A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. In everyday use by musical ensembles such as bands and orchestras, the notes of a chord do not have to be played together at the same time and broken chords may, for many practical and theoretical purposes, constitute chords. Other chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in classical music, jazz. Triads commonly found in the Western classical tradition are major and minor chords, the descriptions major, minor and diminished are referred to collectively as chordal quality. Chords are classified by their root note—for instance, a C major triad consists of the pitch classes C, E. While most chords have at least three notes, power chords, which are used in rock music, particularly in hard rock. An ordered series of chords is called a chord progression, one example of a widely used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression, the simplest versions of which include tonic and dominant chords.
To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals which represent the number of steps up from the tonic note of the scale. Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, figured bass, macro symbols, the chords in a song or piece are given names which refer to their function. The chord built on the first note of a scale is called the tonic chord. The chord built on the note of a major scale is called the subdominant chord. The chord built on the degree of the major scale is called the dominant chord. There are names for the built on every note of the major scale. Chords can be played on instruments, including piano, pipe organ, guitar. Chords can be performed when multiple musicians play together in an ensemble or when multiple singers sing in a choir. The English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the sense of agreement and later. A sequence of chords is known as a progression or harmonic progression.
These are frequently used in Western music, a chord progression aims for a definite goal of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chord
Quartal and quintal harmony
In music, quartal harmony is the building of harmonic structures with a distinct preference for the intervals of the perfect fourth, the augmented fourth and the diminished fourth. Quintal harmony is harmonic structure preferring the perfect fifth, the augmented fifth, use of the terms quartal and quintal arises from a contrast, compositional or perceptual, with traditional tertian harmonic constructions. Quintal harmony is a term, and since the fifth is the inversion or complement of the fourth. Indeed, a circle of fifths can be arranged in fourths, in the Middle Ages, simultaneous notes a fourth apart were heard as a consonance. During the common practice period, this came to be heard either as a dissonance or as a consonance. In the 19th century, during the breakdown of tonality in classical music, Quartal harmony was developed in the early 20th century as a result of this breakdown and reevaluation of tonality. The Tristan chord is made up of the notes F♮, B♮, D♯, the bottom two notes make up an augmented fourth, the upper two make up a perfect fourth.
This layering of fourths in this context has been seen as highly significant, beethovens use of the chord is of short duration and it resolves in the accepted manner, whereas Wagners use lasts much longer and resolves in a highly unorthodox manner for the time. Wagners unusual chord is really a device to draw the listener into the argument which the composer is presenting to us. However, fourths become important in the opera, especially in the melodic development, at the beginning of the 20th century, fourth-based chords finally became an important element of harmony. Scriabin used a system of transposition using fourth-chords, like his Mystic chord in his Piano Sonata No.6. Scriabins sketches for his unfinished work Mysterium show that he intended to develop the Mystic chord into a huge chord incorporating all twelve notes of the chromatic scale, in France, Erik Satie experimented with planing in the stacked fourths of his 1891 score for Le Fils des étoiles. Quartal harmony in Ravels Sonatine and Ma mère loye would follow a few years later, composers who use the techniques of quartal harmony include Claude Debussy, Francis Poulenc, Alexander Scriabin, Alban Berg, Leonard Bernstein, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, and Anton Webern.
