Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character", used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions and morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way; the word's use in rhetoric is based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion. Ethos is a Greek word meaning "accustomed place", "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos, meaning "moral, showing moral character"; as an adjective in the neuter plural form ta ethika, used for the study of morals, it is the origin of the modern English word ethics. In modern usage, ethos denotes the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a specific person, corporation, culture, or movement. For example, the poet and critic T. S. Eliot wrote in 1940 that "the general ethos of the people they have to govern determines the behaviour of politicians".
The historian Orlando Figes wrote in 1996 that in Soviet Russia of the 1920s "the ethos of the Communist party dominated every aspect of public life". Ethos may change in response to new forces. For example, according to the Jewish historian Afrie Krampf, ideas of economic modernization which were imported into Palestine in the 1930s brought about "the abandonment of the agrarian ethos and the reception of...the ethos of rapid development". In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion discussed by Aristotle in'Rhetoric' as a component of argument. Speakers must establish ethos from the start; this can involve "moral competence" only. Ethos is limited, by what the speaker says. Others however contend that a speaker's ethos extends to and is shaped by the overall moral character and history of the speaker—that is, what people think of his or her character before the speech has begun. According to Aristotle, there are three categories of ethos: phronesis – useful skills & wisdom arete – virtue, goodwill eunoia – goodwill towards the audienceIn a sense, ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience.
Thus, it is the audience. Violations of ethos include: The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate. Dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is an informal fallacy; the argument may indeed be suspect. For Aristotle, a speaker's ethos was a rhetorical strategy employed by an orator whose purpose was to "inspire trust in his audience". Ethos was therefore achieved through the orator's "good sense, good moral character, goodwill", central to Aristotelian virtue ethics was the notion that this "good moral character" was increased in virtuous degree by habit. Aristotle links virtue and ethos most succinctly in Book II of Nichomachean Ethics: "Virtue being of two kinds and moral, intellectual virtue in the main owes both its birth and its growth to teaching while moral virtue comes about as a result of habit, whence its name ethike is one, formed by a slight variation from the word ethos". Discussing women and rhetoric, scholar Karlyn Kohrs Campbell notes that entering the public sphere was considered an act of moral transgression for females of the nineteenth century: "Women who formed moral reform and abolitionist societies, who made speeches, held conventions, published newspapers, entered the public sphere and thereby lost their claims to purity and piety".
Crafting an ethos within such restrictive moral codes, meant adhering to membership of what Nancy Fraser and Michael Warner have theorized as counterpublics. While Warner contends that members of counterpublics are afforded little opportunity to join the dominant public and therefore exert true agency, Nancy Fraser has problematized Habermas's conception of the public sphere as a dominant "social totality" by theorizing "subaltern counterpublics", which function as alternative publics that represent "parallel discursive arenas where members of subordinated social groups invent and circulate counterdiscourses, which in turn permit them to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities and needs". Though feminist rhetorical theorists have begun to offer more nuanced ways to conceive of ethos, they remain cognizant of how these classical associations have shaped and still do shape women's use of the rhetorical tool. Johanna Schmertz draws on Aristotelian ethos to reinterpret the term alongside feminist theories of subjectivity, writing that, "Instead of following a tradition that, it seems to me, reads ethos somewhat in the manner of an Aristotelian quality proper to the speaker's identity, a quality capable of being deployed as needed to fit a rhetorical situation, I will ask how ethos may be dislodged from identity and read in such a way as to multiply the positions from which women may speak".
Rhetorical scholar and professor Kate Ronald's claim that "ethos is the appeal residing in
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Kairos is an Ancient Greek word meaning the right, critical, or opportune moment. The ancient Greeks had two words for time: kairos; the former refers to chronological or sequential time, while the latter signifies a proper or opportune time for action. While chronos is quantitative, kairos has a permanent nature. Kairos means weather in Modern Greek; the plural, καιροί means the times. Kairos is a term and practice, applied in several fields including classical rhetoric, modern rhetoric, digital media, Christian theology, science. In Onians' 1951 etymological studies of the word, he traces the primary root back to the ancient Greek association with both archery and weaving. In archery, kairos denotes the moment in which an arrow may be fired with sufficient force to penetrate a target. In weaving, kairos denotes the moment in which the shuttle could be passed through threads on the loom. In the literature of the classical period and orators used kairos to specify moments when the opportune action was made through metaphors involving archery and one’s ability to aim and fire at the exact right time on-target.
