Lists of mountains and hills in the British Isles
The mountains and hills of the British Isles are categorised into lists based on elevation and other criteria. These lists are used for peak bagging, whereby hillwalkers attempt to reach all the summits on a list, the oldest and best-known, being the 282 § Munros in Scotland, which amongst other criteria, must be above 3,000 feet. A height above 2,000 ft, or more latterly 600 m, is considered necessary to be a "mountain" in the British Isles, apart from the Munros, all lists require a prominence of at least 15 metres. A prominence of between 15–30 metres, does not meet the UIAA definition of an "independent" peak. Most lists consider a prominence between 30–150 metres as a "top", not a mountain. A popular designation are the § Marilyns, with a prominence above 150 metres. Prominences above 600 metres, are the § P600, the international classification of a "major" mountain. There is no worldwide consensus on the definition of "mountain", but in Great Britain and Ireland it is taken to be any summit at least 2,000 feet high.
The UK government defines mountain as land over 600 metres for the purposes of freedom of access. When Calf Top in Cumbria, was re-surveyed 2016 and confirmed to be exactly 2,000 ft, 6 millimetres above the 609.6 m threshold for a 2,000 ft peak, the Ordnance Survey described Calf Top as England's "last mountain". List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification In addition, all British Isles definitions, with the exception of definitions that rely on § Isolation, include a minimum topographical prominence requirement, 30–600 m; the lowest minimum prominence is 15 metres, the Nuttalls and Vandeleur-Lynams, however most definitions do not consider prominences below 30 metres. Many definitions use the term Tops to refer to the sub-class of peaks that do not meet a 150 metres prominence threshold for the main definition, but have a prominence of between 30–150 metres.
Some definitions ignore height and just focus purely on prominence. Prominence requirements are strongly debated regarding UIAA classification of major Himalayan mountains. In 1994, regarding classification of summits, the UIAA stated that for a "peak" to be independent, it needed a prominence over 30 m, in addition, a "mountain" had to have a prominence over 300 m. Unlike the single measurement of elevation, prominence requires the detailed measurement of all contours around the peak, is therefore subject to change and revision over time, thus tables based on prominence are subject to revision; some definitions use an imperial measurement for height, but a metric measurement for the topological prominence. List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification No definition of a British Isles mountain or hill uses an explicit quantitative metric of topographic isolation, the concept of isolation is embedded in the qualitative definition of a Scottish Munro, from the Scottish Mountaineering Club requirement of "sufficient separation".
Mountains in Scotland are referred to as "hills" no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills and the Torridon Hills. The Database of British and Irish Hills was created in 2001 "with the intention of providing a comprehensive, up-to-date resource for British hillwalkers", it is now maintained by a team of eight editors, is described by the Long Distance Walkers Association as "now the most reliable online source for all Registers". The DoBIH has been used as a source by books, hillwalking websites and smartphone apps, including Mark Jackson's 2010 book on the HuMPS, titled "More Relative Hills of Britain". DoBIH is available in an online version under the title Hill Bagging; as of August 2018 the database included 20,859 hills, including all Marilyns, HuMPs, TuMPs, Dodds and Tops, Corbetts and Tops and Tops, Donalds and Tops, Hewitts, Buxton & Lewis, Murdos, Donald Deweys, Highland Fives, Birketts, Fellrangers, County tops, SIBs, Arderins, Vandeleur-Lynams, Myrddyn Deweys and Binnions, "with subs and deletions".
Since 2012, the DoBIH has a data-sharing agreement with the Irish online database of mountains and hills, called MountainViews. The P600s are mountains in the British Isles that have a topographical prominence of at leas
Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951, it contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales at 3560 ft. In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. A held belief is that the name is derived from eryr, thus means'the abode/land of eagles', but recent evidence is that it means Highlands, is related to the Latin oriri as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved; the term Eryri first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in an account of the downfall of the semi-legendary 5th-century king Gwrtheyrn. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Before the boundaries of the national park were designated, "Snowdonia" was used to refer to a smaller area, namely the upland area of northern Gwynedd centred on the Snowdon massif, whereas the national park covers an area more than twice that size extending far to the south into Meirionnydd.
This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow and The Mountains of Snowdonia by H. Carr & G. Lister. F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states "When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper." The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau and the Moel Siabod group. It does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog; as Eryri, this area has a unique place in Welsh history and culture. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District, it covers 827 square miles, has 37 miles of coastline. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of the counties of Conwy; the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, made up of local government and Welsh representatives, its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth.
Unlike national parks in other countries, Snowdonia are made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows: More than 26,000 people live within the park. 58.6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is either open or mountainous land, there is a significant amount of agricultural activity within the park. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park lies in the county of Gwynedd, in the county borough of Conwy, it is governed by the 18-member Snowdonia National Park Authority. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, a slate quarrying centre; this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry. The Snowdonia Society is a registered charity formed in 1967, it is a voluntary group of people with an interest in its protection.
Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, with 9.74 million tourist days spent in the park during that year. Total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013. Snowdonia may be divided into four areas: The northernmost area is the most popular with tourists, includes Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; these last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, include all Wales' mountains higher than 3000 feet. The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, the Moelwynion, the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog; the third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint, Rhobell Fawr. This area is not as popular with tourists as the other areas, due to its remoteness; the southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, the Dyfi hills, the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon.
The Berwyn range to the south east, has the western part of it in the park, but the highest summits to the east have been omitted. Many of the hikers in the area concentrate on Snowdon itself, it is regarded as a fine mountain, but at times gets crowded. The other high mountains with their boulder-strewn summits—as well as Tryfan, one of the few mountains in the UK south of Scotland whose ascent needs hands as well as feet—are very popular. However, there are some spectacular walks in Snowdonia on the lower mountains, they tend to be unfrequented. Among hikers' favourites are Y Garn along the ridge to Elidir Fawr.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Llanberis is a village and electoral ward in Gwynedd, northwest Wales, on the southern bank of the lake Llyn Padarn and at the foot of Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales. It is a popular centre for outdoor activities in Snowdonia, including walking, climbing, mountain biking and pony trekking as well as water sports such as Scuba Diving; the international fell race known as the Snowdon Race to the summit of Snowdon begins in the village. Llanberis takes its name from an early Welsh saint, it is twinned with the Italian town of Morbegno in Lombardy. The ruins of Dolbadarn Castle, which were famously painted by Richard Wilson and J. M. W. Turner, stand above the village; the 13th century fortress is a grade I listed building. The church of St Padarn is grade II * listed. In the 18th century Llanberis was the home of the legendary strong woman Marged ferch Ifan. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of Llanberis was 1.844, with 74.7% of those aged 3 years and over able to speak Welsh, compared to 61.6% across Anglesey according to the Annual Population Survey.
Places of interest in and near the village include the Snowdon Mountain Railway, the National Slate Museum, the Llanberis Lake Railway, Llyn Padarn country park and Electric Mountain. Tours of Dinorwig Power Station are available from a purpose-built visitor centre; the village is a popular starting point for ascents of Snowdon because the Llanberis Path begins in the village. Although it is the longest route, it is the least strenuous route to the summit following the line of the Snowdon Mountain Railway; this makes it the most popular walking route on the mountain. Dolbadarn Castle, a fortification built by the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great during the early 13th century, at the base of the Llanberis Pass; the castle was important both militarily and as a symbol of Llywelyn's authority. The castle features a large stone keep, which historian Richard Avent considers "the finest surviving example of a Welsh round tower". In 1284 Dolbadarn was taken by Edward I of England, who removed some of its timbers to build his new castle at Caernarfon.
Dolbadarn was used as a manor house before falling into ruin. In the 18th and 19th century it was a popular destination for painters interested in Sublime and Picturesque landscapes, it is now owned by Cadw and managed as a tourist attraction, is protected as a grade I listed building. Llanberis Mountain Rescue Team deals with 150–200 incidents a year and is one of the busiest mountain rescue teams in the country; the team is run by volunteers who rely on donations from the public for funding. Llanberis Mountain Film Festival, held in annually in February, began in 2004, it is the home of the Slateman Triathlon. It attracts over many more spectators over two days, it is a mountain triathlon which begins in Llyn Padarn, follows on the bike up to Capel Curig, finishes with a run in the Snowdonian mountains. It is the start and finish of the Snowdonia Marathon Bus services to Llanberis are provided by Arriva Buses Wales and Gwynfor Coaches. Former operator Padarn Bus, which went into receivership in 2014, was based in the town and ran several routes to it.
Another local bus company Express Motors, based in Penygroes, ran services to Llanberis but had its bus licence revoked in 2017. The village used to be served by Llanberis railway station on a branch line of the Carnarvonshire Railway. Passenger services ceased in 1932; the heritage Snowdon Mountain Railway and Llanberis Lake Railway both have stations in the town, but serve as tourist attractions rather than local transport links. Llanberis Pass St Padarn's Church, Llanberis Llanberis' Website Llanberis Tourism Llanberis Mountain Rescue - Online home of the country's busiest mountain rescue team www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llanberis and surrounding area
North Wales is a region of Wales. Retail and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Bangor, it is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, to the east by the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire. North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd, defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); the division with the rest of Wales depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium; the historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.
The region is steeped in history and was for a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity; the area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris and Harlech, it shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere reserve in Wales, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. The region is made up of the following administrative areas: the county borough of Wrexham the county of Flintshire the county of Denbighshire the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes: the preserved county of Clwyd the preserved county of Gwynedd North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999.
There is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name, which covers the northeast of Wales as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales. The area is rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast, means. Farming, once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance; the average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status. The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town; the total population of North Wales is 687,937. The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno and Tywyn; the A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales. North Wales has a diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. North Wales has a distinct regional identity, its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk".
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show