Arnold Schoenbergs Chamber Symphony Op.9 displays quartal harmony, the first measures construct a five-part fourth chord with the notes C – F – B♭ – E♭ – A♭ distributed over several instruments. The composer picks out this vertical quartal harmony in a sequence of fourths from the horns. Schoenberg was one of the first to write on the consequences of this harmonic innovation. But the quartal construction makes possible, as I said, accommodation of all phenomena of harmony, for Anton Webern, the importance of quartal harmony lay in the possibility of building new sounds. After hearing Schoenbergs Chamber Symphony, Webern wrote You must write something like that, hindemith constructed large parts of his symphonic work Symphony, Mathis der Maler by means of fourth and fifth intervals
The alto saxophone, referred to as alto sax, is a member of the saxophone family of woodwind instruments invented by Belgian instrument designer Adolphe Sax in the 1840s, and patented in 1846. It is pitched in E♭, and is smaller than the tenor, the alto sax is the most common saxophone and is commonly used in classical music, military bands, marching bands, and jazz. The alto saxophone was commonplace in music from the 1980s. The saxophone fingerings are all universal, so a player can play any type of saxophone. The range of the saxophone is from concert A♭3 to concert A♭5. As with most types of saxophones, the standard range is B♭3 to F6. Above that, the altissimo register begins at F♯6 and extends upwards, the saxophones altissimo register is more difficult to control than that of other woodwinds and is usually only expected from advanced players. By covering or partially covering the bell of the saxophone when playing B♭3, of note is Kadri Gopalnath, a pioneer of Carnatic music, plays a modified alto saxophone.
Some companies that currently produce saxophones are Buffet Crampon, KHS/Jupiter, Conn-Selmer, Selmer Paris, Leblanc/Vito, Cannonball, new alto saxophones range in price between €250 for lower quality student models to over €6000 for professional models. The alto saxophone has a classical solo repertoire that includes solos with orchestra, piano. Two of the most well-known solo compositions are Jacques Iberts Concertino da Camera, the alto saxophone is part of the standard instrumentation of concert bands and saxophone quartets. The alto saxophone is used in orchestral compositions. Several orchestral examples are listed below, georges Bizet features it in the Minuet from the second suite of music from LArlésienne. He includes it in his Suite No.1 and Suite No.2, maurice Ravel uses the saxophone prominently in his orchestration of Modest Moussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition, most notably as the soloist in Il vecchio castello. Alban Berg uses the saxophone in his orchestral works, most notably Der Wein, Lulu.
Sergei Rachmaninoff uses the saxophone in his Symphonic Dances as a soloist in the first movement, george Gershwin includes it in a few pieces, such as Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris. Pierre Boulez wrote for 2 alto saxes in his composition Pli selon pli, benjamin Britten calls for an alto in his Sinfonia da Requiem and The Prince of the Pagodas. Leonard Bernstein includes an alto sax in his Symphonic Dances from West Side Story, vincent dIndy enlists two altos in his opera Fervaal
Wayne Shorter is an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Many of Shorters compositions have become standards, and his output has earned worldwide recognition, critical praise. Shorter first came to prominence in the late 1950s as a member of. In the 1960s, he went on to join Miles Daviss Second Great Quintet and he has recorded over 20 albums as a bandleader. Shorter has won 10 Grammy Awards, the New York Times has described Shorter as probably jazzs greatest living small-group composer and a contender for greatest living improviser. In 2017, he was awarded the Polar Music Prize, Wayne Shorter was born in Newark, New Jersey, and attended Newark Arts High School, from which he graduated in 1952. He loved music, being encouraged by his father to take up the clarinet as a teenager, after graduating from New York University in 1956, Shorter spent two years in the U. S. Army, during which time he played briefly with Horace Silver. After his discharge, he played with Maynard Ferguson, in his youth Shorter had acquired the nickname Mr.
Gone, which became an album title for Weather Report. In 1959, Shorter joined Art Blakey and he stayed with Blakey for five years, and eventually became the bands musical director. When John Coltrane left Miles Davis band in 1960 to pursue his own group, Coltrane proposed Shorter as a replacement, Davis went with Sonny Stitt on tenor, followed by a revolving door of Hank Mobley, George Coleman, and Sam Rivers. In 1964 Davis persuaded Shorter to leave Blakey and join his quintet alongside Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and he composed extensively for Davis, on some albums, he provided half of the compositions. Hancock said of Shorters tenure in the group, The master writer to me, Wayne was one of the few people who brought music to Miles that didnt get changed. Davis said, Wayne is a real composer and he writes scores, write the parts for everybody just as he wants them to sound. Wayne brought in a kind of curiosity about working with musical rules. If they didnt work, he broke them, but with musical sense, he understood that freedom in music was the ability to know the rules in order to them to your own satisfaction.
