Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object. Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II. A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of small systems with sub-meter resolution; the term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.
The modern uses of radar are diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, range-controlled radar for public health surveillance. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from high noise levels. Radar is a key technology that the self-driving systems are designed to use, along with sonar and other sensors. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar". With the emergence of driverless vehicles, Radar is expected to assist the automated platform to monitor its environment, thus preventing unwanted incidents.
As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes; the next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation; the German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904, he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter, he obtained a patent for his detection device in April 1904 and a patent for a related amendment for estimating the distance to the ship.
He got a British patent on September 23, 1904 for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope. It operated on a 50 cm wavelength and the pulsed radar signal was created via a spark-gap, his system used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected. In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen and during the 1920s went on to lead the U. K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission. Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units. Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect when aircraft flew overhead.
Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U. S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not continue the work. Eight years Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft. Before the Second World War, researchers in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United States, independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version of radar. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, Hungary generated its radar technology during the war. In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the split-anode magnetron, the research branch of the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil headed by Maurice Ponte with Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline and M. Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locatin
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the weak GPS signals; the GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military and commercial users around the world; the United States government created the system, maintains it, makes it accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U. S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System. Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U. S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the United States government in a program called "Selective Availability"; the GPS system is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems; the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more and to within two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to achieve global reach in 2020. There are the European Union Galileo positioning system, India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy; when selective availability was lifted in 2000, GPS had about a five-meter accuracy. The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now deployed. GPS receivers released in 2018 that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimetres or 11.8 inches. The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the 1960s; the U. S. Department of Defense developed the system, which used 24 satellites, it was developed for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
Civilian use was allowed from the 1980s. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it; the work of Gladys West is credited as instrumental in the development of computational techniques for detecting satellite positions with the precision needed for GPS. The design of GPS is based on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator, developed in the early 1940s. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity – detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth; the GPS calculated positions would drift into error, accumulating to 10 kilometers per day. This was corrected for in the design of GPS.
Winterberg, Friedwardt. “Relativistische Zeitdilatation eines künstlichen Satelliten ” When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory decided to monitor its radio transmissions. Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit; the Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite; this led them and APL to develop the TRANSIT system. In 1959, ARPA played a role in TRANSIT. TRANSIT was first tested in 1960, it used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix once per hour. In 1967, the U. S. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS.
In the 1970s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations
Modra is a city and municipality in the Bratislava Region in Slovakia. It has a population of 8,704 as of 2005, it is an excellent centre of hiking. Modra is famous for its pottery industry, its blue-and-white porcelain is famous throughout Slovakia. It is known as one of the most important viticulture centres in the Little Carpathians region. Besides the main town, there are other adjacent settlements incorporated in the municipality: former vassalage viticulture village Kráľová and two recreational hamlets of Harmónia and Piesok, both located in the woods of Little Carpathians mountains. Most experts agree that the name is connected to Slovak: modrá; the name originates from another historic geographic name in the neighbourhood, e.g. Modrá hora. According to a less probable hypothesis, the name comes from Hungarian: madár; the first traces of habitation go back into the 3rd millennium BCE and the first permanent habitation comes from the time of Great Moravia, when the Slavs were living there.
The first mention about Modra was in 1158 in a document of the Géza II of Hungary, when it belonged to the bishop of Nitra. After the Mongol invasion of 1241 the settlement was reconstructed by the German colonists; the first mention about vineyards goes back to 1321. The settlement received its town privileges in 1361 and became a free royal town in 1607; the town fortifications with three gates were constructed in 1610–1647. Since the 17th century it was one of the leading craft centres in present-day Slovakia; the ceramic industry and majolica production started in the 19th century and in 1883 a school of ceramics was established, where through the skillfulness of Habaners the so-called Slovak ceramics were created. The railway track from Bratislava to Trnava bypassed the town in the 1840s, as the local magistrate refused to allow construction of the railway. Modra Observatory of the Comenius University in Bratislava near Modra-Piesok A grave memorial museum (with an external exhibition "Štúrova izba" and statue of Ľudovít Štúr, who died here in 1856 Remains of the former fortifications: a bastion and the "Upper Gate", the only one of three original town gates to be preserved A country castle just behind the upper gate.