For example, in The Suppliants, a drama written by Euripides, Adrastus describes the ability to influence and change another person’s mind by “aiming their bow beyond the kairos.” Kairos is an alternate spelling of the minor Greek deity Caerus, the god of luck and opportunity. In rhetoric, kairos is "a passing instant when an opening appears which must be driven through with force if success is to be achieved."Kairos was central to the Sophists, who stressed the rhetor's ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing, contingent circumstances. In Panathenaicus, Isocrates writes that educated people are those “who manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day, who possess a judgment, accurate in meeting occasions as they arise and misses the expedient course of action". Kairos is very important in Aristotle's scheme of rhetoric. Kairos is, for Aristotle, the space context in which the proof will be delivered. Kairos stands alongside other contextual elements of rhetoric: The Audience, the psychological and emotional makeup of those who will receive the proof.
In Ancient Greece, "kairos" was utilized by both of the two main schools of thought in the field of rhetoric. The competing schools were that of the Sophists, that of their opposition, led by individuals such as Aristotle and Plato. Sophism approached rhetoric as an art form. Members of the school would travel around Greece teaching citizens about the art of rhetoric and successful discourse. In his article "Toward a Sophistic Definition of Rhetoric", John Poulakos defines rhetoric from a Sophistic perspective as follows: "Rhetoric is the art which seeks to capture in opportune moments that, appropriate and attempts to suggest that, possible." Aristotle and Plato, on the other hand, viewed Sophistic rhetoric as a tool used to manipulate others, criticized those who taught it. Kairos fits into the Sophistic scheme of rhetoric in conjunction with the ideas of prepon and dynaton; these two terms combined with kairos are their keys to successful rhetoric. As stated by Poulakos, Prepon deals with the notion that "what is said must conform to both audience and occasion."
Dynaton has to do with the idea of the possible, or what the speaker is attempting to convince the audience of. Kairos in the Sophistic context is based on the thought that speech must happen at a certain time in order for it to be most effective. If rhetoric is to be meaningful and successful, it must be presented at the right moment, or else it will not have the same impact on the members of the audience. Aristotle and his followers discuss the importance of kairos in their teachings. In his Rhetoric, one of the ways that Aristotle uses the idea of kairos is in reference to the specificity of each rhetorical situation. Aristotle believed that each rhetorical situation was different, therefore different rhetorical devices needed to be applied at that point in time. One of the most well known parts of Aristotle's Rhetoric is when he discusses the roles of pathos and logos. Aristotle ties kairos to these concepts, claiming that there are times in each rhetorical situation when one needs to be utilized over the others.
Kairos has classically been defined as a concept that focused on "'the uniquely timely, the spontaneous, the radically particular.'" Ancient Pythagoreans thought Kairos to be one of the most fundamental laws of the universe. Kairos was said to piece together the dualistic ways of the entire universe. Empedocles was the philosopher, it became the principle of conflict and resolution and was thus inserted as a concept for rhetoric. In his article "Critical-Rhetorical Ethnography: Rethinking the Place and Process of Rhetoric," Aaron Hess submits a definition of kairos for the present day that bridges the two classical applications. Hess addresses Poulakos’s view that, “In short, kairos dictates that what is said must be said at the right time.” He suggests that in addition to timeliness kairos considers appropriateness. According to Hess, kairos can either be understood as, "the decorum or propriety of any given moment and speech act, implying a reliance on the given or known" or as, "the opportune, spontaneous, or timely."