Shorter remained in Daviss band after the breakup of the quintet in 1968, playing on early jazz recordings including In a Silent Way. His last live dates and studio recordings with Davis were in 1970, until 1968, he played tenor saxophone exclusively. The final album on which he played tenor in the sequence of Davis albums was Filles de Kilimanjaro
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone, Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the players hands, or with a drum stick, to produce sound. There is usually a head on the underside of the drum. Other techniques have been used to cause drums to make sound, Drums are the worlds oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Drums may be played individually, with the using a single drum. Others are normally played in a set of two or more, all played by the one player, such as drums and timpani. A number of different drums together with form the basic modern drum kit. Drums are usually played by striking with the hand, or with one or two sticks, in many traditional cultures, drums have a symbolic function and are used in religious ceremonies.
Drums are often used in therapy, especially hand drums, because of their tactile nature. In popular music and jazz, drums usually refers to a kit or a set of drums. Drums acquired even divine status in places such as Burundi, where the karyenda was a symbol of the power of the king, the shell almost invariably has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the western tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example. Other shapes include a design, truncated cones, goblet shaped. Drums with cylindrical shells can be open at one end, or can have two drum heads, single-headed drums typically consist of a skin stretched over an enclosed space, or over one of the ends of a hollow vessel. Drums with two heads covering both ends of a shell often have a small hole somewhat halfway between the two heads, the shell forms a resonating chamber for the resulting sound. Exceptions include the African slit drum, known as a log drum as it is made from a tree trunk.
Drums with two heads can have a set of wires, called snares, held across the head, top head. The heads tension can be adjusted by loosening or tightening the rods, many such drums have six to ten tension rods
Music of India
The music of India includes multiple varieties of Indian classical music, folk music and Indian pop. Indias classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia, Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life. The basic concepts of music includes shruti, alankar, raga. Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called shrutis, not all equal, the Hindustani music tradition diverged from Carnatic music around the 13th-14th centuries CE. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times where the hymns in Sama Veda, developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India but in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Classical genres are dhrupad, khyal and sadra, the present of Carnatic music can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter. It originated in South India during the rule of Vijayanagar Empire, like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions.
It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Neraval and, in the case of advanced students, Tala. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, there are about 7.2 million ragas in Carnatic Music, with around 300 still in use today. Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its eight-week-long Music Season, Carnatic music has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has extended its influence to film music in the past 100–150 years or so. Light classical or semi-classical, among others, Dadra, Chaiti and Tappa, Rabindra Sangeet, known as Tagore songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India, Sangeet means music, Rabindra Sangeet means music of Rabindra. Rabindra Sangeet used Indian classical music and traditional music as sources. Rabindranath Tagore was a figure in Indian music.
Many singers in West Bengal and Bangladesh base their careers on the singing of Tagore musical masterpieces. The national anthem of India and national anthem of Bangladesh are Rabindra Sangeets, bihu is the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid April. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows, second day is for the man. Bihu dances and songs accompanied by drums and wind instruments are essential part of this festival
Kind of Blue
Kind of Blue is a studio album by American jazz trumpeter and bandleader Miles Davis. It was released on August 17,1959 by Columbia Records and recorded earlier that year on March 2 and April 22 at Columbias 30th Street Studio in New York City. Though precise figures have been disputed, Kind of Blue has been described by music writers not only as Daviss best-selling album. On October 7,2008 it was certified platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America. Kind of Blue has been regarded by critics as jazzs greatest record, Daviss masterpiece. Its influence on music, including jazz and classical genres, has led writers to deem it one of the most influential albums ever recorded, by late 1958, Davis employed one of the most acclaimed and profitable working bands pursuing the hard bop style. His personnel had become stable, alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, tenor saxophonist John Coltrane, pianist Bill Evans, long-serving bassist Paul Chambers and his band played a mixture of pop standards and bebop originals by Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, and Tadd Dameron.