97.4 % of inhabitants were 1 % Czechs and 0.4 % Hungarians. Structure of religion: 53.7% Roman Catholics, 25.8% Lutherans, 15% with no confession. In 2010 the Canadian film director Ingrid Veninger made a film about returning to the town after many years in Canada, called MODRA, starring Alexander Gammal and her daughter Hallie Switzer. Ľudovít Štúr, Slovak writer and politician, lived his last years in Modra and died here Ondrej Rigo, Slovak serial killer Svetozar Miletić, Serbian advocate, Journalist and politician, studied here at the gymnasium Benátky nad Jizerou, Czech Republic Hustopeče u Brna, Czech Republic Overijse, Belgium Martres-Tolosane, France Part or whole of the information is based on the corresponding article on the German Wikipedia Media related to Brodské at Wikimedia Commons Official website Astronomical observatory MODRA: Toronto Film Festival MODRA: Official site
Beech is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe and North America. Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera and Fagus; the Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark; this group includes Fagus sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus crenata, Fagus lucida, Fagus longipetiolata, Fagus hayatae. The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region.
Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of overlapping morphotypes, though genetic analysis does not support separate species. Within its family, the Fagaceae, recent research has suggested that Fagus is the evolutionarily most basal group; the southern beeches thought related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Chile; the European beech is the most cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5 -- 4 -- 10 cm broad. Beeches are monoecious; the small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring; the bark is light grey. The fruit is a small three–angled nut 10–15 mm long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm long, known as cupules.
The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, though bitter with a high tannin content, are called beechnuts or beechmast; the name of the tree is of Indo-European origin, played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece. Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, provided they are not waterlogged; the tree canopy casts dense shade, carpets the ground thickly with leaf litter. In North America, they form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple; the beech blight aphid is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera. Beech bark is thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech bark disease is a fungal infection that attacks the American beech through damage caused by scale insects. Infection can lead to the death of the tree. Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England; some suggest. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is removed from'native' woods. Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora; the Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge. Beech is not native to Ireland; the Friends of the Irish Environment say that the best policy is to remove young regenerating beech, while retaining veteran specimens with biodiversity value. A campaign by Friends of the Rusland Beeches and South Lakeland Friends of the Earth launched in 2007 to reclassify the beech as native in Cumbria.
The campaign is backed by Tim Farron, MP, who tabled a motion on 3 December 2007 regarding the status of beech in Cumbria. Today, beech is planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain below about 650 m; the tallest and longest hedge in the world is the Meikleour Beech Hedge in Meikleour and Kinross, Scotland. The common European beech grows in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about the 57–59°N; the most northern known growing beech trees are found in a few small forests around the city of Bergen on th
Tesárske Mlyňany is a village and municipality in Zlaté Moravce District of the Nitra Region, in western-central Slovakia. The town was formed by association of two separate villages, Tesáre nad Žitavou and Mlynany. Tesárske means Carpenter and so its name means Carpenter over the Zittau River and is among the oldest settlements in the region, first recorded as a settlement of Tazzari in 1075AD although Archaeological findings show settlement since the 9th century. Mlynany is first recorded as Malonian in 1209AD. Both names come from craft focus of its inhabitants; the village lies in the Zittau upland, on both banks of the Zittau river, about 4 km south of the town of Zlaté Moravce. Nitra is the nearest large town; the village is accessed by leading north-south. The population is 1787 and has an area of 18km² The municipality lies at an altitude of 170 metres and covers an area of 18.007 km². In 2011 it had a population of 1683 inhabitants. Zborovice - Czech Republic Kétsoprony - Hungary Arboretum Mlyňany Slovak Academy of Sciences Roman Catholic Church of the Annunciation from 1763.
