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Modern Hebrew phonology

Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex. It has 5 to 10 vowels, depending on the speaker and the analysis. Hebrew has been used for liturgical and scholarly purposes for most of the past two millennia; as a consequence, its pronunciation was influenced by the vernacular of individual Jewish communities. With the revival of Hebrew as a native language, with the establishment of Israel, the pronunciation of the modern language coalesced; the two main accents of modern Hebrew are Non-Oriental. Oriental Hebrew was chosen as the preferred accent for Israel by the Academy of the Hebrew Language, but has since declined in popularity; the description in this article follows the language as it is pronounced by native Israeli speakers of the younger generations. According to the Academy of the Hebrew Language, in the 1880s there were three groups of Hebrew regional accents: Ashkenazi and Mizrahi. Over time features of these systems of pronunciation merged, nowadays we find two main pronunciations of colloquial – not liturgical – Hebrew: Oriental and Non-Oriental.

Oriental Hebrew displays traits of an Arabic substrate. Old oriental speakers tend to use an alveolar trill, preserve the pharyngeal consonants /ħ/ and /ʕ/, preserve gemination, pronounce /e/ in some places where non-Oriental speakers do not have a vowel. A limited number of Oriental speakers, for example old Yemenite Jews maintain some pharyngealized consonants found in Arabic, such as /sˤ/ for Biblical /tsʼ/. Non-Oriental pronunciation lost the emphatic and pharyngeal sounds of Biblical Hebrew under the influence of Indo-European languages; the pharyngeals /ħ/ and /ʕ/ are preserved by older Oriental speakers. Dialectally, Georgian Jews pronounce /ʕ/ as, while Western European Sephardim and Dutch Ashkenazim traditionally pronounce it, a pronunciation that can be found in the Italian tradition and in south-west Germany. However, according to Sephardic and Ashkenazic authorities, such as the Mishnah Berurah and the Shulchan Aruch and Mishneh Torah, /ʕ/ is the proper pronunciation. Thus, it is still pronounced as such by some Ashkenazim.

The classical pronunciation associated with the consonant ר rêš /r/ was a flap, was grammatically ungeminable. In most dialects of Hebrew among the Jewish diaspora, it remained a trill. However, in some Ashkenazi dialects of northern Europe it was a uvular rhotic, either a trill or a fricative; this was because most native dialects of Yiddish were spoken that way, the liturgical Hebrew of these speakers carried the Yiddish pronunciation. Some Iraqi Jews pronounce rêš as a guttural, reflecting Baghdad Jewish Arabic. An unrelated uvular rhotic is believed to have appeared in the Tiberian pronunciation of Hebrew, where it may have coexisted with additional non-guttural articulations of /r/ depending on circumstances. Though an Ashkenazi Jew in the Russian Empire, the Zionist Eliezer Ben-Yehuda based his Standard Hebrew on Sephardi Hebrew spoken in Spain, therefore recommended an alveolar. However, just like him, the first waves of Jews to resettle in the Holy Land were Ashkenazi, Standard Hebrew would come to be spoken with their native pronunciation.

By now nearly all Israeli Jews pronounce the consonant ר rêš as a uvular approximant. Which exists in Yiddish. Many Jewish immigrants to Israel spoke a variety of Arabic in their countries of origin, pronounced the Hebrew rhotic consonant /r/ as an alveolar trill, identical to Arabic ر rāʾ, which followed the conventions of old Hebrew. In modern Ashkenazi and Mizrahi poetry and folk music, as well as in the standard Hebrew used in the Israeli media, an alveolar rhotic is sometimes used; the following table lists the consonant phonemes of Israeli Hebrew in IPA transcription: 1 Descriptions of /x/ vary between velar and uvular. In modern Hebrew /ħ/ for ח has been absorbed by /x/, traditionally only for fricative כ, though some older Mizrahi speakers still separate these. 2 The glottal consonants are elided in unstressed syllables, sometimes in stressed syllables as well, but are pronounced in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew /ʕ/ for ע has been absorbed by /ʔ/, traditionally only for א, though some speakers still separate these.

