click links in text for more info

Modus ponens

In propositional logic, modus ponens is a rule of inference. It can be summarized as "P implies Q and P is asserted to be true, therefore Q must be true." Modus ponens is related to another valid form of argument, modus tollens. Both have similar but invalid forms such as affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent, evidence of absence. Constructive dilemma is the disjunctive version of modus ponens. Hypothetical syllogism is related to modus ponens and sometimes thought of as "double modus ponens." The history of modus ponens goes back to antiquity. The first to explicitly describe the argument form modus ponens was Theophrastus. It, along with modus tollens, is one of the standard patterns of inference that can be applied to derive chains of conclusions that lead to the desired goal; the modus ponens rule may be written in sequent notation as P → Q, P ⊢ Q where P, Q and P → Q are statements in a formal language and ⊢ is a metalogical symbol meaning that Q is a syntactic consequence of P and P → Q in some logical system.

The argument form has two premises. The first premise is the "if–then" or conditional claim, namely that P implies Q; the second premise is that the antecedent of the conditional claim, is true. From these two premises it can be logically concluded that Q, the consequent of the conditional claim, must be true as well. In artificial intelligence, modus ponens is called forward chaining. An example of an argument that fits the form modus ponens: If today is Tuesday John will go to work. Today is Tuesday. Therefore, John will go to work; this argument is valid, but this has no bearing on whether any of the statements in the argument are true. An argument can be valid but nonetheless unsound. For example, John might be going to work on Wednesday. In this case, the reasoning for John's going to work is unsound; the argument is valid on every day of the week. A propositional argument using modus ponens is said to be deductive. In single-conclusion sequent calculi, modus ponens is the Cut rule; the cut-elimination theorem for a calculus says that every proof involving Cut can be transformed into a proof without Cut, hence that Cut is admissible.

The Curry–Howard correspondence between proofs and programs relates modus ponens to function application: if f is a function of type P → Q and x is of type P f x is of type Q. The validity of modus ponens in classical two-valued logic can be demonstrated by use of a truth table. In instances of modus ponens we assume as premises that p → q is p is true. Only one line of the truth table—the first—satisfies these two conditions. On this line, q is true. Therefore, whenever p → q is true and p is true, q must be true. While modus ponens is one of the most used argument forms in logic it must not be mistaken for a logical law. Modus ponens allows one to eliminate a conditional statement from a logical proof or argument and thereby not carry these antecedents forward in an ever-lengthening string of symbols. Enderton, for example, observes that "modus ponens can produce shorter formulas from longer ones", Russell observes that "the process of the inference cannot be reduced to symbols, its sole record is the occurrence of ⊦q... an inference is the dropping of a true premise.

A justification for the "trust in inference is the belief that if the two former assertions are not in error, the final assertion is not in error". In other words: if one statement or proposition implies a second one, the first statement or proposition is true the second one is true. If P implies Q and P is true Q is true. Modus ponens represents an instance of the Law of total probability which for a binary variable is expressed as: Pr = Pr Pr + Pr Pr, where e.g. Pr denotes the probability of Q and the conditional probability Pr generalizes the logical implication P → Q. Assume that Pr = 1 is equivalent to Q being TRUE, that Pr = 0 is equivalent to Q being FALSE, it is easy to see that Pr = 1 {\displayst


Saandhram is a 1990 Indian Malayalam film, directed by Thaha and produced by Thaha and Ashokan. The film stars Suresh Gopi, Parvathy and Captain Raju in the lead roles; the film has musical score by Johnson. Suresh Gopi as Sreeraman Parvathy as Indulekha Sreeraman Innocent as Poulose Anammottil Kalpana as Anna Poulose Kuthiravattam Pappu as Caesar Master Badusha as Ukkru Poulose Master Twinku as Kariya Poulose Praseetha as Sofiya Poulose N. L. Balakrishnan as Balakrishnan Mamukkoya as Abdu/Abdulla Saikumar as Unnikrishnan Jagadish as Markosekutty Captain Raju RanjiniCameo Appearance The music was composed by Johnson and the lyrics were written by Kaithapram. Saandhram on IMDb

Canadian Blood Services

Canadian Blood Services is a non-profit charitable organization, independent from the Canadian government. The Canadian Blood Services was established as Canada's blood authority in all provinces and territories except for Quebec in 1998; the federal and territorial governments created the Canadian Blood Services through a memorandum of understanding. Canadian Blood Services is funded through the provincial and territorial governments. Canadian Blood Services is a health-care system, part of Canada's broader network of systems, it is the only organization, funded by Canada's provincial and territorial governments for manufacturing biological products. In addition to providing blood and blood products, the organization provides transfusion and stem cell registry services on behalf of all provincial and territorial governments besides Quebec. All provinces and territories are able to access the national transplant registry for inter-provincial organ sharing and related programs, it has a unique relationship with Héma-Québec, the provincial blood system operator that provides products to patients and manages Quebec's stem cell donor registry.