Chapel of the Exaltation. Crisis of 1841. Granary - church Aniel Official homepage
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is a wide-field survey reflecting telescope with an 8.4-meter primary mirror under construction, that will photograph the entire available sky every few nights. The word synoptic is derived from the Greek words σύν and ὄψις, describes observations that give a broad view of a subject at a particular time; the telescope uses a novel 3-mirror design, a variant of three-mirror anastigmat, which allows a compact telescope to deliver sharp images over a wide 3.5-degree diameter field of view. Images will be recorded by a 3.2-gigapixel CCD imaging camera, the largest digital camera constructed. The telescope is located on the El Peñón peak of Cerro Pachón, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes; the LSST Base Facility is located about 100 kilometres away in the town of La Serena. The LSST was proposed in 2001, construction of the mirror began in 2007. LSST became the top-ranked large ground-based project in the 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, the project began construction 1 August 2014 when the National Science Foundation authorized the FY2014 portion of its construction budget.
The ceremonial laying of the first stone was performed on 14 April 2015. Site construction began on April 14, 2015, with first light anticipated in 2020, full operations for a ten-year survey commencing in January 2022. LSST, unlike all previous large astronomical observatories, has committed to making all data public as soon as it is taken. In their words "By providing immediate public access to all the data it obtains, it will provide everyone, the professional and the “just curious” alike, a deep and frequent window on the entire sky." LSST is the successor to a long tradition of sky surveys. These started as visually compiled catalogs in the mid 1700s, such as the Messier catalog; this was replaced in the late 1800s by photographic surveys, starting with the Harvard Plate Collection, the National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, others. By about 2000 the first digital surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, began to replace the photographic plates of the earlier surveys.
LSST evolved from the earlier concept of the Dark Matter Telescope, mentioned as early as 1996. The fifth decadal report and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, was released in 2001, recommended the "Large-Aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope" as a major initiative. At this early stage the basic design and objectives were set: The Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope is a 6.5-m-class optical telescope designed to survey the visible sky every week down to a much fainter level than that reached by existing surveys. It will catalog 90 percent of the near-Earth objects larger than 300 m and assess the threat they pose to life on Earth, it will find some 10,000 primitive objects in the Kuiper Belt, which contains a fossil record of the formation of the solar system. It will contribute to the study of the structure of the universe by observing thousands of supernovae, both nearby and at large redshift, by measuring the distribution of dark matter through gravitational lensing. All the data will be available through the National Virtual Observatory, providing access for astronomers and the public to deep images of the changing night sky.
Early development was funded by a number of small grants, with major contributions in January 2008 by software billionaires Charles Simonyi and Bill Gates of $20 and $10 million respectively. $7.5 million was included in the U. S. President's FY2013 NSF budget request; the Department of Energy is funding construction of the digital camera component by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, as part of its mission to understand dark energy. In the 2010 decadal survey, LSST was ranked as the highest-priority ground-based instrument. NSF funding for the rest of construction was authorized as of 1 August 2014; the camera is separately funded by the Department of Energy. The lead organizations are: The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will design and construct the LSST camera The National Optical Astronomy Observatory will provide the telescope and site team The National Center for Supercomputing Applications will construct and test the archive and data access center The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy is responsible for overseeing the LSST construction.
As of November 2016 the project critical path was the camera construction and testing. In May 2018, Congress appropriated much more funding than the telescope had asked for, in hopes of speeding up construction and operation. Telescope management was thankful but unsure this would help, since at the late stage of construction they were not cash-limited; the LSST design is unique among large telescopes in having a wide field of view: 3.5 degrees in diameter, or 9.6 square degrees. For comparison, both the Sun and the Moon, as seen from Earth, are 0.5 degrees across, or 0.2 square degrees. Combined with its large aperture, this will give it a spectacularly large etendue of 319 m2∙degree2; this is more than three times the etendue of best existing telescopes, the Subaru Telescope with its Hyper Suprime Camera, Pan-STARRS, more than an order of magnitude better than most large telescopes. The LSST is the latest in a long line of improvements giving telescopes larger fields of view; the earliest reflecting telescopes used spherical mirrors, which although easy to fabricate and test, suffer from spherical aberration.
Lecce is a historic city of 95,766 inhabitants in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the second province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia. It is the main city of the Salentine Peninsula, a sub-peninsula at the heel of the Italian Peninsula and is over 2,000 years old; because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, Lecce is nicknamed "The Florence of the South". The city has a long traditional affinity with Greek culture going back to its foundation. To this day, in the Grecìa Salentina, a group of towns not far from Lecce, the griko language is still spoken. In terms of industry, the "Lecce stone"—a particular kind of limestone—is one of the city's main exports, because it is soft and workable, thus suitable for sculptures. Lecce is an important agricultural centre, chiefly for its olive oil and wine production, as well as an industrial centre specializing in ceramic production. Vito Fazzi Medical Center is the biggest medical center in Apulia.
