Mode field diameter

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In fiber optics, the mode field diameter (MFD) is an expression of distribution of the irradiance, i.e., the optical power per unit area, across the end face of a single-mode fiber.

For a Gaussian intensity (i.e., power density, W/m2) distribution in a single-mode optical fiber, the mode field diameter is that at which the electric and magnetic field strengths are reduced to 1/e of their maximum values, i.e., the diameter at which power density is reduced to 1/e2 of the maximum power density, because the power density is proportional to the square of the field strength.

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 This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".