Buttermilk Creek Complex
Buttermilk Creek Complex refers to the remains of a paleolithic settlement along the shores of Buttermilk Creek in present day Salado, Texas dated to approximately 15,500 years old. If confirmed, the site represents evidence of settlement in the Americas that pre-dates Clovis culture. The Buttermilk Creek Complex found at the Debra L. OSL is a technique that analyzes light energy trapped in sediment particles to identify the last time the soil was exposed to sunlight. Dr. Michael R. Waters from Texas A&M University along with a group of graduate and undergraduate students began excavating the Debra L. Friedkin Site in Bell County, Texas in 2006. The site is located 250m downstream along Buttermilk Creek from the Gault Site and they would have used smaller antlers to pressure flake these items into spear points, knives, or other tools. It is believed that Clovis peoples with their characteristic fluted lanceolate-shaped points quickly spread throughout all of North and South America and this was the first site widely accepted to have pre-Clovis deposits.
The acceptance of Monte Verde has led to a reevaluation of the Clovis First model, at the Debra L. Friedkin site multiple lines of evidence support its pre-Clovis assignment. Excavations at the Debra L. Friedkin site include Block A located on terrace 2, the two terraces are Pleistocene floodplain deposits. The pre-Clovis occupation is found within Block A, which consists of 52 adjacent 1x1 m squares, Block A is buried under colluvium from a nearby slope and 1.4 m of clay sediment deposited gradually during flooding events from nearby Buttermilk Creek. The Buttermilk Creek Complex is found within Vertisols, Block A consists of 9 soil horizons. Nordt, Steven G. Driese, Joshua M. Feinberg, Hallmark who is a soil scientist, and archaeologists including Michael R. Waters, Thomas A. Jennings, Joshua L. Keene, Jessi Halligan, and Michael B. The Folsom horizon in block A is defined within a 2.5 cm thick layer containing 3 Folsom points, the Clovis horizon is found below Folsom within a 2.5 cm thick layer containing Clovis diagnostics.
The Buttermilk Creek Complex is found below Clovis and defined within a 20 cm thick layer containing artifacts, there were 18 OSL dates ranging from 14, 000-17,500 BP taken from this layer. The Buttermilk Creek Complex artifact assemblage is much larger and more varied than other North American sites advanced as having a pre-Clovis component. This is one of the reasons why the claim of a pre-Clovis component at this site has been greeted with much more credibility than at most other potential pre-Clovis sites. The Buttermilk Creek Complex has yielded 15,528 pre-Clovis stone artifacts which have separated into macrodebitage, microdebitage. The macrodebitage was counted and further subdivided into additional categories, tools were individually analyzed and included 5 blades,14 bladelets,12 bifaces,1 discoidal core,23 edge-modified tools,3 radial break tools, and 1 piece of polished hematite. There has been analysis done on some of the artifacts found in the Buttermilk Creek Complex assemblage
They were a maize-based agricultural society who lived in sedentary villages and built ceremonial platform mounds. The Fort Ancient culture was thought to have been an expansion of the Mississippian cultures. It is now accepted as a developed culture that descended from the Hopewell culture. The Fort Ancient Cultures most famous mound is called the serpent mound, the name of the culture originates from the Fort Ancient, Ohio archeological site. However, the Fort Ancient Site is now thought to have built by Ohio Hopewellian people. It was likely occupied by the succeeding Fort Ancient culture, the site is located on a hill above the Little Miami River, close to Lebanon, Ohio. Starting in about 1000 CE, terminal Late Woodland groups in the Middle Ohio Valley adopted maize agriculture and they began settling in small, year-round nuclear family households and settlements of no more than 40 to 50 individuals. These small scattered settlements, located along terraces that overlooked rivers and sometimes on flood plains, by 1200 the small villages began to coalesce into larger settlements of up to 300 people.
They were occupied for longer periods, possibly up to 25 years, during the Early and Middle Fort Ancient period, the houses were designed as single-family dwellings. Later Fort Ancient buildings are larger multi-family dwellings, settlements were rarely permanent, as the people commonly moved to a new location after one or two generations, when the natural resources surrounding the old village were exhausted. The people laid out the villages around an oval central plaza. The arrangement of buildings in Fort Ancient settlements is thought to have served as a sort of calendar, marking the positions of the solstices. The people began to build low platform mounds for ceremonial purposes, the plaza was the center of village life, the place where ceremonies and other social events were held. The Late Fort Ancient period from 1400 to 1750 is the era in the Middle Ohio Valley. During this era, the formerly dispersed populations began to coalesce, the Gist-phase villages became much larger than during the preceding period, with populations as high as 500.