3 /r/ is pronounced as a uvular fricative or approximant, sometimes as a uvular or alveolar trill or alveolar flap, depending on the background of the speaker. Nurit Dekel gives an additional alternative velar fricative. 4 The phonemes /w, dʒ, ʒ/ were introduced through borrowings. 5 The phoneme /tʃ/ צ׳ was introduced through borrowings, but it can appear in native words as a sequence of /t/ ת and /ʃ/ שׁ as in תְּשׁוּקָה /tʃuˈka/. For some young speakers, obstruents assimilate in voicing. Voiceless obstruents become voiced when they appear before voiced obstruents, vice versa. For example: לִסְגֹּר /lis'ɡoʁ/ >, /s/ > זְכוּת /zxut/ >, /z/ > חֶשְׁבּוֹן /xeʃ'bon/ >, /ʃ/ > מַדְפֶּסֶת /mad'peset >, /d/ > אַבְטָחָה /avta'xa/ > ('security

Major Holland

Major Holland was an English rugby league footballer of the early 20th century. Born in Halifax, West Riding of Yorkshire, Holland played at fullback for Huddersfield between 1909 and 1921 and, for Bramley. Holland was signed by Huddersfield in 1908 after a trial match and made his debut against Bramley in January 1909. In the 1913 -- 14 season Holland was the leading points scorer, he set a Huddersfield club record of 39 points in the Challenge Cup match against amateur side Swinton Park by a record score of 119–2. The following season Holland was a member of Huddersfield's Team of all talents that won all four trophies available to them; the final of the Challenge Cup being won 37–3 against St. Helens at Watersheddings, Oldham on 1 May 1915; when the league resumed after the First World War Holland won another Challenge Cup winner's medal as Huddersfield beat Wigan 21–10 at Headingley, Leeds. In September 1921 Holland left Huddersfield and joined Bramley, however only 18 months he was placed on the transfer list by Bramley and joined new formed club, Sheffield Hornets, in the Yorkshire Senior League ending a 15-year association with the professional game.

Away from rugby Holland was a publican for many years and was the licensee of the Crescent Hotel, Huddersfield at the time of his death in August 1953, having run the Calder and Hebble Hotel in Salterhebble

Ronnie Williams (basketball)

Ronnie Williams is an American former professional basketball player. He played college basketball with the Florida Gators, where he was a four-time All-SEC selection and led the team in scoring each season he played. Williams holds the Gators' records in points, field goals made, free throws made and free throws attempted, he was selected by the Boston Celtics as the 47th overall pick in the 1984 NBA draft but never played in the National Basketball Association. He has played in the Continental Basketball Association for the Tampa Bay Thrillers, the Pensacola Tornados and the Mississippi Jets. After his first season in the CBA he was back with the Boston Celtics for the 1985–86 preseason, but was cut in early October 1985 by Celtics coach K. C. Jones. Williams played with the Palm Beach Stingrays of the United States Basketball League in 1987 and in 1988, he was released after one month with the team on June 22, 1988. Williams was suspended along with three teammates for the first month of the 1982–83 season due to a telephone fraud case.

Williams, Vernon Delancy, Tony Rogers and Rodney Williams of the Florida Gators basketball team, along with Gators football player Lorenzo Hampton and sprinter Roger Dixon, were charged with making more than $1,600 in illegal telephone calls and placing them on the University Athletic Association's bill. The suspended players were required to repay the telephone company and maintain good behavior for one year. College statistics CBA statistics

Otto Tre├čler

Otto Treßler Otto Tressler, was a German-Austrian stage and film actor. He appeared in 43 films between 1915 and 1962, he was born in Stuttgart and died in Vienna, Austria. He was a close friend to Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria. 1902: court actor 1931: Honorary citizen of the City of Vienna 1935: Councillor 1937: Austrian Cross of Merit for Art and Science, First Class 1937: Honorary Ring of the Vienna 1938: State actor 1941: Goethe Medal for Art and Science 1942: Gold Civil Service Faithful Service Medal 1951: Honorary Ring of the City of Vienna 1956: Grand Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria 1961: Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1961: Freeman of the University of Vienna 1963: Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class Otto Treßler on IMDb

Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (Uganda)

The Ministry of Finance and Economic Development is a cabinet-level government ministry of Uganda. Its mandate is to formulate sound economic and fiscal policies, mobilize resources for the implementation of government programmes, disburse public resources as appropriated by Parliament, account for their use in accordance with national laws and international best practices; the cabinet minister of finance is Matia Kasaija. MoFPED was created by the 1995 Constitution of Uganda and derives its power from the Constitution and related acts of parliament, including the 2001 Budget Act and the 2003 Public Finance and Accountability Act. MoFPED was created by the 1995 Constitution of Uganda, at the time, there were two departments: a Ministry of Finance and a Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. By 1995, the government launched the Poverty Eradication Action Plan in order to prioritise poverty eradication. was formulated after a long consultative process with a wide range of stakeholders.

