Modulus Graphite is an American manufacturer of musical instruments best known for building bass guitars with carbon fiber necks. The company called Modulus Graphite, was founded in part by Geoff Gould, a bassist who worked for an aerospace company in Palo Alto, California; the name is a reference to Young's modulus, a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material, used in the field of solid mechanics. Carbon fiber has an exceptionally high modulus. Traditionally, electric guitar and bass necks are made from hardwoods reinforced with an adjustable steel "truss rod." Wood, being a occurring material, is prone to variations in density and flexibility. This, coupled with the high stresses created by stretching steel strings across them lengthwise, makes wood necks prone to certain unpredictable and undesirable qualities. Among these are twisting, incorrect "bowing", "dead spots," or areas on the neck where notes are quieter or more indistinct compared to other areas. Non-traditional neck materials such as carbon fiber and aluminum are attempts to correct these issues by replacing wood with lighter and more uniform components.
Gould was inspired to experiment with non-traditional materials after attending a 1974 Grateful Dead concert, at which he marveled at the size and complexity of Phil Lesh's modified bass and began to consider the possibilities of lighter, stronger materials. After being passed over by his employers in the aerospace industry, the project of creating hollow, carbon fiber bass necks was brought to fruition by Gould and Alembic, who built a bass with a prototype neck and displayed it at a trade show in 1977. After the trade show, the bass was purchased by Fleetwood Mac bassist John McVie. Gould and some of his colleagues in the aerospace industry founded Modulus Graphite and began to make necks for Alembic and other companies before moving on to making entire instruments; as of December 20, 2013 Modulus Guitars LLC was placed into voluntary Chapter 7 arrangements. Joe Perman, a former Modulus Graphite worker, has continued the work and builds a limited number of instruments monthly; these high end instruments are built to order.
SP and SPX BaSSStar TBX. Gould Basses
Modulus is a genus of small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Modulidae. Species within the genus Modulus include: Modulus ambiguus Dautzenberg, 1910 Modulus bayeri Petuch, 2001 Modulus bermontianus Petuch, 1994 Modulus calusa Petuch, 1988 Modulus carchedonius Modulus guernei Dautzenberg, 1900 Modulus kaicherae Petuch, 1987 Modulus lindae Petuch, 1987 Modulus modulus - the type species, known as the "button snail" Modulus nodosus Macsotay & Campos, 2001 Modulus pacei Petuch, 1987 Modulus tectum Modulus turbinoides
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed and direction of a power source. Gears always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, thus may be considered a simple machine; the teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation; the gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is; when two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds, the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion to their diameters. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles and cars—the term "gear" as in "first gear" refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear.
The term describes similar devices when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission. Early examples of gears date from the 4th century BC in China, which have been preserved at the Luoyang Museum of Henan Province, China; the earliest preserved gears in Europe were found in the Antikythera mechanism, an example of a early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC. Gears appear in works connected to Hero of Alexandria, in Roman Egypt circa AD 50, but can be traced back to the mechanics of the Alexandrian school in 3rd-century BC Ptolemaic Egypt, were developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes; the segmental gear, which receives/communicates reciprocating motion from/to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear/ring having cogs on the periphery, was invented by Arab engineer Al-Jazari in 1206.
The worm gear was invented in the Indian subcontinent, for use in roller cotton gins, some time during the 13th–14th centuries. Differential gears may have been used in some of the Chinese south-pointing chariots, but the first verifiable use of differential gears was by the British clock maker Joseph Williamson in 1720. Examples of early gear applications include: The Antikythera mechanism Ma Jun used gears as part of a south-pointing chariot; the first geared mechanical clocks were built in China in 725. Al-Jazari invented the segmental gear as part of a water-lifting device; the worm gear was invented as part of a roller cotton gin in the Indian subcontinent. The 1386 Salisbury cathedral clock may be the world's oldest still working geared mechanical clock; the definite ratio that teeth give gears provides an advantage over other drives in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower are proximal, gears have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required.
The downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost per hour. An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal. Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear, they consist of a disk with teeth projecting radially. Though the teeth are not straight-sided, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation; these gears mesh together only if fitted to parallel shafts. No axial thrust is created by the tooth loads. Spur gears tend to be noisy at high speeds. Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears; the leading edges of the teeth are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling makes.
