Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Henri Lehmann was a German-born French historical painter and portraitist. Born Heinrich Salem Lehmann in Kiel, in the Duchy of Holstein, he received his first art tuition from his father Leo Lehmann and from other painters in Hamburg. In 1831, at the age of 17, he travelled to Paris to study art under Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, becoming one of his most accomplished pupils and a close associate for many years, his first exhibition was at the Salon in 1835. Thereafter he exhibited at the Salon, winning first-class medals in 1840, 1848 and 1855. Lehmann lived in Rome from 1838–41, where he continued his artistic education with Ingres, collaborated with him on some works—including Ingres' painting Luigi Cherubini and the Muse of Lyric Poetry. In Rome Lehmann befriended Franz Liszt and his lover, the author Marie d'Agoult, corresponding with them for many years and painting portraits of them. Lehmann settled permanently in Paris in 1842, he was awarded many commissions for large-scale public works, such as at the Hôtel de Ville, the Church of Ste-Clothilde, the Palais du Luxembourg, the Palais de Justice, the Chapel of the Jeunes Aveugles in the Church of Saint-Merri on Rue Saint-Martin.
He went on to paint portraits of many well-known and distinguished people of the day including Charles Gounod, Victor Cousin, Chopin, the Princess Christina Belgiojoso and many others. In 1846 Lehmann received the Légion d'honneur and in 1847 became a French citizen, opening his studio in that same year. In 1861 he became a teacher at the famous École des Beaux-Arts and was appointed Professor in 1875, he founded the Lehmann Prize to recognise academic excellence in art. In 1864 he was elected a member of the Institut de France, he died in Paris in 1882. His brother Rudolf Lehmann was a well-known portrait artist. Edmond Aman-Jean Édouard Joseph Dantan Julien Dupré Amédée Forestier Alphonse Osbert Camille Pissarro Alexandre Séon Georges Seurat Modesto Brocos Lehmann was a painter of portraits, genre, historical and literary works, he drew inspiration from classical mythology and contemporary writers. Sometimes considered dry and academic, the best of his work can be both pure in line and graceful in form.
Among the best of his canvases are: Jephtha's Daughter Grief of the Oceanides Prometheus Erigone's Dream Venus Anadyomene Adoration of Magi and Shepherds Marriage of Tobias Mural paintings include those in the chapels of the church of St. Merry, on the ceiling of the Great Hall in the Palais de Justice, in the Throne Hall, Luxembourg Palace, he painted many well-characterized portraits of celebrated contemporaries—Liszt, Marie d'Agoult and Edmond About amongst others. He painted a portrait of himself for the Uffizi Florence. Jouin, Henri Auguste. Maîtres contemporains p. 150 ff. Turner, Jane; the Grove dictionary of Art: From Monet to Cézanne: Late 19th-Century French Artists pp. 270–271. Lehmann biography Lehmann biography Lehmann biography Works by Lehmann
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain. The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, as the destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route since the 9th century. In 1985, the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctus Iacobus "Saint James". According to legend, Compostela derives from the Latin Campus Stellae. Other etymologies derive the name from Latin compositum, local Vulgar Latin Composita Tella, meaning "burial ground", or from Latin compositella, meaning "the well-composed one". Other sites in Galicia share this toponym, akin to Compostilla in the province of León; the cathedral borders the main plaza of the well-preserved city. According to medieval legend, the remains of the apostle James were brought to Galicia for burial; this site was called Mount Libredon and its physical topography leads prevalent sea borne winds to clear the cloud deck overhead.
The shepherd reported his discovery to the bishop of Iria, Bishop Teodomiro. The bishop declared that the remains were those of the apostle James and notified King Alfonso II in Oviedo. To honour St. James, the cathedral was built on the spot where his remains were said to have been found; the legend, which included numerous miraculous events, enabled the Catholic faithful to bolster support for their stronghold in northern Spain during the Christian crusades against the Moors, but led to the growth and development of the city. Along the western side of the Praza do Obradoiro is the elegant 18th-century Pazo de Raxoi, now the city hall. Across the square is the Pazo de Raxoi, the town hall, on the right from the cathedral steps is the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, founded in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a pilgrims' hospice; the Obradoiro façade of the cathedral, the best known, is depicted on the Spanish euro coins of 1 cent, 2 cents, 5 cents.
