Zakat is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer in importance. As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth, it is a mandatory charitable contribution considered to be a tax. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars. Zakat is based on the value of all of one's possessions, it is customarily 2.5% of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor, the needy, Zakat collectors, those sympathetic to Islam, to free from slavery, for debt relief, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller. Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful, zakat is mandated and collected by the state.
Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors. Zakat means "that which purifies". Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul, so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God." The Quran discusses charity in many verses. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is described as obligatory for Muslims, it is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between a Muslim. Verse 2.177 sums up the Quranic view of charity and alms giving: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West.
And those who keep their treaty when they make one, the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they; such are the God fearing. - 2:177 According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the Quran makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, practice zakat they are your brethren in faith". The Quran lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below; each of the most trusted. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24, Sahih Muslim's Book 5, Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much and what; the 2.5% rate is mentioned in the hadiths. The hadiths admonish those. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, God will not accept the prayers of such people; the sunna describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be punished.
The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment; the hadith warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it. The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses; the Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets is 2.5%. Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20%, depending on the type of goods. Zakat is payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops and minerals.
Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Unlike prayers, we observe that the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't; some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for women's jewelry; some require certain minimum for zakat
The fals was a medieval copper coin first produced by the Umayyad caliphate beginning in the late 7th century. The name is a corruption of follis, a Roman and Byzantine copper coin; the fals featured ornate Arabic script on both sides. Various copper fals were produced until the 19th century, their weight varied, from one gram to ten grams or more. The term is still used in modern spoken Arabic for money, but pronounced'fils'. Daughter currencies: Fils, a subdivision of the dinar, dirham or rial Falus, coin of Morocco
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, as a component of various health foods, it is used in soups and stews, in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2016, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind maize and wheat; the Old English word for'barley' was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley"; the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
The word barn, which meant "barley-house", is rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family, it is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley is the ancestor of domestic barley. Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle spike. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes.
The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele; each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect. Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. Spikelets are arranged in triplets. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile; this condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.
Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used. Hulless or "naked" barley is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, for its value-added products.
These include flour for multiple food applications. In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L. six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. VocabularyDON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of Fusarium head blight known as vomitoxin Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level Nutans: A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to'erectum' (with an erect ea
Imran N. Hosein
Imran Nazar Hosein is an Islamic scholar and philosopher specializing in Islamic eschatology, world politics and modern socio-economic/political issues. He is the author of Jerusalem in other books. Hosein served as Principal of the Aleemiyah Institute of Islamic Studies in Karachi as well as Imam at Masjid Dar al-Qur'an in Long Island, New York, he led the weekly Jumu'ah prayers and delivered the sermon at the United Nations headquarters in Manhattan once a month for ten years. Official website
El-Mansuriya or Mansuriya, near Kairouan, was the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate during the rule of the Ismaili Shia Muslim Imams al-Mansur Billah and al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah. Built between 946 and 972, el-Mansuriya was a walled city holding elaborate palaces surrounded by gardens, artificial pools and water channels, it was the centre of a powerful state that encompassed most of North Africa and Sicily. It continued to serve as provincial capital of the Zirids until 1057, when it was destroyed by the invading Banu Hilal tribes. Any useful objects or relics were scavenged during the centuries. Today, only faint traces remain; the Fatimid Caliphate originated in an Ismaili Shia movement launched in Syria by Abd Allah al-Akbar. He claimed descent through Ismail, the seventh Shia imam, from the Islamic prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah; the Fatimid Dynasty is named after Fatimah. In 899 Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah became leader of the movement, he fled from his enemies to Sijilmasa in Morocco, where he proselytized under the guise of being a merchant.
El-Mahdi was supported by a noble man named Abu Abdullah al-Shi'i, who organized a Berber uprising that overthrew the Tunisian Aghlabid dynasty, invited el-Mahdi to assume the position of imam and caliph. A new capital was established at Mahdia; the Fatimid Caliphate grew to include Sicily and to stretch across North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to Libya. The third Fatimid caliph in Ifriqiya was an Ismaili Shia leader, he was invested as Imam on 12 April 946 in el-Mahdia, five weeks before his father died in great pain. He took the name el-Mansur, "the victor." At the time, el-Mahdia was under siege by the Kharidji rebel Abu Yazid. El-Mansur launched his campaign against Abu Yazid, by August 946 had gained the upper hand in the battle for control of Kairouan. After his victory, he decided to found his new capital city at the site of his camp in the battle, just south of Kairouan, he laid out the plan after the battle, in 946, although it would take another year of struggle before Abu Yazid was defeated.
El-Mansuriya was located less than 2 kilometres south of the existing city of Kairouan. It replaced el-Mahdia as the capital of the empire. El-Mansur moved to the new city in 948; the Kharijite rebels had destroyed the Aghlabid city of Raqqada, building materials were taken from this old residence. The new city covered an area of about 100 hectares; the city was circular, as was the original Baghdad, the choice of layout may have been intended as a challenge to the Sunni Muslim Abbasid Caliphate based in Baghdad. The walls were twelve cubits wide; the space between the walls and the interior buildings was equal to the width of a highway. The city included a congregational mosque; the caliph's palace was near the center of the city, which contained other palaces used for ceremonial and administrative purposes. The main palace was called Sabra; the palace grounds covered an area of 44 hectares. The historian Ibn Hammad described the palace buildings as high and splendid structures surrounded by gardens and waters.