The two organizations work to share blood products in times of need and collaborate to share information and data. There are several reasons why individuals can be deferred from donating blood, including intravenous drug use, living in the UK for certain periods of time, coming from an HIV-endemic country, as well HIV high risk activity. Canadian Blood Services has a multi-tiered system to measure the safety of their blood supply. Before donating, donors are first screened for their health; the screening process for prospective donors includes: Making sure the donor is healthy by asking if they have the flu, sore throat, fever or infection What medications the donor is taking If they have had a vaccination within the last three months Questions about their medical history Questions about their travel history Questions about their lifestyleOnce the blood is donated, it must go through testing for infectious diseases, including but not limited to HIV and hepatitis. Blood is surveyed to monitor transmittable diseases in blood donors, investigated for possible transfusion-transmitted infections in blood recipients, scanned for potential emerging pathogens that may pose a risk in the present or future.

All these safety measures are done to protect blood recipients. Policies that banned gay men from donating blood and tissues were first introduced around the world in the mid-1980s; these policies were introduced after the emergence of several reported cases of severe immune deficiency among gay men in the United States at the end of 1981. In June 1982, an increase in the cases of immune deficiency was reported among several groups of gay men in Southern California; this led many to believe that the cause of the immune deficiency was linked to the sexual transmission of infections agents. Furthermore, because many thought that the immune deficiency was only prevalent among gay men, the disease was called Gay-Related Immune Deficiency. Hence, in the mid-1980s, the predecessor of the Canadian Blood Services—the Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service—introduced a blood donor restriction on men who have had sex with men as of 1977, on the grounds of protecting the blood supply from HIV infection.

In 2006, Canadian Blood Services began conducting a thorough review of the blood donor restrictions on MSM. Upon this conclusion, Canadian Blood Services was encouraged to continue gathering more information on the subject. In 2010, the Ontario Superior Court—in response to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms challenge, launched in 2002—ruled that the deferral criteria for MSM was not discriminatory as it was based on health and safety considerations. In 2011, the Canadian Blood Services' board of directors approved plans to remove the permanent deferral for MSM, instead, agreed towards a defined term of not more than 10 years but less than five years since last sexual contact. On May 22, 2013, Canadian Blood Services announced that the deferral period as prescribed and enforced by Health Canada for MSM would be decreased from a ban for "even once since 1977" to "five years from last MSM activity" by the summer of 2013; the new policy came into effect on July 22, 2013. In June 2016, Canadian Blood services announced that Health Canada had approved its request to shorten the MSM ban from five years to one year, with this policy change to take effect on August 15, 2016.

In 2019, Canadian Blood Services amended their policy again, after Health Canada had approved their request to reduce the waiting period for MSM donors from one year to three months. Canadian Blood Services aims to keep their policies as minimally restrictive while keeping their blood supply safe. Data from HIV in Canada-Surveillance Report in 2017 stated that MSM adults are the largest portion of new HIV infection in Canada at 46.4%. Eligibility is determined by the most current evidence-based research available. Canadian Blood Services states that the 3-month waiting period exists because HIV is not detectable shortly after infection with their current testing technologies. Many critics say that Canadian Blood Services should be using a screening model that evaluates risky behaviour that may result in HIV, not based on an individual's sexuality. If a gay man is having unprotected anal sex in a committed monogamous relationship, they are less to be HIV positive than a man with secondary sex partners.

All donations go through HIV testing and the approximate nine-day window where HIV goes undetected is the same for a gay man and heterosexual man. The Canad

Zimbabwe Achievers Awards

Zimbabwe Achievers Awards referred to as Zim Achievers Awards is an awards ceremony that seeks to recognise Zimbabweans based in the diaspora for outstanding and notable achievements. Among the awards recipients include Hollywood actress Danai Gurira of The Walking Dead TV Series, Black Panther; the Zimbabwe Achievers Awards was founded in 2010 by Conrad Mwanza, a Zimbabwean businessman, based in the United Kingdom. The ZAA has four editions which are the UK Edition, the USA Edition, the Australian Edition and the South African Edition. Over the years, the ceremony has had several different sponsors including Steward Bank, Food World, Fastjet, Impala Car Rental and Hamilton Insurance; the most recent partnership was with WorldRemit. London Fintech Company, WorldRemit were announced as the global partner for ZAA International in March 2018, they headlined the event in 2018 which honoured the achievements of Zimbabweans in the UK. The company partnered to headline the South African, USA and Australian editions.