Santiago is the site of the University of Santiago de Compostela, established in the early 16th century. The main campus can be seen best from an alcove in the large municipal park in the centre of the city. Within the old town there are many narrow winding streets full of historic buildings; the new town all around it has less character though some of the older parts of the new town have some big flats in them. Santiago de Compostela has a substantial nightlife. Both in the new town and the old town, a mix of middle-aged residents and younger students maintain a lively presence until the early hours of the morning. Radiating from the centre of the city, the historic cathedral is surrounded by paved granite streets, tucked away in the old town, separated from the newer part of the city by the largest of many parks throughout the city, Parque da Alameda. Santiago gives its name to one of the four military orders of Spain: Santiago, Alcántara and Montesa. One of the most important economic centres in Galicia, Santiago is the seat for organisations like Association for Equal and Fair Trade Pangaea.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Compostela has a temperate oceanic climate, with mild to warm and somewhat dry summers and mild, wet winters. The prevailing winds from the Atlantic and the surrounding mountains combine to give Santiago some of Spain's highest rainfall: about 1,550 millimetres annually; the climate is mild: frosts are common only in December and February, with an average of just 8 days per year, while snow is rare. The city is governed by a mayor-council form of government. Following the May 24, 2015 municipal elections the mayor of Santiago is Martiño Noriega Sánchez of Compostela Aberta. No party has a majority in the city council; the population of the city in 2012 was 95,671 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area reaches 178,695. In 2010 there were 4,111 foreigners living in the city; the main nationalities are Brazilians and Colombians. By language, according to 2008 data, 21.17% of the population always speak in Galician, 15% always speak in Spanish, 31% in Galician and the 32.17% in Spanish.
According to a Xunta de Galicia 2010 study the 38.5% of the city primary and secondary education students had Galician as their mother tongue. The area of Santiago de Compostela was a Roman cemetery by the 4th century and was occupied by the Suebi in the early 5th century, when they settled in Galicia and Portugal during the initial collapse of the Roman Empire; the area was attributed to the bishopric of Iria Flavia in the 6th century, in the partition known as Parochiale Suevorum, ordered by King Theodemar. In 585, the settlement was annexed along with the rest of Suebi Kingdom by Leovigild as the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom. Raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, the bishopric of Iria was incorporated into the Kingdom of Asturias c. 750. At some point between 818 and 842, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias, bishop Theodemar of Iria claimed to have found some remains which we
João Zeferino da Costa
João Zeferino da Costa was a Brazilian painter and designer. He began his studies in 1857 at the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes under the direction of Victor Meirelles. While there, he was granted a fellowship to study in Europe. In 1869, he went to Rome and enrolled at the Accademia di San Luca, becoming a student of Cesare Mariani, he studied there for three years, winning several more awards, which allowed him to extend his visit for a few more years. Some of his best-known paintings were done during this period; when he returned to Brazil in 1877, he temporarily replaced Meirelles as the Professor of history painting at AIBA. Among his best-known students there were Rodolfo Amoedo, Henrique Bernardelli, Lucílio de Albuquerque and Giovanni Battista Castagneto. In 1879, his works at the General Exhibition of Fine Arts were criticized by Gonzaga Duque, Brazil's first art historian; as a result, he never exhibited publicly again. In 1880, Emperor Pedro II commissioned him to paint murals in Candelária Church which, after a brief trip to Rome for inspiration, were done in collaboration with his students.
His rendering of the Virgin Mary surrounded by the Seven Virtues is considered to be his masterpiece. In 1890, he became a Deputy Director at ENBA. Two years before his death, he was called upon to help restore his murals, but his hands were so badly twisted by rheumatism that other painters had to be employed to do the work, he wrote a book, Mecanismos e proporções da figura humana, published the year after his death and presents the essence of his artistic credo. Alfredo Galvão, João Zeferino da Costa, sua vida de estudante e a de professor, University of Texas Mecanismos e proporções da figura humana, full text online @ DezenoveVinte
A Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country; the city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean, it provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region. In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates. However, the traditional English form Corunna can persist in reference to the Battle of Corunna in the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as "The Groyne" from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña". Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread, it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real Academia Española for texts in Spanish.
