São Vicente, Cape Verde
São Vicente is one of the Barlavento Islands, the northern group within the Cape Verde archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west African coast. It is located between the islands of Santo Antão and Santa Luzia, with the Canal de São Vicente separating it from Santo Antão; the island is rectangular in shape with an area of 226.7 square kilometres. From east to west it from north to south 16.3 kilometres. The island, of volcanic origin, is flat; the last volcanic activity is considered to have taken place in the Pleistocene. Although eroded, some craters still remain, for instance Viana, its highest point is Monte Verde, located in the eastern part with an altitude of 744 metres. Other mountains include Madeiral and Monte Cara. 92.6% of the island population lives in the urban area of Mindelo, on the Porto Grande Bay, a caldera, breached by the ocean. A small islet, Ilhéu dos Pássaros, is less than one nautical mile off the coast of Porto Grande Bay. There are a few intermittent streams, including Ribeira do Ribeira de Julião.
São Vicente has a dry climate. The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C. The island is dry with only 127 mm annual precipitation in Mindelo. Only the higher area of Monte Verde receives more precipitaion. São Vicente was discovered by the Portuguese discoverer Diogo Afonso on 22 January 1462. Due to its lack of water, the island was used only as a cattle pasture; when the Municipality of Santo Antão was established in 1732, the island of São Vicente was part of it. At that time, it did not have permanent inhabitants. In 1793 the area of Porto Grande Bay was settled, it was only in 1838, when a coal depot was established at Porto Grande Bay to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation. Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure.
Administratively, the island of São Vicente is covered by Concelho de São Vicente. This municipality consists of one freguesia, Nossa Senhora da Luz, which covers the whole island; the municipal seat is the city of Mindelo. The freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: Since 2004, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, in the 1960s Onésimo Silveira, in the late-1990s and the early 2000s Isaura Gomes 2004-2005 and 2008-2011 Augusto Neves In the 1830s, São Vicente had an estimated population of 356. The population of São Vicente in the 2010 census was 76,140, making it the second most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago; the annual population growth is 1.3%. 92.6% of the population live in urban areas, the highest proportion of all islands. Life expectancy is higher than some other parts of the world; the birth rate is 2.7% and infant mortality rate is 18 per 1000 live births.
The majority of the population is young. The island has 19,923 households, of which there are an average of 3.8 persons per household, lower than Cape Verde's level of 4.2 persons per household. In 2010 15.1% of the households owned an automobile. The economy of the island was always based exclusively on commerce and services. Due to lack of rain, agriculture is at a subsistence level. Fishing has some relevance, but conditions prevent it from being more important, not only for the catch—lobster—but for the associated industries: conserves and salting of fish, naval construction. Porto Grande is the main port of Cape Verde, it has a terminal of containers and refrigeration units that make handling load overflow possible. There is a modern seawater desalination plant, which provides water for public consumption and for naval shipyards. In the industrial sector, the island presents an abundance of manpower though unskilled, resulting from the exodus of inhabitants of other islands to São Vicente.
About 27% of the employed population is unskilled. Qualified employees—company executives, public administrators, managers and directors—make up less than 2% of employees, it is distinguished, however, by a bigger participation of women in decision-making positions than the national average. According to the 2010 census, the island of São Vicente has the largest unemployment rate of the country—14.8%—while the national average is 10.7%. Unemployment affects women more than men; the industrial park of the island—the Industrial Zone of the Lazareto—concentrates diverse types of manufacturing due to foreign investment, in the activities of footwear and fish processing. The National Center of Workmanship of Mindelo supports local craftsmen in the production and commercialization of ceramic parts, articles made of coconut rinds, necklaces of shells and rocks. Many sports are practised in São Vicente, many have spread to the remaining islands; the island is suitable for windsurfing. Cycling, walking trails and
2011 Cape Verdean parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held Cape Verde on 6 February 2011. The result was a victory for the ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde, led by Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves, which won 38 of the 72 seats in the National Assembly. Although technical problems prevented a prompt announcement of official results, it became clear that PAICV had won a parliamentary majority, Veiga conceded defeat on 7 February 2011; the opposition's immediate acceptance of defeat, prior to an official announcement, was viewed as a sign of the strength of democracy in Cape Verde
Jorge Carlos Fonseca
Jorge Carlos de Almeida Fonseca OICVV) (Portuguese pronunciation:. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1991 to 1993. Supported by the Movement for Democracy, he won the 2011 presidential election in a second round of voting. Presidential elections were held in Cape Verde on 2 October 2016, where he was re-elected with 74.08% of the vote. Jorge Fonseca completed primary and secondary education between Praia and Mindelo, his higher education in Lisbon, Portugal, he graduated in a Master in Legal Sciences Faculty of Law, University of Lisbon. He married Lígia Arcângela Lubrino Dias Fonseca, the First Lady of Cape Verde, on March 26, 1989, he was Director General of Emigration in Cape Verde from 1975 to 1977 and Secretary General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cape Verde from 1977 to 1979. He was a graduate teaching assistant at the Faculty of Law, University of Lisbon between 1982 and 1990, invited Professor of Criminal Law at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Lisbon in 1987 and a resident director and invited associate professor at the Law Course and Public Administration at the University of Asia Oriental, Macau in 1989 and 1990.