This era showed increased contact with Mississippian peoples, some of whom may have migrated to and these sites were abandoned during this time period. During the Montour phase, the people inhabited their villages year-round and this may indicate that during the winter, family groups and hunting parties may have returned to the regions previously occupied by their ancestors. Such a pattern was observed during historic times, for example, such artifacts appeared and were used in the area before the arrival of European explorers or settlers
Prairie du Rocher, Illinois
Prairie du Rocher is a village in Randolph County, United States. The population was 604 at the 2010 census, Prairie du Rocher is one of the oldest communities founded as a French settlement that survives in the 21st century. About four miles to the west, closer to the Mississippi River, is Fort de Chartres, site of a French military fortification, some buildings were reconstructed after falling into ruins, and the complex is now a state park and historical site. The village was founded in 1722 by French colonists, mostly migrants from Canada, in 1718, Pierre Dugué de Boisbriand built the first Fort de Chartres. In 1722, St. Thérèse Langlois, a nephew of Boisbriand, the town was built on a tract of land donated by the Royal Indian Company. Boisbriand became the commandant of the area, the town was strategically located along fertile Mississippi River bottomland. Surpluses from the cultivation by habitants helped supply critical wheat and corn to New Orleans. DArtaguette, an inspector in the country in the early 18th century, every kind of grain and vegetables are produced here in the greatest abundance.
They have, large numbers of oxen, sheep, poultry is abundant, and fish plentiful. So that, in fact, they lack none of the necessaries or conveniences of life, in 1743 the territorial government granted the Prairie du Rocher Common to the village, the common was used until 1852. The villagers had plots for cultivation defined in typical French fashion, the villagers kept the plots open within the common, and built a fence around it to keep out livestock. A school existed as early as the 1760s, students boarded with local families, because habitants did not practice fertilization, the soil became exhausted. In addition, an increase in population meant there was not sufficient land for everyone, some villagers moved to the west side of the Mississippi and founded Ste. Genevieve about 1750, in present-day Missouri and they quickly created an agricultural community with characteristics similar to Prairie du Rocher. Following their victory in the French and Indian War, the British gained possession of French lands east of the Mississippi, the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, the British did not arrive in force until 1765.
To avoid British rule, many of the towns French residents moved across the Mississippi River to towns such as Ste, genevieve and St. Louis in what was now, via the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, Spanish Louisiana. Additionally, King George IIIs Royal Proclamation of 1763 designated all the land west of the Appalachians and he tried to prevent settlers entering from the then-British Colonies. During the American Revolutionary War, George Rogers Clark captured Prairie du Rocher for the colonies in his campaign that resulted in the capture of Vincennes, Indiana
The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture. They lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, the Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers. They held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences that found form in their architecture, the kiva, a congregational space that was used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient peoples community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes. The Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term, reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean ancient enemies. Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term used, archaeologists continue to debate when this distinct culture emerged.
The current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means village in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the particular style of dwelling. The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to ancient people or ancient ones, Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, meaning ancient people, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans. The Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest and this area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America.
The others are the Mogollon and Patayan, in relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area. The Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet, extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, and sculpted windows, in areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more easily eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed. The Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites, all areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, and wind and water erosion.
Summer rains could be unreliable and often arrived as destructive thunderstorms, while the amount of winter snowfall varied greatly, the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network. The Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley, cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. Almost all dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century. A number of traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular, structures were usually constructed atop such mounds. The adoption and use of shells as tempering agents in their shell tempered pottery.
Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity. The development of institutionalized social inequality, a centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one. The beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, called the Southern Cult and this is the belief system of the Mississippians as we know it. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, the SECC was frequently tied in to ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing system or stone architecture, the Mississippi stage is usually divided into three or more chronological periods. Each period is an historical distinction varying regionally.
At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or later, the Mississippi period should not be confused with the Mississippian culture. The Mississippi period is the stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society. The Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life, different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex, the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its influence on other contemporary. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, the Adena culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthingtons early 19th-century estate called Adena, in Chillicothe, Ohio. Lasting traces of Adena culture are seen in their substantial earthworks. At one point, Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, and these mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These mounds were built using hundreds of thousands of full of specially selected and graded earth.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena mounds were built as part of burial ritual. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their burial was performed. Before the construction of the mounds, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, the mound would be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new mound. After a series of repetitions, mound/mortuary/mound/mortuary, a quite prominent earthwork would remain, in the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial mounds. Adena mounds stood in isolation from domestic living areas, although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena, motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures.
Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, and many objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, all told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs. The Adena carved stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick
Archaic period (North America)
The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts and shellfish. As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming and this classification system was first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in the widely accepted 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. In the organization of the system, the Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and is superseded by the Formative stage, the Lithic stage The Archaic stage The Formative stage The Classic stage The Post-Classic stage Numerous local variations have been identified within the cultural rankings. The period has been subdivided by region and time, for instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara and Chihuahua cultures. Such early mound sites as Frenchmans Bend and Hedgepeth were of time period. Watson Brake is now considered the oldest mound complex in the Americas, more than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, and it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast.
Across what is now the Southeastern United States, starting around 4000 BCE, people exploited wetland resources, middens developed along rivers, but there is limited evidence of Archaic peoples along coastlines prior to 3000 BCE. Archaic sites on the coast may have been inundated by rising sea levels, starting around 3000 BCE evidence of large-scale exploitation of oysters appears. During the period 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE shell rings, large shell middens more or less surrounding open centers, developed along the coast of the Southeastern United States. These shell rings are numerous in South Carolina and Georgia, but are found scattered around the Florida Peninsula. In some places, such as Horrs Island in Southwest Florida, four shell or sand mounds on Horrs Island have been dated to between 4,870 and 4,270 Before Present. The site which is considered to be one of the most significant centres of habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada, is located on the north side Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario.
It became part of a trading network because of its strategic location at the centre of major North American waterways. In Glyn Edmund Daniel, Christopher Chippindale, feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley, Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals. Knoxville, U of Tennessee P. ISBN 1-5723-3733-8, Florida, The University Press of Florida
The Plaquemine culture was an archaeological culture in the lower Mississippi River Valley in western Mississippi and eastern Louisiana. Good examples of culture are the Medora Site in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Plaquemine culture was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture in the Cahokia site in St. Louis and it is considered ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa peoples. The Plaquemine Culture occupied the rest of Louisiana not taken by the Caddoan Mississippian culture during this time frame and its people are considered descendants of the Troyville-Coles Creek culture. A prominent feature of Plaquemine sites are large ceremonial centers with two or more large mounds facing an open plaza, the flat-topped, pyramidal mounds were constructed in several stages. Sometimes they were topped by one or two smaller mounds, mounds were often built on top of the ruins of a house or temple and similar buildings were usually constructed on top of the mound. In earlier times, buildings were circular, but they were likely to be rectangular.
They were constructed of wattle and daub, and sometimes with wall posts sunk into foot-deep wall trenches, at times, oval or rectangular graves were dug in the mounds. These might have been for primary burials, but more often they were for the reburial of remains originally interred elsewhere, one kind of pottery occasionally placed in the graves is called killed pottery. This type has a hole in the base of the vessel that was cut while the pot was being made and they decorated their pots in other characteristic ways. They sometimes added small solid handles called lugs and textured the surface by brushing clumps of grass over the vessel before it was fired. They often cut designs into the surface of the wet clay and, like their Caddoan contemporaries, Plaquemine peoples had undecorated pots that they used for ordinary daily tasks. Pottery during this phase still used dry clay particles as a tempering material, beginning during the Terminal Coles Creek period, Mississippian cultures far upstream from the Plaquemine area began expanding their reach southward.
The Plaquemine peoples absorbed more Mississippian influence and the area of their culture began to shrink after 1350 CE. Eventually the last enclave of purely Plaquemine culture was the Natchez Bluffs area, while the Yazoo Basin, historic groups in the area during first European contact bear out this division. In the Natchez Bluffs, the Taensa and Natchez, had held out against Mississippian influence and they continued to use the same sites as their ancestors and carry on the Plaquemine culture. Groups who appear to have absorbed more Mississippian influence were identified at the time of European contact as those tribes speaking the Tunican, Chitimachan, ISBN 0-8203-1888-4 R. Barry Lewis and Charles Stout, editors. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces, University of Alabama Press,1998, ISBN 0-8173-0947-0 Jeffrey P. Brain, Winterville-Late Prehistoric Culture Contact in the Lower Mississippi Valley, Mississippi Department of Archives and History,1989
Calf Creek culture
The Calf Creek culture was active during the early to middle Archaic period in the Americas, approximately 7,500 to 4,000 years ago. The Calf Creek people were noted for their use of large, the Calf Creek point was first named and described in an Arkansas amateur archaeological journal by Don Dickson in 1968, for examples found at Calf Creek cave in Searcy County Arkansas. The cave was named for a small, perennial stream that runs nearby, in 2003, a 5, 120±25-year-old bison skull was found on the banks of the Arkansas River by Kim Holt. This find was featured on the PBS show, History Detectives, the skull had a Calf Creek culture spearhead embedded just over the orbital of the right eye socket. The size of the spearhead, and the wound it inflicted further suggest that the Calf Creek used atlatls
Coles Creek culture
Coles Creek culture is a Late Woodland archaeological culture in the Lower Mississippi valley in the southern United States. The period marks a significant change in the history of the area. Population increased dramatically and there is evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Although many of the traits of chiefdom societies are not yet manifested. Coles Creek sites are found in Arkansas and Mississippi and it is considered ancestral to the Plaquemine culture. The Coles Creek culture is a development of the Lower Mississippi Valley that took place between the terminal Woodland period and the Plaquemine culture period. The culture was defined by the unique decoration on grog-tempered ceramic ware by James A. Ford after his investigations at the Mazique Archeological Site and he had studied both the Mazique and Coles Creek Sites, and almost went with the Mazique culture, but decided on the less historically involved sites name. Although earlier cultures built mounds mainly as a part of customs, by the Coles Creek period these mounds took on a newer shape.