Certain groups of people have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling "Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have not been successful as of 2018. There is no clear evidence as to, it seems to be from Crunia, of unknown meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León the name Crunia was documented for the first time; as usual in Galician-Portuguese, the cluster ni evolved into the sound, written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish, nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is the Galician article equivalent to English the. One proposed etymology derives Crunia from the town in France. During its height the Cluniac religious movement became prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña in Burgos Province. Another possibility is that the name means "The Crown"; the Galician word for "crown" is coroa.
It is possible it came about through changes to the French La Couronne meaning "the Crown". It seems less that it traces back to the Galician clunia. A folk etymology incorrectly derives Tower of Hercules. A Coruña is located on a peninsula, its isthmus was at times formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present dimensions. A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias": A Coruña Elviña Oza San Cristovo das Viñas Visma A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification moderated by the Atlantic Ocean. Autumn and winter are unsettled and unpredictable, with strong winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, it is overcast; the ocean keeps temperatures mild, frost and snow are rare. Summers are sunny, with only occasional rainfall. Spring is cool and calm; the warmest month on record was subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature of 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above 30 °C are infrequent.
A Coruña spread onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in Galician as Cidade Vella, Cidade Alta or the Cidade, is built on an ancient Celtic castro, it was inhabited by the Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the area. The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, the colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came to the city in pursuit of the metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France and Portugal; the town began growing during the 1st and 2nd centuries, but declined after the 4th century and with the incursions of the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior of the Estuary of O Burgo. After the fall of the Roman Empire, A Coruña still had a commercial port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the Mediterranean were replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus; the process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman Empire affected A Coruña.
Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors. The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Bregantinos, Farum..."""The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of th
Ham (son of Noah)
Ham, according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim and Canaan. Ham's descendants are interpreted by Flavius Josephus and others as having populated Africa and adjoining parts of Asia; the Bible refers to Egypt as "the land of Ham" in Psalm 78:51. Since the 17th century a number of suggestions have been made that relate the name Ham to a Hebrew word for "burnt", "black" or "hot", to the Egyptian word ḥm for "servant" or the word ḥm for "majesty" or the Egyptian word Kmt for "Egypt". A 2004 review of David Goldenberg's The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism and Islam states that Goldenberg "argues persuasively that the biblical name Ham bears no relationship at all to the notion of blackness and as of now is of unknown etymology." Genesis 5:32 indicates that Noah became the father of Shem and Japheth from the age of 500 years old, but does not list in detail their specific years. An incident involving Ham is related in Genesis 9:20-27.
And Noah began to be an husbandman, planted a vineyard: and he drank of the wine, was drunken. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, told his two brethren without, and Shem and Japheth took a garment, laid it upon both their shoulders, went backward, covered the nakedness of their father. And Noah awoke from his wine, knew what his youngest son had done unto him, and he said. And he said, Blessed be the God of Shem. God enlarge Japheth; the Talmud deduces two possible explanations, one attributed to Rab and one to Rabbi Samuel, for what Ham did to Noah to warrant the curse. According to Rab, Ham castrated Noah on the basis that, since Noah cursed Ham by his fourth son Canaan, Ham must have injured Noah with respect to a fourth son. Emasculating him thus deprived Noah of the possibility of a fourth son. According to Samuel, Ham sodomized Noah, a judgment that he based on analogy with another biblical incident in which the phrase "and he saw" is used: With regard to Ham and Noah, Genesis 9 reads, " And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, told his two brethren without.
And Shem and Japheth took a garment, laid it upon both their shoulders, went backward, covered the nakedness of their father. In Genesis 34:2 it reads, "And when Shechem the son of Hamor saw her, he took her and lay with her and defiled her." According to this argument, similar abuse must have happened each time that the Bible uses the same language. The Talmud concludes that, in fact, "both indignities were perpetrated." Although the story can be taken in more recent times, some scholars have suggested that Ham may have had intercourse with his father's wife. Under this interpretation, Canaan is cursed as the "product of Ham's illicit union." The chronological scheme of the Book of Jubilees has Ham born in the year 1209 A. M. — two years after Shem, three before Japheth, 99 before the flood. It gives the name of his wife who survived the flood as Na'eltama'uk. After his youngest son Canaan was cursed in 1321 A. M. he left Mount Ararat and built a city named for his wife on the south side of the mountain.