As with all bebop-based jazz, Daviss groups improvised on the changes of a given song. Davis was one of jazz musicians growing dissatisfied with bebop. In 1953, the pianist George Russell published his Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization and this approach led the way to modal in jazz. Influenced by Russells ideas, Davis implemented his first modal composition with the track of his studio album Milestones. Satisfied with the results, Davis prepared an entire album based on modality, Kind of Blue was recorded on three-track tape in two sessions at Columbia Records 30th Street Studio in New York City. Production was handled by Teo Macero, who had produced Daviss previous two LPs, and Irving Townsend, as was Daviss penchant, he called for almost no rehearsal and the musicians had little idea what they were to record. As described in the liner notes by pianist Bill Evans, Davis had only given the band sketches of scales. Once the musicians were assembled, Davis gave brief instructions for each piece, while the results were impressive with so little preparation, the persistent legend that the entire album was recorded in one pass is untrue.
Only Flamenco Sketches yielded a complete take on the first try and that take, not the master, was issued in 1997 as a bonus alternate take. Pianist Wynton Kelly may not have been happy to see the man he replaced, Bill Evans, perhaps to assuage the pianists feelings, Davis had Kelly play instead of Evans on the albums most blues-oriented number, Freddie Freeloader. The live album Miles Davis at Newport 1958 documents this band, Kind of Blue is based entirely on modality in contrast to Daviss earlier work with the hard bop style of jazz and its complex chord progression and improvisation
A melody, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively and it may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody, melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches, pitch range and release, continuity and coherence, the true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody. All the parts of harmony have as their purpose only beautiful melody. Therefore, the question of which is the significant, melody or harmony, is futile. Beyond doubt, the means is subordinate to the end, given the many and varied elements and styles of melody many extant explanations confine us to specific stylistic models, and they are too exclusive.
Paul Narveson claimed in 1984 that more than three-quarters of melodic topics had not been explored thoroughly, melodies in the 20th century utilized a greater variety of pitch resources than ha been the custom in any other historical period of Western music. While the diatonic scale was used, the chromatic scale became widely employed. Composers allotted a structural role to the dimensions that previously had been almost exclusively reserved for pitch. Kliewer states, The essential elements of any melody are duration and quality, for example, Jazz musicians use the term lead or head to refer to the main melody, which is used as a starting point for improvisation. Rock music, melodic music, and other forms of popular music, indian classical music relies heavily on melody and rhythm, and not so much on harmony, as the music contains no chord changes. Balinese gamelan music often uses complicated variations and alterations of a melody played simultaneously. In western classical music, composers often introduce an initial melody, or theme, classical music often has several melodic layers, called polyphony, such as those in a fugue, a type of counterpoint.
Often, melodies are constructed from motifs or short melodic fragments, richard Wagner popularized the concept of a leitmotif, a motif or melody associated with a certain idea, person or place. Appropriation Hocket Parsons code, a notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion—the motion of the pitch up. Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. p. 517–19, the Art of Melody, p. xix–xxx. A Textbook of Melody, A course in functional melodic analysis, a History Of Melody and Rockliff, London
Woody Herman Shaw, Jr. was an American trumpeter, cornetist and band leader, described by NPR Music as the last great trumpet innovator. Shaw is regarded as one of the jazz band leaders and innovators of his generation. Born with a memory and perfect pitch, he was considered to have been generations ahead of his time. Woody Shaw was born on December 24,1944 in Laurinburg and he was taken to Newark, New Jersey by his parents, Rosalie Pegues and Woody Shaw, Sr. when he was one year old. Shaws mother was from the town as Gillespie, Cheraw. Shaw began playing the bugle at age nine and performed in the Junior Elks, Junior Mason, though not his first choice of instrument, he began studying classical trumpet with Jerome Ziering at Cleveland Junior High School at the age of 11. In a 1978 interview, Shaw explained, The trumpet was not my first choice for an instrument, in fact, I ended up playing it by default. When we were asked what we wanted to play in the Eighteenth Avenue School Band, I chose the violin and my second choice was the saxophone or the trombone but they were all spoken for.
