Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909
The Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana 1909 was a bridge built in 1909 on the occasion of the celebration of the Valencian Regional Exhibition of 1909 was inaugurated May 22, 1909 and takes its name from the aforementioned exhibition. It was a bridge of reinforced concrete, but it was destroyed on October 14, 1957 in the flood of the Turia of that year, it was decorated with art-deco and modernisme elements. Instead was rise another bridge or rather an unsight gateway that late 20th century between 1991 and 1995 has been replaced by the current bridge by Santiago Calatrava and some known as the La Peineta
The Falles is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to the monuments burnt during the celebration. A number of towns in the Valencian Community have similar celebrations inspired by the original Falles de València celebration; the Falles festival was added to UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016. Each neighbourhood of the city has an organised group of people, the Casal faller, that works all year long holding fundraising parties and dinners featuring the noted dish, paella, a specialty of the region; each casal faller produces a construction known as a falla, burnt. A casal faller is known as a comissió fallera and there are 400 registered in Valencia; the name of the festival is the plural of the Valencian word falla. The word's derivation is as follows: Latin fax, "torch" → Latin facula → Vulgar Latin *faclam → Valencian falla. Much time would be spent by the casal faller preparing the ninots.
During the four days leading up to 19 March, each group takes its ninot out for a grand parade, mounts it, each on its own elaborate firecracker-filled cardboard and paper-mâché artistic monument in a street of the given neighbourhood. This whole assembly is a falla; the ninots and their falles are constructed according to an agreed-upon theme that has traditionally been a satirical jab at whatever draws the attention of the fallers. In modern times, the two-week-long festival has spawned a substantial local industry, to the point that an entire suburban area has been designated the Ciutat fallera. Here, crews of artists and artisans, sculptors and other craftsmen, all spend months producing elaborate constructions of paper and wax and polystyrene foam tableaux towering up to five stories, composed of fanciful figures caricatures, in provocative poses arranged in a gravity-defying manner; each of them is produced under the direction of one of the many individual neighbourhood casals fallers who vie with each other to attract the best artists, to create the most outrageous allegorical monument to their target.
There are about 750 of these neighbourhood associations in Valencia, with over 200,000 members, or a quarter of the city's population. During Falles, many people wear their casal faller dress of regional and historical costumes from different eras of València's history; the dolçaina and tabalet are heard, as most of the different casals fallers have their own traditional bands. Although the Falles is a traditional event and many participants dress in medieval clothing, the ninots for 2005 included such modern characters as Shrek and George W. Bush, the 2012 Falles included characters like Barack Obama and Lady Gaga; the five days and nights of Falles might be described as a continuous street party. There are a multitude of processions: historical and comedic. Crowds in the restaurants spill out into the streets. Explosions can be heard sporadically through the night. Everyone from small children to elderly people can be seen throwing fireworks and noisemakers in the streets, which are littered with pyrotechnical debris.
The timing of the events is fixed, they fall on the same date every year, though there has been discussion about holding some events on the weekend preceding the Falles, to take greater advantage of the tourist potential of the festival or changing the end date in years where it is due to occur in midweek. Each day of Falles begins at 8:00 am with La Despertà. Brass bands begin to march down every street playing lively music. Close behind them are the fallers; the Mascletà, an explosive barrage of coordinated firecracker and fireworks displays, takes place at 2:00 pm every day of the festival. At 2:00 pm the clock chimes and the Fallera Major, dressed in her fallera finery, will call from the balcony of City Hall, Senyor/a pirotècnic/a, pot començar la mascletà!, the Mascletà begins. The Mascletà is unique to the Valencian Community, popular with the Valencian people. Smaller neighbourhoods hold their own mascletà for saint's days and other celebrations. A nighttime variant runs in the evening hours by the same pyrotechnicans that were present in the afternoon.
On the day of the 15th, all of the falles infantils are to be finished being constructed, that night all of the falles majors are to be completed. If not, they face disqualification. In this event, the flower offering, each of the casals fallers takes an offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Forsaken; this occurs all day during 17–18 March. A statue of the Virgin Mary and its large pedestal are covered with all the flowers. On the nights of the 15, 16, 17, 18th there are firework displays in the old riverbed in València; each night is progressively grander and the last is called La Nit del Foc. On the final evening of Falles, at 7:00 pm on March 19, a parade known in Valencian as the Cavalcada del Foc takes place along Colon street and Porta de la Mar square; this spectacular celebration of fi
Casa de la Ciutat (Valencia)
The Casa de la Ciutat or what it now call the City Hall, was in the place where today the Gardens known as de la Audiencia or more the gardens next to the Palau de la Generalitat. It was therefore the headquarters of the Municipal Council of Valencia; the King James I of Aragon granted houses and privilege to build the Casa de la Ciutat in the 13th century in a place near the present plaza de la Almoina and near the Archbishop's Palace, but this will be place in any case interim. The first Casa de la Ciutat in its usual location is built in 1302, but will be in 1311 when King James II of Aragon authorized to expand the locals which by had become too small; the Casa de la Ciutat would be completed in 1342 and would lodge halls for the juries of the city, Hall of inkstand, courts of justices of criminal and civil, imprisonment of men and women, offices of notaries, Hall of the Rational, Hall of Archives, halls for tax administrators, a Hall dedicated to Chapel, made around 1454 and as was one of the most important of the Casa.