According to legend, a city called Sybar existed at the time of the Trojan War, founded by the Messapii. It was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC. Under the emperor Hadrian the city was moved 3 kilometres to the northeast, taking the name of Licea or Litium. Lecce was connected to the Hadrian Port. Orontius of Lecce, locally called Sant'Oronzo, is considered to have served as the city's first Christian bishop and is Lecce's patron saint. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Lecce was sacked by the Ostrogoth king Totila in the Gothic Wars, it was restored to Roman rule in 549, remained part of the Eastern Empire for five centuries, with brief conquests by Saracens, Lombards and Slavs. After the Norman conquest in the 11th century, Lecce regained commercial and political importance, flourishing in the subsequent Hohenstaufen and Angevine rule; the County of Lecce was one of the largest and most important fiefs in the Kingdom of Sicily from 1053 to 1463, when it was annexed directly to the crown.
From the 15th century, Lecce was one of the most important cities of southern Italy, starting in 1630, it was enriched with precious Baroque monuments. To avert invasion by the Ottomans, a new line of walls and a castle were built by Charles V, in the first part of the 16th century. In 1656, a plague broke out in the city. In 1943, fighter aircraft based in Lecce helped support isolated Italian garrisons in the Aegean Sea during World War 2; because they were delayed by the Allies, they couldn't prevent a defeat. In 1944 and 1945, B-24 long-range bombers of the 98th Heavy Bomber Group attached to the 15th U. S. Army Air Force were based in Lecce, from where the crews flew missions over Italy, the Balkans, Austria and France. Church of the Holy Cross: Construction of the Chiesa di Santa Croce) was begun in 1353, but work halted until 1549, it was completed only by 1695; the church has a richly decorated façade with animals, grotesque figures and vegetables, a large rose window. Next to the church is the Government Palace, a former convent.
Lecce Cathedral: The church was built in 1144, rebuilt in 1230 totally restored in the 1659–70 by Giuseppe Zimbalo, who built the five storey 70-metre high bell tower, with an octagonal loggia. San Niccolò and Cataldo The church is an example of Italo-Norman architecture, it was founded by Tancred of Sicily in 1180. In 1716 the façade was rebuilt, with the addition of numerous statues, but maintaining the original Romanesque portal; the walls were frescoed during the 15th-17th centuries. Celestine Convent: Built in Baroque-style by Giuseppe Zimbalo; the courtyard was designed by Gabriele Riccardi. Santa Irene: This church was commissioned in 1591 by the Theatines and dedicated to Saint Irene; the architect was Francesco Grimaldi). It has a large façade showing different styles in lower parts. Above the portal stands a statue of Ste Irene by Mauro Manieri; the interior is rather sober. The main altarpiece is a copy of the St Michael the Archangel by Guido Reni; the high altar has a Transport of the Holy Ark by Oronzo Tiso.
In the right transept is one of the largest altars in Lecce, dedicated to Saint Cajetan. Nearby is the Rococo altar of Saint Andrew Avellino. From the mid-17th century is the Altar of St Orontius by Francesco Antonio Zimbalo, followed by the altar of Saint Irene with a canvas by Giuseppe Verrio, nine busts of saints housing relics and a large statue of the saint; the altar of Saint Stephen has the Stoning of St. Stephen by Verrio. San Matteo: This church was built in 1667, it has a typical central Italy Baroque style. It has two columns on the façade, only one of, decorated, though only partially. According to a local legend, the jealous devil killed the sculptor. Santa Maria degli Angeli Santa Chiara: This church was built in 1429–1438, rebuilt in 1687. San Francesco della Scarpa: Known as the "church without façade" as the latter has been demolished in the 19th century restorations; the most ancient section dates to the 13th-14th centuries. Notable are a large statue of Saint Joseph. Column of statue of St Oronzo: wa