Helical gears can be meshed in crossed orientations. The former refers to. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears"; the angled teeth engage more than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel. In spur gears, teeth meet at a line contact across their entire width, causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. For this reason spur gears are used in low-speed applications and in situations where noise control is not a problem, helical gears are used in high-speed applications, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important; the speed is considered high. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which must
The household robot Modulus, described by the manufacturer as "the friend of Homo sapiens", was made by Sirius, a company Massimo Giuliana set up in 1982 for marketing home and personal computers, which decided to start building its own domestic robot back in 1984. When the first "Modulus" prototype had been realized, the company asked Isao Hosoe, a Japanese designer, living and working in Milan for many years, to study its "body-work". Hosoe's work, went well beyond this, was followed by a complete technological reprocessing of the robot. Data Process was responsible for the design and manufacture of the electronic and mechanical parts, while Sirius used the expertise of an American company, the RB Robot Corporation, for the software. Two million dollars were invested in developing this particular piece of equipment. Research carried out in the United States showed that there would be greater development in this sector, it was estimated that the use of "Modulus" could provide an opportunity to bring back into operation many PCs that were bought during the boom, but which are not used if ever.
A good slice of the "Modulus" market could consist of the owners of these personal computers, newly aware of the possibility of connecting them to a personal robot. "Modulus" was designed as a robot with possible domestic applications, but in reality it is open to any future development. Modularity - hence its name - is one of its principal characteristics, it has been designed for adaptation to the widest possible range of applications. Comparing the robot with man, "Modulus" can be said to have an electronic "circulatory system" that permits the various extremities to communicate with the brain; the "Modulus" robots could have abilities such as a phonemes synthesizer, voice recognition, infrared communication, etc. making it suitable for performing many functions ranging from helping to teach children to assisting the handicapped or invalids. When studying the eventual appearance of "Modulus", Isao Hosoe began by looking at the robots of the past; these included "Electro", built by Westinghouse in 1939.
Hosoe hit on the right appearance by studying human expressions and gestures, bearing in mind that a domestic robot needs to be appealing on account of its proximity to man. Its eyelids have its pupils dilate or contract, it must be able to nod or shake its head, bend its torso, raise and rotate its arms. "Modulus", has no feet. Available in three configurations - "Base", "Service & Security" and "Moddy" - "Modulus" stands on a Base unit 35 cm in diameter and 15 cm high, two two-speed motors connected to rubber wheels, two spherical stabilizers, it comes with a small infrared Instrument for connecting it to another remote control device or for interacting with the major home and personal computers. This first unit can be added to for different functions; as it stands it can be used in hobbies as a home computer, self-propelled peripheral, can be useful for people wanting to learn to program robots. The simplest attachments which can be connected to the Base unit are a vacuum cleaner and a plotter-mechanism that uses felt pens, etc. to produce drawings of considerable precision.
The second "Modulus" configuration, the Service Robot, is obtained by fitting the Techno-cake home-security and service unit on to the Base. One of the components allow the robot to signal the presence of smoke, gas and intruders. An arm with ample freedom of movement and considerable gripping power can be added to the Service Robot. Using its meteo-system, the robot will fetch its owners umbrella. Moddy is the most advanced version of the robot, it is obtained by adding a torso, two arms, a head to the other two units. The robot can carry a tray with its two arms, its head and big eyes make it into a human character, a companion to play with. It is not surprising if Isao Hosoe, who designed "Modulus" together with Ann Marinelli, Donato Greco, Alessio Pozzoli received special advice from his two children, ten-year-old Takeo and fifteen-year-old Taro; the first two units were available on the market. Base complete with vacuum cleaner and plotter-mechanism cost about a million lire, while the price of the Techno-Cake varied from two to five million lire, depending on the type and number of components in function.
It would take up to a year before Moddy was ready, which would cost between eight and ten million lire, but the "Modulus" project became too expensive, causing the bankruptcy of Sirius before Moddy could be completed. Some of the robots were sold to companies who distributed them for the aid of handicapped while many of the Moddy robots were sold by Arngren Electronics A/S during the early 1990s. Modulus Robots website Isao Hosoe Design Isao Hosoe Design - Modulus Jehudah Design - The "Base" Modulus Jehudah Design - The "Service & Security" Modulus Jehudah Design - The "Service & Security" Modulus with arm expansion Jehudah Design - The "Moddy" Modulus The Old Robots Website - Pictures and information MegaDroid - Pictures and information