The only instrument that was left was the trumpet, and I felt why did I have to get stuck with this tinny sounding thing. When I complained to my music teacher that I didnt think it was fair that all the kids got to play the instruments they wanted. He said he had a feeling about me and the trumpet. Of course my teacher was right, and it didnt take long for me to fall in love with the trumpet, in retrospect, I believe there was some mystical force that brought us together. His first influences were Louis Armstrong and Harry James, after skipping two grades, he began attending Newark Arts High School, from which he graduated. As a teenager, Shaw worked professionally at weddings, dances and he eventually left school but continued his study of the trumpet under the influence of Gillespie, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Booker Little, Lee Morgan, and Freddie Hubbard. He discovered that he had picked up the trumpet during the month and year that Brown died. In 1963, after many local jobs, Shaw worked for Willie Bobo and performed and recorded as a sideman with Eric Dolphy, with whom he made his recorded debut.
Dolphy, who had moved to Paris around this time, unexpectedly died in June 1964, Shaw was nonetheless invited to Paris to join Dolphys collaborator, Nathan Davis, and the two found steady work all over Europe. After some time, Shaw demanded that two of his contemporaries, organist Larry Young and drummer Billy Brooks, be brought to Paris
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
Alfred McCoy Tyner is a jazz pianist from Philadelphia, known for his work with the John Coltrane Quartet and a long solo career. Tyner was born in Philadelphia as the oldest of three children and he was encouraged to study piano by his mother. He began studying the piano at age 13 and within two years music had become the point in his life. His early influences included Bud Powell, a Philadelphia neighbor, when he was 17, he converted to Islam through the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and changed his name to Sulieman Saud. Tyners first main exposure came with Benny Golson, being the first pianist in Golsons, after departing the Jazztet, Tyner joined John Coltranes group in 1960 during its extended run at the Jazz Gallery, replacing Steve Kuhn. He appeared on the popular recording of My Favorite Things for Atlantic Records. At the Village Vanguard, Live at Birdland, Crescent, A Love Supreme, Tyner has recorded a number of highly influential albums in his own right. While in Coltranes group, he recorded a series for Impulse and his involvement with Coltrane came to an end in 1965.
All I could hear was a lot of noise, I didnt have any feeling for the music, and when I dont have feelings, I dont play. By 1966, Tyner was rehearsing with a new trio and embarked on his career as a leader and his music for Blue Note and Milestone often took the Coltrane quartets music as a point of departure and incorporated African and East Asian musical elements. On Sahara, for instance, Tyner plays koto, in addition to piano and these albums are often cited as examples of vital, innovative jazz from the 1970s that was neither fusion nor free jazz. Trident is notable for featuring Tyner on harpsichord and celeste, in addition to his primary instrument, Tyner still records and tours regularly and played from the 1980s through 1990s with a trio that included Avery Sharpe on bass and first Louis Hayes, Aaron Scott, on drums. He made a trio of solo recordings for Blue Note, starting with Revelations, today Tyner records for the Telarc label and has been playing with different trios, one of which has included Charnett Moffett on bass and Al Foster on drums.
In 2008, Tyner toured with his quartet, which featured saxophonist Gary Bartz with Gerald Cannon, McCoy was a judge for the 6th, 10th and 11th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists careers. Tyners style of piano is easily comparable to Coltranes maximalist style of saxophone, though a member of Coltranes group, he was never overshadowed by the saxophonist, but complemented and even inspired Coltranes open-minded approach. Tyner is considered to be one of the most influential pianists of the 20th century. Though playing instruments of vastly different versatility, both Tyner and Coltrane utilize similar scales, chordal structures, melodic phrasings, and rhythms, tyners unique right-hand soloing is recognizable for a detached, or staccato, quality. Tyner is the brother of Jarvis Tyner, executive vice chairman of the Communist Party USA