1991 and 1993 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs in the first government of the Second Republic. In August 2011, he again sought the presidency, this time backed by the MpD, he placed first in the first round. He took office as President on 9 September 2011, becoming Cape Verde's fourth president since independence in 1975. Fonseca was assistant professor and chairman of the board of the Institute for Law and Social Sciences in Cape Verde, he is founder and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the “Direito e Justiça” Foundation and director of the magazine “Direito e Cidadania”, collaborator to the magazine “Revista Portuguesa de Ciência Criminal”, a member of the editorial board of “Revista de Economia e Direito” of the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. Fonseca has written several books and published over fifty scientific and technical works on law, two books of poetry, he has been awarded several times by the State of Cape Verde, is holder of the status of Freedom Fighters of the Country. Luxembourg: Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde is a former socialist party and a social-democratic political party in Cape Verde. Its members are nicknamed "os tambarinas" in Portuguese, they identify themselves with the color yellow. In 1956, its forerunner, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, was founded by the Bissau-Guinean nationalist leader Amílcar Cabral. PAIGC fought to overthrow the Portuguese Empire, unify Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, use its vanguardism to advance socialist revolution. From 1961 on, the PAIGC fought a guerrilla warfare campaign in cooperation with its fraternal party umbrella group, the CONCP, during the Portuguese Colonial War. By 1973 the PAIGC controlled Guinea-Bissau, while Portugal's own Carnation Revolution in 1974 dissolved the empire, relinquishing Cape Verde within the next year. After the wars of national liberation, the PAIGC established a socialist state within both territories under Amilcar Cabral's brother, Luís Cabral.
Following a military coup in Guinea-Bissau that ousted Cabral in November 1980, the Cape Verde portion of the party became the PAICV in January 1981. At an extraordinary party congress in February 1990, the PAICV approved the introduction of multiparty democracy. Pereira stepped down as General Secretary of PAICV in July 1990, Prime Minister Pedro Pires replaced him in August 1990; the PAICV won 23 of the 79 National Assembly seats in the January 1991 multiparty parliamentary election, losing to the Movement for Democracy. Pereira was subsequently defeated in the February 1991 presidential election, PAICV again fared poorly in the December 1991 local elections. At a party congress in August 1993, Pires was replaced as General Secretary by Aristides Lima and was instead elected as President of PAICV; the PAICV won 21 out of 72 National Assembly seats in the December 1995 parliamentary election. At a PAICV congress in September 1997, Pires faced José Maria Neves in a leadership contest, Pires was elected with 68% of the vote.
Pires stepped down as PAICV President in 2000 in preparation for a presidential bid in the next year's election and he was succeeded by Neves. In the presidential election held on 11 and 25 February 2001, PAICV candidate Pedro Pires, who won 46.52% of the vote in the first round, narrowly defeated the MpD's Carlos Veiga by a margin of only 12 votes in the run-off. In the parliamentary election held on 22 January 2006, PAICV won 52.28% of the popular vote and 41 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly. In the presidential election held on 12 February 2006, Pedro Pires again narrowly defeated Carlos Veiga, winning 50.98% of the vote. In the parliamentary election held on 7 February 2011, the PAICV led by Jose Maria Neves won 52.68% of the popular vote and 38 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly. In the presidential election held on 7 and 21 August 2011, Manuel Inocêncio Sousa lost to Jorge Carlos Fonseca with 32.66% of the votes in the first round and 45.74% in the second round. The PAICV, which advertises itself as an Africa-oriented political party in contrast to the somewhat neoliberal and europhile MpD, enjoys its greatest support in the municipalities most comparable to those on the African mainland: the dense urban areas such as Praia, rural agricultural areas such as Santa Cruz and São Filipe.
The party is a full member of the Socialist International. Official website
Cape Verdean passport
The Cape Verdean passport is issued to citizens of Cape Verde for international travel. Cape Verdean citizens can travel to member states of the Economic Community of West African States visa-free. Surname Given names Nationality Cape Verdean Date of birth Sex Place of birth Date of Expiry Passport number The data page/information page is printed in Portuguese and English. ECOWAS passports Visa requirements for Cape Verdean citizens List of passports
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It forms part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, Canary Islands and the Savage Isles. In ancient times these islands were referred to as "the Islands of the Blessed" or the "Fortunate Isles". Located 570 kilometres west of the Cape Verde Peninsula off the coast of Northwest Africa, the islands cover a combined area of over 4,000 square kilometres; the Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants and pirates; the end of slavery in the 19th century led to economic emigration. Cape Verde recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes.
Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to campaign for independence, peacefully achieved in 1975. Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment, its population of around 540,000 is of mixed European, Moorish and African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world outnumbering inhabitants on the islands; the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union.
The name of the country stems on the Senegalese coast. In 1444, Portuguese explorers had named that landmark as Cabo Verde, a few years before they discovered the islands. On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited; the islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian Alvise Cadamosto. In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande.
Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlements. Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships; because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew discontented with the colonial masters, who refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy.
In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, it demanded improvement in economic and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement — led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 — passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in