The process was spearheaded by MPED. In 1998, the MoF and MPED were merged into the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, which the World Bank noted was "critical in establishing fiscal discipline, while building links between policy formulation and budgeting"; the merger led to an emphasis on coordinating the budget process and introducing output-oriented budgeting within a medium-term expenditure framework. Many of these early reforms had a "cutting-edge dimension". Implementation, had a lot of room for improvement. In 2010, MoFPED started receiving detailed project-by-project reports on budget allocations and quarterly expenditures from local governments through a digital budget reporting tool. However, local stakeholders, including elected representatives whose mandate it is to monitor service provision, are unaware of this information. In order to solve this issue, MoFPED partnered with Innovations for Poverty Action, the Overseas Development Institute, Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment in 2014 to launch a Budget Transparency Initiative to make department, project-, location-specific budget information available to politicians, opinion leaders, the public as well as mobilize them to monitor and provide feedback on the spending and services provided by government institutions.

The ministry is divided into the following political and administrative sub-divisions: Minister of Finance and Economic Development Matia Kasaija. The minister is responsible for Formulation of fiscal and monetary policies Control and management of public finance Prepare and lay before Parliament the Annual Budget Mobilise domestic and external resources and Responsible for accountability to the Parliament of Uganda. Minister of State for General Duties Gabriel Ajedra Aridru; the minister of state is responsible for deputising the Senior Minister, responsible for parliamentary matters responsible for procurement matters responsible for the Departed Asians Property Custodian Board and responsible for regional matters. Minister of State for Planning David Bahati; this state minister is responsible for spearheading economic planning and monitoring capacity building poverty eradication issues population matters, statistics and technology issues and may deputise/represent/act for the Senior Minister.

Minister of State for Privatization and Investment Evelyn Anite. The state minister for privatisation is responsible for promotion of investment, supervision of Uganda Investment Authority, responsible for private sector issues responsible for the Capital Markets Authority responsible for supervision of privatization and the parastatal reform program and may perform any other official duties assigned by the Senior Minister. Minister of State for Micro Finance and Enterprise Development Haruna Kasolo Kyeyune; this state minister is responsible for development and implementation of government's micro finance policy and regulation development of policies for community based enterprises and may perform any other official duties assigned by the Senior Minister. MoFPED supervises the following government agencies: Insurance Regulatory Authority of Uganda Uganda National Council of Science and Technology The Microfinance Support Centre Limited Tax Appeals Tribunal National Enterprise Corporation Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Authority Uganda Investment Authority Economic Policy Research Centre The Population Secretariat Departed Asians Property Custodian Board Non-Performing Assets Recovery Trust Non-Performing Assets Recovery Tribunal The ministry works with the following autonomous government agencies: Uganda Bureau of Statistics Uganda Revenue Authority Bank of Uganda Capital Markets Authority of Uganda National Planning Authority Uganda Property Holding Uganda Development Bank Limited Economy of Uganda Government of Uganda Cabinet of Uganda Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Ministry of Finance and Economic Development - Directory of auxiliary institutions to the Ministry

Clive MacDonnell Dixon

Major Clive MacDonnell Dixon was an English illustrator and soldier, best known for the charming images in his book The Leaguer of Ladysmith, created during the four-month Siege of Ladysmith in South Africa. This material appeared in the Ladysmith Lyre at the time of the siege; the Sphere praised the book, describing it as'highly humorous and showing comic sketching genius'. Dixon was the fifth-born in a family of 6 daughters and 2 sons of Sir Raylton Dixon, shipbuilder from Cleveland Dockyard, Middlesbrough-on-Tees, mayor of Middlesbrough in 1889, himself an amateur artist and caricaturist, great, great grandson of George Dixon and great great nephew of Jeremiah Dixon. Dixon attended Rugby School and Sandhurst before embarking on a military career when he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 16th Lancers on 8 October 1890, he was promoted to lieutenant on 27 January 1893, to captain on 28 January 1899. During the early part of the Second Boer War 1899-1900 he was aide-de-camp to Sir George White.

He was appointed adjutant to his regiment on 22 March 1900, served as such for the rest of the war, during which he was promoted a brevet major on 29 November 1900. Dixon resigned from the army in August 1902 following the end of the war, returned home on the SS Scot in September 1902, he re-enlisted after the outbreak of the First world war, was killed at Ypres shortly after receiving the substantive promotion to Major. Dixon married Lilian Margaret Bell daughter of John Bell of Rushpool Hall, with whom he had three sons, Raylton and William and three daughters Margaret and Barbara, he was buried in the Nieuwkerke Churchyard in Belgium. Several watercolours by Dixon are kept by the Africana Museum