In 1569 A. M. he received a third division of the earth along with his two brothers for his inheritance: everything west of the Nile River, to the south of Gadir. In 1639 A. M. when the nations were scattered following the failure of the Tower of Babel and his children journeyed to their allotment, with the exception of Canaan, who settled in Shem's territory, thus receiving another curse. According to Jubilees 10:29–34, this second curse is attributed to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile, instead "squatting" within the inheritance of Shem, on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, the region promised to Abraham: And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt, that it was good, he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west the sea, he dwelt in the land of Lebanon and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea, and Ham, his father, Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him:'Thou hast settled in a land, not thine, which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so.
Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem. Cursed art thou, cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the presence of the holy judge, in the presence of Noah our father.' But he did not hearken unto them, dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of Egypt, he and his sons until this day. And for this reason that land is named Canaan. – Jubilees 10:29–34. In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints book of Abraham, when it relates the conditions of the Egyptian government, it says in verse 27 of Chapter 1: "Now, Pharaoh being of th
Victor Meirelles de Lima was a Brazilian painter, best known for his works relating to his nation's culture and history. His parents were recent immigrants from Portugal, he displayed an early talent for art, at the age of fourteen. This work impressed Jerônimo Coelho, an Imperial Counselor, who brought Meirelles to Rio de Janeiro and introduced him to Félix Taunay, Director of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes, it was decided that the Academy would take charge of his education, so he enrolled there in 1847 and remained until 1852. That year, his painting of "St. John the Baptist in Prison" won him the Prix du Voyage for a study trip to Europe, he passed through Paris, although he spent most of his time in Florence and Rome, where he studied with Tommaso Minardi and Nicola Consoni at the Accademia di San Luca. In 1856, he returned to Paris and remained until 1860. During this period, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts, refining his technique with Léon Cogniet and Paul Delaroche. While there he maintained contact with Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, his mentor at the Imperial Academy, who suggested the subject for one of Meirelle's best-known works, "Primeira Missa no Brasil", which took him two years to complete.
It has since been used on the 1,000 Cruzeiro banknote. Upon his return to Brazil, Emperor Pedro II awarded him the Order of Christ and made him a Knight in the Order of the Rose, he became an Honorary Professor at the Academy and was given the Chair of History Painting. In 1868, he spent time aboard several warships to complete a commission for naval history paintings and, over the next decade, executed numerous works for the Imperial Family. In 1879, his gigantic painting of the Second Battle of Guararapes was displayed at the Imperial Academy, alongside a painting by Pedro Américo, depicting the Battle of Avay. Meirelles and Américo had been at odds with one another over an earlier commission so critics began to notice similar details and accuse Meirelles of plagiarism; the controversy raged in the local press for months but no conclusions were reached. In 1885, he undertook his most ambitious project. With the assistance of Henri Langerock, a Belgian Orientalist painter who came from North Africa to work on the project, it was completed in 1888.
It was displayed in Brussels, where it had been created won a Gold Medal at the Exposition Universelle. After the Republic was declared in 1889, Meirelles and other artists associated with the monarchy were removed from their posts at the Imperial Academy although he was dismissed for his age. In 1893 he attempted to start a private school, together with Eduardo de Sá and Décio Villares, but was not successful. Without sufficient resources, he installed his Panorama of Rio de Janeiro in a hut and charged 1,000 Réis per visitor. Any of the proceeds not used for living expenses went to the Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Though, he sank into poverty and became ill, he died, unnoticed, at his modest home during the Sunday morning Carnaval festivities. His Panorama was placed into storage where it became rotten and moldy and was dumped into Guanabara Bay. Angelo de Proença Rosa, Victor Meirelles de Lima: 1832-1903, Edições Pinakotheke, 1982 Tarcísio Mattos and Lourdes Rossetto, Museu Victor Meirelles: 50 anos, Tempo Editorial, 2002 ISBN 85-89420-01-9 Museu Victor Meirelles homepage.
Victor Meirelles: Quadros da História @ CurtaDOC TV Victor Meirelles e a Construção da Identidade Brasileira by Teresinha Sueli Franz @ DezenoveVinte