In 1517 the master builder Jaume Vicent would make a new Chapel with ribbed vaulted roofs. In 1376 the building was wide again to build a hall for the called Secret Council or Council of the Juries, another hall for tax administrators. In these works involved the major master of the walls and moats of the city Bernat Boix. By 1392 the painter Marçal de Sax decorate with murals the walls of the Hall of the Secret Council, with scenes of the Last Judgment, the Heaven, the Hell and the Guardian Angel of the city. Between 1418 and 1426 it concludes the so-called Golden Hall, well known for the rich paneled ceiling that it closed; the hall it devoted to representative and ceremonial functions. Between 1421 and 1423 are constructed new halls that are expanding the perimeter and height of the building. In 1458 still it is working on minor details of the halls. In 1423 the Great Hall of the Council suffered a fire consuming the roof of it. Between 1425 and 1428 are made the repair work that would run under the direction of Joan del Poyo and is constructed a new wooden roof.
Once rebuilt this hall would be known as Hall of the Angels because of the large number of angels with shields of the city that decorated the roof. On February 15, 1586 the Casa de la Ciutat suffers another fire, this time dreadful, had to be rebuilt largely; that last fire was caused by the prisoners serving sentences in the jails that were on the ground floor of the building. One of the direct consequences of the fire was that some of the prisoners were to be transferred to the House of the Brotherhood of San Narciso, from that time this house would be known as Prison of San Narciso. Between 1854 and 1860 the municipal building that threatened ruin was demolished and its dependencies were moved to the current City Hall House of Education of girls created by Archbishop Mayoral in the 18th century. Of the Casa de la Ciutat just has reached a few graphic documents of its facade and little documentation; however has come down the coffered ceiling of the so-called Golden Hall that made between 1418 and 1438 by Joan del Poyo would be saved from destruction to be demolished the building, being piled up in the old Archbishop's Palace.
Between 1442 and 1445 the work polychromed it being finished the work. Today it is restored and placed since 1920 on the main floor of the Pavilion of the Consulate of the Llotja de la Seda; this hall would be the main and most sumptuous of the building and its destination were meetings of jurors and representative functions. The elements that made up this coffered or more properly the alfarje were made up of heraldic motifs of the city, busts of prophets, grotesque masks, musical allusions and chimeric animals among others, it was of gilded wood. Joan del Poyo directed the work between 1418 and 1438 with a group of architects among which Bertomeu Santalinea, Juliá Sanxo, the brothers Joan y Andreu Çanou, Domingo Minguez and the painter Jaume Mateu. Joan del Poyo, "master of the works of city", whose birthplace is unknown, died in Valencia in 1439, he is known for his activity in the city between 1439 as manager of the works of the city. In the Casa de la Ciutat are known his works in the "Hall of the Rational" and in the "Archive", in addition to the aforementioned roofs.
Was recognized his skill as manager of the clock housed in the Torre del Micalet. It is said that the Roca Valencia made in 1855 and that it procession in the Corpus Christi is built with wood from the Hall of the Council which as mentioned was called Hall of the angels, it is documented that between 1427 and 1428 the painters Gonçal Peris Sarriá and Jaume Mateu made a series of paintings on wooden boards of pine with paintings of kings of the Crown of Aragon for this Hall of the Council, of which only are preserved four in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. Of the Chapel of the Casa de la Ciutat is preserved in the City Museum, the central panel of the Triptych of the Judgment by Vrancke van der Stockt; the triptych was made up of a central table with a scene of Jesus in Majesty between St. John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary, at the bottom of the Archangel Michael weighing the souls of the damned while the devil tries to cheat; the side tables are preserved in the Museu de Belles Arts de València and represent the blessed ways of Paradise and the damned road to hell on its inner face, while the outer face depicted Adam and Eve are expelled from Paradise.
This triptych was acquired in 1494 by the City Council. The fact that although the complete triptych is located in the city of Valencia, are its parts divid
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Palacio de Ripalda
The Palacio de Ripalda was a building of Eclectic style designed in 1889 by Spanish architect Joaquín María Arnau Miramón in the Spanish city of Valencia. The architect Joaquín María Arnau Miramón from 1889 began an intense professional relationship with María Josefa Paulín y de la Peña, widow Countess of Ripalda, who commissioned him for important works, among, the project of a palace for herself on the Paseo de la Alameda of Valencia, it was finished in 1891. In 1936, under the Republic, the palace was used as headquarters of the Ministry of Commerce. In successive years, the building became a romantic landscape of Valencia on the outside, but inside it was suffering the natural vicissitudes of a property, it became difficult to maintain. This palace was one of the icons of the city until it was demolished in 1967. Today, on the site occupied by the palace is a building known as La Pagoda, next to the Jardines de Monforte; the City Council, led by Mayor Adolfo Rincón de Arellano, wanted to raise in Benimamet grounds facilities for a new and modern Trade Fair.
And for resources it had decided to demolish another building of the 1930s. In line with this operation, the owners of the Palacio de Ripalda urged the demolition of the old palace. Everything was accomplished in a few months; the demolition raised scarcely any complaints in the press. The new Fair was a priority. On the site of Llano del Real, the Valencian businessman of hospitality, José Meliá, thought to build a luxury hotel of revolutionary design, but the project was not carried out, due to financial constraints. Two modern buildings - Jardines del Real and la Pagoda - ended up getting up on the site of the Fair and the palace of the Marchioness of Ripalda, it was rumored that the palace was taken, stone to the United States, to be reconstructed. But there is no proof to support this; the Palacio de Ripalda was a peculiar, castle-like building, with a romantic perspective unprecedented in Valencia. Ripalda Genealogy The architecture of the eclecticism in Valencia: sides of the Valencian architecture between 1875 and 1925.
Benito Goerlich, D. City Hall of Valencia, 1992
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th