Instead of being primarily for burial, mounds were constructed to support temples, pyramidal mounds with flat tops and ramps were constructed, usually over successive years and with many layers. A temple or other structures, usually of wattle and daub construction, a typical Coles Creek site plan consisted of at least two and more commonly three, mounds around a central plaza. This pattern emerged in roughly 800 CE and continued for several hundred years, by late Coles Creek times, the site plans are often enlarged to include up to three more mounds. Sites typical of this period are Mount Nebo, Holly Bluff, Kings Crossing, long distance trade seems to have been negligible at this time, as exotic goods and trade items are rare in Coles Creek sites. There is little evidence of domesticated or cultivated plants until the end of the Coles Creek period, acorns are a dominant food source, supplemented with persimmons and some starchy seeds such as maygrass. Coles Creek populations may have loosely managed certain plant resources in order to promote a better or more consistent food supply, maize is found in very limited quantities, but by 1000-1200 CE had begun to increase, although nowhere near the levels it would reach in Mississippian times.
The bow and arrow was introduced in this period, although the continued to be used. Pottery styles changed during this period, as began to create more durable wares with more diversified uses. Wet clay was tempered with particles of dry clay to prevent cracking during firing, most pots were decorated only on the upper half, usually with designs of incised lines or impressed tool marks
The Clovis culture appears around 11, 500–11,000 uncal RCYBP, at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of Clovis points and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists most precise determinations at present suggest that this age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the cultures of the Americas. The only human burial that has been associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy named Anzick-1. Researchers from the United States and Europe conducted paleogenetic research on Anzick-1s ancient nuclear, the results of these analyses reveal that Anzick-1 is closely related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the peopling of the Americas. The Clovis culture was replaced by more localized regional cultures from the time of the Younger Dryas cold climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen, each of these is commonly thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases apparently differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points.
Recent preliminary carbon dating shows a culture from around or prior to 13,000 years ago, along with horse, camel, a hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted stone spear point, known as the Clovis point. The Clovis point is bifacial and typically fluted on both sides, the culture was originally named for a small number of artifacts found between 1932 and 1936 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, a site between the towns of Clovis and Portales, New Mexico. These finds were deemed especially important due to their association with mammoth sp. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much, but not all, of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America and it is generally accepted that Clovis people hunted mammoths, as Clovis points have repeatedly been found in sites containing mammoth remains. In total, more than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited.
The oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, Mexico and it features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found, the evidence suggests that humans did in fact two of them here. Theres the Aubrey site in Denton County, which produced a date that is almost identical. After this time, Clovis-style fluted points were replaced by other fluted-point traditions with an uninterrupted sequence across North. An effectively continuous cultural adaptation proceeds from the Clovis period through the ensuing Middle, whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, and controversial, question
Fort Walton culture
The Fort Walton culture was named by archaeologist Gordon Willey for the Fort Walton Mound site near Fort Walton Beach, based on his work at the site. Through more work in the area archaeologist have now come to believe the Ft. Walton site was actually built, settlement types include single family homesteads, multi family hamlets, small single mound centers, and large multimound centers. The hierarchical settlement patterns suggests the area may have had one or more paramount chiefdoms, by the Late Fort Walton period increased contact with Lamar Phase peoples from central Georgia saw another change in styles of decoration and manufacture of ceramics. This new phase is known as the Leon-Jefferson culture and this period sees the collapse of the chiefdoms as aboriginal populations declined following contact with European explorers and colonizers, such as the Hernando de Soto Expedition in 1539. The Fort Walton and Leon-Jefferson peoples are the ancestors of the Apalachee peoples. The Lake Jackson Mounds site in Leon County is the largest known ceremonial center of the Fort Walton culture, another large site located nearby is the Velda Mound, which was occupied from approximately 1450 to 1625.
Other sites include the Yon Mound and Village Site in Liberty County, woodville Karst Plain Project Gabrielle Shahramfar. Determining Fort Walton burial patterns and their relationship within the greater Mississippian world