The 2018 Z. A. A awards hosted Tsitsi Masiyiwa, the wife of Zimbabwe's first billionaire businessman Strive Masiyiwa. Tsitsi Masiyiwa was the keynote speaker of the UK Edition on 26 May 2018 in London Business Of The Year Male Entrepreneur Of The Year Female Entrepreneur Of The Year Professional Of The Year Community Champion Of The Year Music Video Of The Year Music Artist Of The Year International Gospel Artist Of The Year Male Personality Of The Year Female Personality Of The Year Sports Personality Of The Year Fashion Designer Of The Year Event Of The Year People's Choice Break Through Award Young Achiever Of The Year Strive Masiyiwa Tsitsi Masiyiwa Patrick Mavros Tongayi Chirisa Danai Gurira Chipo Chung Luthuli Dlamini Chiedza Mhende Ernest Ndlovu Jah Seed Jah Prayzah Buffalo Souljah Nadia Nakai Oliver Mtukudzi Thomas Mapfumo Brian Nhira Tinashe Dj Edu Farai Gundan Taponeswa Mavunga Petina Gappah Hugh Masekela Derick Chisora Khama Billiat Esrom Nyandoro Kirsty Coventry Hillzy Takesure Zamar Ncube Kazz A.

K. A Mr Boomslang Official website

Fenyr SuperSport

The Fenyr SuperSport is a Lebanese limited production sports car built by W Motors, a United Arab Emirates based company. It was unveiled at the 2015 Dubai Motor Show; the name of the car, comes from the word Fenrir, the name of a monstrous wolf in Norse mythology. The production of the car was planned to be up to 25 units per year, a drastic increase from the limited 7-car total production run of its predecessor. However, this was changed to a total of 100 vehicles; the Fenyr SuperSport is powered by a 3.8 litre twin-turbocharged flat-six engine developed by Ruf Automobile, having a maximum power output of 596 kW at 7,100 rpm and 980 N⋅m of torque at 4,000 rpm. The engine has mid-rear mounted position; the Fenyr SuperSport is equipped with Porsche's 7-speed dual-clutch PDK transmission. The transmission is paired with a limited-slip differential and is mounted transversely at the rear of the vehicle transferring power to the rear wheels; the Fenyr SuperSport utilises MacPherson strut suspension on the front axle, multi-link suspension with horizontal coil over shock absorbers at the rear axle.

Anti-roll bars are installed at both axles. The Fenyr SuperSport is equipped with forged aluminum wheels with diameters of 19 inches at the front and 20 inches at the rear; the car utilises Pirelli P Zero tyres having codes of 255/35 ZR 19 for the front and 335/30 ZR 20 for the rear. The brakes have ventilated ceramic composite discs, with a diameter of 420 mm each and utilising six-piston aluminium callipers at the front and rear; the interior of the Fenyr SuperSport features a dashboard and central console finished in carbon-fibre and alcantara. The infotainment system includes a 12.3-inch dashboard display, 10.4-inch central display, a 7.8-inch display for interior controls on the passenger side. The car has a 3G router and a mobile app for enhanced connectivity and remote data monitoring; the manufacturer claims a top speed of 400 kilometres per hour for the Fenyr SuperSport. The car has a claimed 0–100 km/h acceleration time of 2.7 seconds. This is at least 5 km/h faster and 0.1 seconds quicker than the claimed figures for the Lykan HyperSport.

The Fenyr was planned to have a production cap of 25 vehicles per year, this was reduced to 100 vehicles plus 10 Launch Editions. On 31 July 2019, W Motors announced via social media that the final 5 Launch Editions of the car had been sold to an anonymous Japanese businessman. News sources revealed the buyer as Tetsumi Shinchi. Several sources noted that Shinchi's Launch Editions would be debuted at the Mega Supercar Motor Show in 2021. In January 2020 at the groundbreaking of the new W Motors factory, W Motors revealed the first 9 Launch Editions had been delivered and a further batch of 60 were in production. W Motors Fenyr Supersport official website

Sarah Wilkinson

Sarah Wilkinson is the chief executive of NHS Digital, an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health and Social Care, part of the NHS in England. Wilkinson has been named as the second most influential woman working in technology in the UK by Computer Weekly, as well as being named as Chief Digital Officer of the year for 2017 by the CDO club. On her appointment to NHS Digital, she made her first entry in the Health Service Journal HSJ100 list, entering at number 80. Before joining NHS Digital, Wilkinson worked as Chief Information Officer at the Home Office. Prior to this, she held various roles with financial organisations including Credit Suisse, UBS, Deutsche Bank, Lehman Brothers