Although these two ideas of kairos might seem conflicting, Hess says that they offer a more extensive understanding of the term. Furthermore, they encourage creativity, necessary to adapt to unforeseen obstacles and opinions that can alt
Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects and ideas in the mind without any immediate input of the senses. It is described as the forming of experiences in the mind, which can be recreations of past experiences such as vivid memories with imagined changes or that they are invented. Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process. A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling, in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to "evoke worlds". Imagination is a cognitive process used in mental functioning and sometimes used in conjunction with psychological imagery, it is considered as such. The cognate term of mental imagery may be used in psychology for denoting the process of reviving in the mind recollections of objects given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging" or "imagery" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" or "constructive" imagination.
Constructive imagination is further divided into active imagination driven by the prefrontal cortex and spontaneous PFC-independent imagination such as REM-sleep dreaming, daydreaming and spontaneous insight. The active types of imagination include Prefrontal Synthesis, Prefrontal Analysis, integration of modifiers, mental rotation. Imagined images, both novel and recalled, are seen with the "mind's eye". Imagination, however, is not considered to be a cognitive activity because it is linked to the body and place that it involves setting up relationships with materials and people, precluding the sense that imagination is locked away in the head. Imagination can be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies. Children use such narratives and pretend play in order to exercise their imaginations; when children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use role playing to act out what they have developed with their imagination, at the second level they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed is an actual reality.
The notion of a "mind's eye" goes back at least to Cicero's reference to mentis oculi during his discussion of the orator's appropriate use of simile. In this discussion, Cicero observed that allusions to "the Syrtis of his patrimony" and "the Charybdis of his possessions" involved similes that were "too far-fetched"; the concept of "the mind's eye" first appeared in English in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale in his Canterbury Tales, where he tells us that one of the three men dwelling in a castle was blind, could only see with "the eyes of his mind". The common use of the term is for the process of forming new images in the mind that have not been experienced with the help of what has been seen, heard, or felt before, or at least only or in different combinations; some typical examples follow: Fairy tale Fiction A form of verisimilitude invoked in fantasy and science fiction invites readers to pretend such stories are true by referring to objects of the mind such as fictional books or years that do not exist apart from an imaginary world.
Imagination, not being limited to the acquisition of exact knowledge by the requirements of practical necessity is free from objective restraints. The ability to imagine one's self in another person's place is important to social relations and understanding. Albert Einstein said. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world."The same limitations beset imagination in the field of scientific hypothesis. Progress in scientific research is due to provisional explanations which are developed by imagination, but such hypotheses must be framed in relation to ascertained facts and in accordance with the principles of the particular science. Imagination is an experimental partition of the mind used to develop theories and ideas based on functions. Taking objects from real perceptions, the imagination uses complex IF-functions to develop new or revised ideas; this part of the mind is vital to developing easier ways to accomplish old and new tasks. In sociology, Imagination is used to part ways with reality and have an understanding of social interactions derived from a perspective outside of society itself.
This leads to the development of theories through questions that wouldn't be asked. These experimental ideas can be safely conducted inside a virtual world and if the idea is probable and the function is true, the idea can be actualized in reality. Imagination is the key to new development of the mind and can be shared with others, progressing collectively. Regarding the volunteer effort, imagination can be classified as: involuntary voluntary Psychologists have studied imaginative thought, not only in its exotic form of creativity and artistic expression but in its mundane form of everyday imagination. Ruth M. J. Byrne has proposed that everyday imaginative thoughts about counterfactual alternatives to reality may be based on the same cognitive processes on which rational thoughts are based. Child
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan was an American orator and politician from Nebraska. Beginning in 1896, he emerged as a dominant force in the Democratic Party, standing three times as the party's nominee for President of the United States, he served in the United States House of Representatives and as the United States Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson. Just before his death he gained national attention for attacking the teaching of evolution in the Scopes Trial; because of his faith in the wisdom of the common people, he was called "The Great Commoner". Born and raised in Illinois, Bryan moved to Nebraska in the 1880s, he won election to the House of Representatives in the 1890 elections, serving two terms before making an unsuccessful run for the Senate in 1894. At the 1896 Democratic National Convention, Bryan delivered his "Cross of Gold speech" which attacked the gold standard and the eastern moneyed interests and crusaded for inflationary policies built around the expanded coinage of silver coins.