They demonstrated the power of the caliph. The names give some hint of the nature of the palaces: the Camphor Audience Hall, the Chamber of the Diadem, the Fragrant Audience Hall and the Silver Chamber. El-Mansuriya was completed under al-Muizz li-Din Allah, who ensured the water supply with the construction of an aqueduct; this aqueduct, 36 kilometres in length, was based on a similar structure built by the Aghlabids. El-Muizz built a new canal on the aqueduct and added a 9 kilometres extension to carry water to el-Mansuriya. El-Muizz had a great hall built, its massive columns, more than 1 metre in diameter, were brought from a day's march away. Construction of the city was not completed until 972, the year; the city was a royal residence. It contained palaces, gardens, a menagerie with lions and the royal stables. El-Mansur set up a souq, or marketplace. However, according to Ibn Muhadhdhab, "el-Muizz commanded the merchants of Kairouan to come to their shops and workshops in el-Mansuriya in the mornings, to return home to their families in the evenings."
Tolls amounting to 26,000 silver dirhams were collected daily on goods entering the city through the four gates. In its heyday, el-Mansuriya was the capital of a state that encompassed most of North Africa from Morocco to Libya, as well as Sicily, although it had to guard against attack from the Byzantine Empire and from King Otto I of Germany, both active in southern Italy. In 957, an embassy from Byzantium brought the tribute from the Emperor for his occupation of Calabria from there, with gifts of gold and silver vessels adorned with jewels, silks and other valuables. In Italy, El-Muizz planned the invasion of Egypt, whose conquest would make the Fatimids rivals in power to the Abbasids in Baghdad; the Fatimid general, conquered Egypt in 969. He built a new palace city in Egypt, near Fustat, which he called el-Mansuriya; when the imam arrived in 973, the name was changed to el-Qahra. The new city was rectangular rather than round in plan. Both cities had mosques named el-Azhar after the prophet Muhammad's daughter, Fatima el-Azhar, both had gates named Bab el-Futuh and Bab Zuwaila.
Both cities had two palaces, for his heir, opposite each other. After the Fatimid caliphs moved to Egypt, el-Mansuriya remained the capital of the Zirids, who became the local rulers, for the next eighty-five years; the Zirid ruler el-Mansur bin B
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
Tuan Guru Dato' Bentara Setia Haji Nik Abdul Aziz bin Nik Mat was a Malaysian politician and Muslim cleric. He was the Menteri Besar of Kelantan from 1990 to 2013 and the Mursyidul Am or Spiritual Leader of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party from 1991 until his death in 2015. Overall, his career as an elected politician lasted for some 48 years following his election to the Parliament of Malaysia in 1967. Nik Abdul Aziz was born in Kota Bharu in 1931 as the second of five siblings, he was raised by a single father, an aspiring blacksmith. Nik Aziz's Islamic studies began in pondok schools in Terengganu, he went on to study at Darul Uloom Deoband in India for five years. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts in Arabic Studies and Master of Arts in Islamic jurisprudence from Al-Azhar University, Egypt. During his university studies, he was one of the witnesses and a civilian to have lived in the heat of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Having returned from Egypt, Nik Aziz began as a teacher at various religious schools in Kelantan, hence his popular nickname "Tok Guru."
Nik Aziz joined PAS in 1967. He contested and won the Kelantan Hilir parliamentary seat by-election in that same year, held the seat until 1986. In 1982, he was part of a movement by young members to bring change to the party leadership. PAS had lost the Kelantan state elections in 1978 and, as PAS state commissioner, Nik Aziz began to question president Asri Muda's leadership. In the PAS Muktamar that year, Asri was forced to resign. After stepping aside from federal politics, Nik Aziz won a seat in the Kelantan State Assembly in the 1986 general elections. In 1990, PAS managed to wrest control of Kelantan back from Barisan Nasional. In his capacity as party leader in the state, Nik Aziz became Menteri Besar of Kelantan, he succeeded Yusof Rawa as spiritual leader of PAS in 1991. Nik Aziz's government was re-elected on four occasions, until his retirement in 2013. During the 1990s, his administration in Kelantan clashed on the role of Islam in Malaysia with the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. In contrast with the racially exclusive ruling party UMNO, he rejected communal politics.
Nik Aziz commanded support from a large number of non-Muslims in Malaysia and played a leading role during PAS' increase in popularity among non-Muslims. Nik Aziz drew some criticism for his hardline Islamic views, his advocacy of Islamic shariah law for all Malay Muslims drew criticism, as did his suggestion that women would be at a lower risk of being raped if they abandoned using their lipstick and perfume, for a 15-year ban on the game of snooker. He was recorded once stating that fashionable and sexy-dressing women deserved to be raped during a ceramah. In 2012, there was an issue of Catholics in Malaysia using the Arabic term for "God". Nik Aziz stated that the word "Allah" can be used by non-Muslims as the origin of the word itself is evidently pre-Islamic; the issue caused a stir in the Muslim community. The PAS party was divided into two blocs. Aiming to restore unity in PAS, Nik Aziz took back his words and disapproved of the word "Allah" being used by non-Muslims, his son Nik Adli was held under the Malaysian Internal Security Act in 2001 for alleged terrorist activities including planning jihad, possession of weapons, membership in the Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia, an Islamist extremist group.
After 5 years in detention without trial, he was released. Nik Aziz retired as Chief Minister of Kelantan at the 2013 election. PAS was re-elected and Nik Aziz's deputy, Ahmad Yaakob, took his place. Over the ensuing two years, Nik Aziz became ill with prostate cancer, died on 12 February 2015 at 9.40 p.m. Malaysia Standard Time; the following day, more than 10,000 people attended his funeral at Masjid Tok Guru, his local mosque. His death triggered the Kelantan State Assembly seat of Chempaka by-election, 2015. Note: 1 PAS were in the Alliance and Barisan Nasional coalition government. Official Blog of Tok Guru Nik Aziz Nik Mat A Day in a Life of Tok Guru Nik Aziz Nik Mat on YouTube
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric