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Modern language

A modern language is any human language, in use. The term is used in language education to distinguish between languages which are used for day-to-day communication and dead classical languages such as Latin and Classical Chinese, which are studied for their cultural or linguistic value. SIL Ethnologue defines a living language as "one that has at least one speaker for whom it is their first language". Modern languages are taught extensively around the world. English is taught as a foreign language in many countries. In Asia most children learn an official version of their native language or learn a local major lingua franca in Asia-Pacific countries, all subjects are taught in that lingua franca language except for foreign language lessons. Singapore, in which English is taught as a first language, is an exception. In India and English are used for official communication and are both compulsory language to learn in many schools; some students however study other Indian languages. English is the most-studied foreign language in the People's Republic of China, Pakistan, South Korea, Republic of China and Hong Kong.

In China, English is a required language starting in third grade, although the quality of instruction varies greatly. In Nepal all subjects are taught in English, except for Nepali literature. In Pakistan, English has the status of an official language and is used within the government, by the civil service and the officer ranks of the military. Pakistan's Constitution and laws are written in English, it is taught extensively in both public and private schools. Studying of English is compulsory in Pakistan along with Urdu. Regional languages of Pakistan are open to choice and a student is free to either pursue them or not. Nearly all schools and universities use English as the medium of instruction. In Malaysia and English are taught as compulsory languages from the first year of primary school with the exception of publicly funded vernacular schools. In the latter, either Mandarin or Tamil are taught as additional compulsory languages. In non-vernacular schools, all subjects with the exception of the sciences and mathematics are taught in Malay.

In vernacular schools, all subjects with the exception of the sciences and mathematics are taught in the primary language, used in the respective schools. The sciences and mathematics are taught in English, although some Mandarin vernacular schools have dispensation to teach those subjects concurrently in Mandarin. In Sri Lanka, where the official state languages are Sinhalese and English, all government schools instruct either in Sinhala or Tamil. A few higher-level government schools offer instruction in English. All students studying in Sinhalese or English are taught English as a second language. All students studying in Sinhalese are taught Tamil as a second language, vice versa. Language study in the Middle East and North Africa varies from one country to another depending on the foreign nation that colonized or occupied the country. For instance, in Algeria and Tunisia, French is the most studied language besides the native Arabic, while in Egypt and the Persian Gulf countries, English is the main supplementary language.

The teaching of languages other than Arabic English, is compulsory in all schools in southern and central Iraq and at all levels, being a requirement for graduation from school. In the Kurdistan Region, the Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, English is compulsory at all schools and all levels. In these countries and other foreign languages tend to be offered as subjects only in certain, wealthier schools. While Hebrew is the national language of Israel, English or Arabic are compulsory in elementary schools; as Egypt's economy depends on tourism, many modern languages are taught and spoken there. All children learn Arabic in school, but English is mandatory beginning with the first grade. Another language is mandatory for the last two years of high school. There are schools that specialize in particular languages. For instance, in French schools in Egypt students learn Arabic and English on, and in German schools in Egypt students learn Arabic and English and some basic French as well.

In all European Union school systems, it is mandatory to study at least one foreign language at some stage during the school career. Additional languages can be chosen as an optional subject; the most common foreign language chosen is English, followed by French and German. Some 90% of pupils learn English as a foreign language, whether the choice of language is obligatory or parental. Teaching is provided by generalist teachers in primary school and by specialists in middle and secondary schools. An exception to this is Ireland, where Irish Gaelic and English are the only mandatory languages, although the majority of students study a modern language as it may be compulsory to do so at second level. All children of the United Kingdom learn English at school. In Wales, all ch

Mauritius ornate day gecko

Mauritius ornate day gecko is a diurnal species of geckos. It occurs on the island Mauritius and some surrounding islands and inhabits different trees and bushes; the Mauritius ornate day gecko feeds on insects and nectar. This Gecko is one of the smallest day geckos, it can reach a total length of about 12 cm. The back of the neck and head are greyish bordered by white neck stripes; the body colour is quite variable. It can be bluish green, green with a blue area on the front back, or blue; the flanks are brown. The snout consists of an intricate pattern of cyan, white and dark blue; the back is covered with red coloured dots. The tail is turquoise with red transverse bars; the ventral side is off-white. This species is found on Round Island, Île aux Aigrettes and Coin de Mire, it is found in the coastal areas. Phelsuma ornata lives in the drier areas of Mauritius at low- and mid-elevation, it can be found on trees, other pantropic vegetation or on rocks where the original vegetation has been cleared.

These day geckos feed on other invertebrates. They like to lick soft, sweet fruit and nectar; this Phelsuma species can be quite shy in captivity. These day geckos are surprisingly speedy. At a temperature of 28 °C, the young will hatch after 40 days; the juveniles measure around 35 mm. In 2014, an experiment with five Mauritius ornate day geckos was launched to space in order to test the effect of microgravity on gecko reproduction; the geckos died from a combination of factors due to a loss of communication with the satellite, including a life support malfunction which deactivated the heating system. These animals should be housed in pairs in a well planted enclosure; the temperature dropped to around 20 °C at night. The humidity should be maintained between 60 % during the day and 80 -- 90 % at night. In captivity, these animals can be fed with crickets, wax moth larvae, fruit flies and houseflies. Henkel, F.-W. and W. Schmidt Amphibien und Reptilien Madagaskars, der Maskarenen, Seychellen und Komoren.

Ulmer Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8001-7323-9 McKeown, Sean The general maintenance of day geckos. Advanced Vivarium Systems, Lakeside CA. Media related to Phelsuma ornata at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Phelsuma ornata at Wikispecies

Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar

Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar or Isaac ben Joseph ibn Polkar was a Spanish Jewish philosopher and controversialist, who flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. Where he lived is not known, for though "Avilla" is given at the end of his translation of Al-Ghazali's Maqasid, the town-name as well as the date is the copyist's, he was a warm defender of Isaac Albalag, continued his translation of Al-Ghazali's-work. It seems from his Ezer ha-Dat. Ibn Pulgar wrote the following: Hebrew translation of the third book of Al-Ghazali's Maqasid Ezer ha-Dat, the most important of his writings, a polemical work in five books, in the form of dialogues, interspersed with verse. Ibn Pulgar said that aggadah did not belong to the Talmud. One of the points in dispute between Ibn Pulgar and Abner of Burgos was in regard to the immortality of the individual soul, which Ibn Pulgar denied, believing only in the immortality of the universal soul. Ibn Pulgar's theory was that laws were not instituted for the sake of God, who has no need of them, but for the sake of man.

Therefore, he who observes these laws must not expect any future reward, as he is rewarded in the observance of them. Thus the question, "Why are sinners happy and the pious unhappy?" has no meaning, for virtue and wisdom contain happiness in themselves, while sin and folly contain unhappiness. Of Ezer ha-Dat, the first book, in eight chapters, is a demonstration of the superiority of the Jewish religion, in which Ibn Pulgar attacks both apostates and Christians; the second book attacks skeptics. The third attacks astrologers; the fourth attacks those who explain the Bible in a literal sense and those who, like the Christians, interpret it in a figurative and allegorical sense. The fifth attacks those; the second book, a dialogue between an aged partisan of Talmudic Judaism and a youthful philosopher, has been printed in Eliezer Ashkenazi's "Ta'am Zekenim". Ibn Pulgar's object here was to prove the superiority of philosophical Judaism, his diatribes against the first two classes have been published by Isidore Loeb.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Ibn Pulgar, Isaac ben Joseph". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, it has the following bibliography: Gesch. 3d ed. vii. 291, 292, 305-308, 446 Steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers. Pp. 299, 300 Idem, Jewish Literature, pp. 97. 171, 296 He-Ḥaluẓ, iv. 83 Isidore Loeb, in R. E. J. xviii. 63-70

Iluta Gaile

Iluta Gaile is a Latvian businesswoman and former luger, who competed at four Winter Olympic Games. She is a former deputy for Riga City Council. Gaile was born in Cēsis, Latvia SSR, grew up in Stalbe; as of 2017, Gaile lived in Sigulda. As a teenager, Gaile trained on the Cēsis track. Gaile competed in the luge event at four Winter Olympic Games, she finished 10th in 1992, 17th in 1994, 14th in 1998, 10th in 2002. In 1988 and 1989, she came third in the USSR national championships, in 1990, she came second in the event. In 1988, she won the Latvia SSR national championships, in 1994, 1998, 2000, she won the Latvian national championships, she was part of the Latvian team. Her best individual result at the FIL World Luge Championships was 8th in 2001. After retiring from luge, Gaile undertook a master's degree in entrepreneurship, she setup a recruitment company, IG Konsultācijas. In 2005, she stood for the People's Party as a deputy for Riga City Council, she was not selected, but was given the seat after Jānis Freimanis died in 2006.

Sports Reference

Wellcome Book Prize

Wellcome Book Prize is an annual British literary award sponsored by Wellcome Trust. In keeping with the vision and goals of Wellcome Trust, the Book Prize "celebrates the topics of health and medicine in literature", including fiction and non-fiction; the winner receives £30,000 making it "one of the most remunerative literature awards on offer."The current prize for medicine in literature was inaugurated in 2009, but there was an older award with the same name. In 1998, Wellcome Trust began offering a prize that would enable a practicing life scientist to take time off and write a science book for the general reader. Applicants would submit a book outline and sample chapter, winners would be obligated to write and publish the book, it appears the only winner was Michael J. Morgan for The Space Between Our Ears: How the Brain Represents Visual Space, before the prize was discontinued. From 2009 to 2012 it was called the Wellcome Trust Book Prize. In 2013 there was no award however there were changes to the prize including an increase in prize money from £25,000 to £30,000.

The timetable of key dates is shortlist in March and winner in May. In 2019, the prize announced that it had "decided to take a pause and reflect". Wellcome Book Prize, official website

Som Dutt Battu

Som Dutt Battu is a Shimla-based Hindustani classical vocalist of the Patiala Gharana. He was a winner of the civilian honour of Himachal Gaurav, he is a member of Empanelment Committee for Hindustani Music at Indian Council for Cultural Relations New Delhi. Born in a family of musicians, Som Dutt Battu was initiated into Hindustani vocal music by his father Ram Lal Battu, a follower of the Sham Chaurasia gharana, he received training in music from a disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar. He learnt the techniques of the gayaki of Patiala gharana from Kundan Lal Sharma, a noted disciple of Ashique Ali Khan. Indian Institute of Advanced Studies published ‘MAN AND MUSIC IN INDIA’ in the year 1992. Life Time Achievement and Param Sabhayachar Samman Award by Punjabi Academy New Delhi, Government of Delhi. Punjab Sangeet Rattan Award