In a repudiation of incumbent President Grover Cleveland and his conservative Bourbon Democrats, the Democratic convention nominated Bryan for president, making Bryan the youngest major party presidential nominee in U. S. history. Subsequently, Bryan was nominated for president by the left-wing Populist Party, many Populists would follow Bryan into the Democratic Party. In the intensely fought 1896 presidential election, Republican nominee William McKinley emerged triumphant. Bryan gained fame as an orator as he invented the national stumping tour when he reached an audience of 5 million people in 27 states in 1896. Bryan retained control of the Democratic Party and won the presidential nomination again in 1900. In the aftermath of the Spanish–American War, Bryan became a fierce opponent of American imperialism, much of the campaign centered on that issue. In the election, McKinley again defeated Bryan, winning several Western states that Bryan had won in 1896. Bryan's influence in the party weakened after the 1900 election, the Democrats nominated the conservative Alton B. Parker in the 1904 presidential election.
Bryan regained his stature in the party after Parker's resounding defeat by Theodore Roosevelt, voters from both parties embraced the progressive reforms that had long been championed by Bryan. Bryan won his party's nomination in the 1908 presidential election, but he was defeated by Roosevelt's chosen successor, William Howard Taft. Along with Henry Clay, Bryan is one of the two individuals who never won a presidential election despite receiving electoral votes in three separate presidential elections held after the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment. After the Democrats won the presidency in the 1912 election, Woodrow Wilson rewarded Bryan's support with the important cabinet position of Secretary of State. Bryan helped Wilson pass several progressive reforms through Congress, but he and Wilson clashed over U. S. neutrality in World War I. Bryan resigned from his post in 1915 after Wilson sent Germany a note of protest in response to the sinking of Lusitania by a German U-boat. After leaving office, Bryan retained some of his influence within the Democratic Party, but he devoted himself to religious matters and anti-evolution activism.
He opposed Darwinism on humanitarian grounds, most famously in the 1925 Scopes Trial. Since his death in 1925, Bryan has elicited mixed reactions from various commentators, but he is considered to have been one of the most influential figures of the Progressive Era. William Jennings Bryan was born in Salem, Illinois, on March 19, 1860, to Silas Lillard Bryan and Mariah Elizabeth Bryan. Silas Bryan had been born in 1822, had established a legal practice in Salem in 1851, he married Mariah, a former student of his at McKendree College, in 1852. Of Scots-Irish and English ancestry, Silas Bryan was an avid Jacksonian Democrat, he won election as a state circuit judge, in 1866 moved his family to a 520-acre farm north of Salem, living in a ten-room house, the envy of Marion County. Silas served in various local positions and sought election to Congress in 1872, but was narrowly defeated by the Republican candidate. An admirer of Andrew Jackson and Stephen A. Douglas, Silas passed on his Democratic affiliation to his son, who would remain a life-long Democrat.
Bryan was the fourth child of Silas and Mariah, but all three of his older siblings died during infancy. Bryan had five younger siblings, four of whom lived to adulthood. Bryan was home-schooled by his mother until the age of ten. Demonstrating a precocious talent for oratory, Byran gave public speeches as early as the age of four. Silas was a Baptist and Mariah was a Methodist, but Bryan's parents allowed him to choose his own church. At age fourteen, Bryan had a conversion experience at a revival, he said. At age fifteen, Bryan was sent to attend Whipple Academy, a private school in Jacksonville, Illinois. After graduating from Whipple Academy, Bryan entered Illinois College, located in Jacksonville. During his time at Illinois College, Bryan served as chaplain of the Sigma Pi literary society, he continued to hone his public speaking skills, taking part in numerous debates and oratorical contests. In 1879, while still in college, Bryan met Mary Elizabeth Baird, the daughter of an owner of a nearby general store, began courting her.
Bryan and Mary Elizabeth married on October 1, 1884. Mary Elizabeth would emerge as an important part of Bryan's career, managing his correspondence and helping him prepare speeches and articles. After graduating from college at the top of his class, Bryan studied law at Union Law College (which became Northwestern University
A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole and simile are all types of metaphor. One of the most cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It: This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not a stage. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it; the Philosophy of Rhetoric by rhetorician I. A. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts: the tenor and the vehicle; the tenor is the subject. The vehicle is the object. In the previous example, "the world" is compared to a stage, describing it with the attributes of "the stage". Other writers employ the general terms figure to denote the tenor and the vehicle.
Cognitive linguistics uses source, respectively. Psychologist Julian Jaynes contributed the terms metaphrand, metaphier and paraphier to the understanding of how metaphors evoke meaning thereby adding two additional terms to the common set of two basic terms. Metaphrand is equivalent to metaphor theory terms tenor and ground. Metaphier is equivalent to metaphor theory terms vehicle and source. Paraphier is any attribute, characteristics, or aspect of a metaphier, whereas any paraphrand is a selected paraphier which has conceptually become attached to a metaphrand through understanding or comprehending of a metaphor. For example, if a reader encounters this metaphor: "Pat is a tornado," the metaphrand is "Pat," the metaphier is "tornado." The paraphiers, or characteristics, of the metaphier "tornado" would include: storm, wind, danger, destruction, etc. However, the metaphoric use of those attributes or characteristics of a tornado is not one-for-one; the English metaphor derived from the 16th-century Old French word métaphore, which comes from the Latin metaphora, "carrying over", in turn from the Greek μεταφορά, "transfer", from μεταφέρω, "to carry over", "to transfer" and that from μετά, "after, across" + φέρω, "to bear", "to carry".
Metaphors are most compared with similes. It is said, for instance, that a metaphor is'a condensed analogy' or'analogical fusion' or that they'operate in a similar fashion' or are'based on the same mental process' or yet that'the basic processes of analogy are at work in metaphor', it is pointed out that'a border between metaphor and analogy is fuzzy' and'the difference between them might be described as the distance between things being compared'. A simile is a specific type of metaphor. A metaphor asserts the objects in the comparison are identical on the point of comparison, while a simile asserts a similarity. For this reason a common-type metaphor is considered more forceful than a simile; the metaphor category contains these specialized types: Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject. Antithesis: A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. Catachresis: A mixed metaphor, sometimes by accident.
Hyperbole: Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point. Metonymy: A figure of speech using the name of one thing in reference to a different thing to which the first is associated. In the phrase "lands belonging to the crown", the word "crown" is metonymy for monarch. Parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral or spiritual lesson, such as in Aesop's fables or Jesus' teaching method as told in the Bible. Pun: Similar to a metaphor, a pun alludes to another term. However, the main difference is that a pun is a frivolous allusion between two different things whereas a metaphor is a purposeful allusion between two different things. Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can be distinguished from metonymy as one of two fundamental modes of thought. Metaphor and analogy work by bringing together concepts from different conceptual domains, while metonymy uses one element from a given domain to refer to another related element. A metaphor creates new links between otherwise distinct conceptual domains, while a metonymy relies on the existing links within them.
A dead metaphor is a metaphor. The phrases "to grasp a concept" and "to gather what you've understood" use physical action as a metaphor for understanding; the audience does not need to visualize the action. Some distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché. Others use "dead metaphor" to denote both. A mixed metaphor is a metaphor that leaps from one identification to a second inconsistent with the first, e.g.: I smell a rat but I'll nip him in the bud"-Irish politician Boyle Roche This form is used as a parody of metaphor itself: If we can hit that bull's-eye the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards... Checkmate. An extended metaphor, or conceit, sets up a principal subject wit
Hope is an optimistic state of mind, based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large. As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation."Among its opposites are dejection and despair. Professor of Psychology Barbara Fredrickson argues that hope comes into its own when crisis looms, opening us to new creative possibilities. Frederickson argues that with great need comes an unusually wide range of ideas, as well as such positive emotions as happiness and joy and empowerment, drawn from four different areas of one's self: from a cognitive, social, or physical perspective. Hopeful people are "like the little engine that could, they keep telling themselves "I think I can, I think I can"; such positive thinking bears fruit when based on a realistic sense of optimism, not on a naive "false hope". The psychologist Charles R. Snyder linked hope to the existence of a goal, combined with a determined plan for reaching that goal: Alfred Adler had argued for the centrality of goal-seeking in human psychology, as too had philosophical anthropologists like Ernst Bloch.
Snyder stressed the link between hope and mental willpower, as well as the need for realistic perception of goals, arguing that the difference between hope and optimism was that the former included practical pathways to an improved future. D. W. Winnicott saw a child's antisocial behavior as expressing an unconscious hope for management by the wider society, when containment within the immediate family had failed. Object relations theory sees the analytic transference as motivated in part by an unconscious hope that past conflicts and traumas can be dealt with anew; as a specialist in positive psychology, Snyder studied how hope and forgiveness can impact several aspects of life such as health, work and personal meaning. He postulated that there are three main things that make up hopeful thinking: Goals – Approaching life in a goal-oriented way. Pathways – Finding different ways to achieve your goals. Agency – Believing that you can instigate change and achieve these goals. In other words, hope was defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways.
Snyder argues that individuals who are able to realize these three components and develop a belief in their ability are hopeful people who can establish clear goals, imagine multiple workable pathways toward those goals, persevere when obstacles get in their way. Snyder proposed a "Hope Scale" which considered that a person's determination to achieve their goal is their measured hope. Snyder differentiates between child-measured hope; the Adult Hope Scale by Snyder contains 12 questions. Each subject responds to each question using an 8-point scale. Fibel and Hale measure hope by combining Snyder's Hope Scale with their own Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale to empirically measure hope. Snyder regarded that psychotherapy can help focus attention on one's goals, drawing on tacit knowledge of how to reach them. There is an outlook and a grasp of reality to hope, distinguishing No Hope, Lost Hope, False Hope and Real Hope, which differ in terms of viewpoint and realism. Contemporary philosopher Richard Rorty understands hope as more than goal setting, rather as a metanarrative, a story that serves as a promise or reason for expecting a better future.
Rorty as postmodernist believes past meta–narratives, including the Christian story and Marxism have proved false hopes. Rorty says. Of the countless models that examine the importance of hope in an individual's life, there are two major theories that have gained a significant amount of recognition in the field of psychology. One of these theories, developed by Charles R. Snyder, argues that hope should be viewed as a cognitive skill that demonstrates an individual's ability to maintain drive in the pursuit of a particular goal; this model reasons that an individual's ability to be hopeful depends on two types of thinking: agency thinking and pathway thinking. Agency thinking refers to an individual's determination to achieve their goals despite possible obstacles, while pathway thinking refers to the ways in which an individual believes they can achieve these personal goals. Snyder's theory uses hope as a mechanism, most seen in psychotherapy. In these instances, the therapist helps their client overcome barriers that have prevented them from achieving goals.
The therapist would help the client set realistic and relevant personal goals, would help them remain hopeful of their ability to achieve these goals, suggest the correct pathways to do so. Whereas Snyder's theory focuses on hope as a mechanism to overcome an individual's lack of motivation to achieve goals, the other major theory developed by Kaye A. Herth deals more with an individual's future goals as they relate to coping with illnesses. Herth views hope as "a motivational and cognitive attribute, theoretically necessary to initiate and sustain action toward goal attainment". Establishing realistic and attainable goals in this situation is more difficult, as the individual most does not have direct control over the future of their health. Instead, Herth suggests that the goals should