurdes contrasts with his flat and uninterested manner. Buñuel claimed: "I was able to film Las Hurdes thanks to Ramon Acin, an anarchist from Huesca...who one day at a cafe in Zaragoza told me,'Luis, if I won the lottery, I would put up the money for you to make a film.'
He won a hundred thousand pesetas...and gave me twenty thousand to make the film. With four thousand I bought a Fiat. One of Buñuel's points is that there are plenty of terrible subjects for a documentary right in Spain; the film was silent, though Buñuel himself narrated when it was first shown. A French narration by actor Abel Jacquin was added in Paris in 1935. Buñuel used extracts of Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 4 for the music. Buñuel slaughtered at least two animals to make Las Hurdes. One Hurdano claimed that he arranged for an ailing donkey to be covered with honey so he could film it being stung to death by bees, his crew shot a mountain goat that subsequently fell from a cliff for another sequence. Land Without Bread provoked such an uproar in Spain - Ruoff calls it a "revolutionary film" - that it was banned from 1933 to 1936. Critical reception for Land Without Bread has been positive. Ed Gonzalez from Slant Magazine awarded the film 4 out of 4 stars, writing, "Las Hurdes becomes a frightening call to arms, a fabulous open text that resists simple readings and questions humanity’s notion of progress."
Las Hurdes at AllMovie Land Without Bread on IMDb Las Hurdes at Rotten Tomatoes Las Hurdes at the TCM Movie Database
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon and Fellini's Casanova. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini a small town on the Adriatic Sea.
His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola. A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later; the couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children's magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi a prominent Rimini lawyer. In Mussolini’s Italy and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males, he visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex. The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni, 8½, Amarcord, he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification.
It seems to me that I have invented everything: childhood, nostalgias, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini, his first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan's Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating" and, in one year, had 67 absences. Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his having attended a class". Installed in a family pensione, he met the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons.
Fellini found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening? Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”, the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers and scriptwriters; these encounters led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine's editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy's most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally.
Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé. Retained on business