Y Fron known locally as Cesarea, after the chapel, is a country village on the south-west side of Moel Tryfan, overlooking the Nantlle Valley, in North Wales, near Rhosgadfan and Carmel, on the tail of Mynydd Mawr, with epic views of Trum Y Ddysgl and Craig Cwm Silyn. During the 19th century the nearby Moel Tryfan slate quarry was a significant local employer along with a few other quarries in the local area. During this time, Y Fron had several commercial outlets. Although Moel Tryfan quarry is closer to Rhosgadfan, the railway track which carried slate to Slate Quay in the Royal town of Caernarfon passed through Y Fron and around to the area called "Drumhead" near Bryn; some of the slate waste heaps or Slag heaps that were left behind from hundreds of years of mining are now being put to use as materials for roads. In 2002 the Moel Tryfan quarry was used to film Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life; the village school, Ysgol Bronyfoel, was established in 1844 as the first school in the Nantlle Valley.
It has a small play park attached. The school closed its door for the last time in July 2015 after being open for a 171 Years. Supported by money from the Big Lottery and the Welsh Government, the local community has converted the former school into a Community Centre called Canolfan Y Fron complete with café, shop and bunk house; the historic'Cesarea' Chapel was demolished in 2009. Capel Bwlch-Llyn is now the only surviving religious building left standing in the village; the village attracts many walkers throughout the year, who begin their venture towards Mynydd Mawr and around Snowdonia and onto Trum Y Ddysgl and Craig Cwm Silyn. Annually, during the spring, Y Fron plays host to a small endurance race called Ras Mynydd Mawr; the race begins, with registration at the local school, Ysgol Bronyfoel and continues to the peak of Mynydd Mawr, 3.75 miles, raising 1500'
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Rhosgadfan is a Welsh village in the county of Gwynedd in the historic county of Caernarfonshire. It is notable as the birthplace of the greatest Welsh writer of the 20th century; the Welsh TV programme C'mon Midffild was filmed in the village hall, prior to its destruction. The hall was destroyed in a blaze believed to have been caused by arson. Nobody has been brought to justice. During March and April 2010 filming of SNOWDONIA 1890, a new television series to be shown on BBC1 Wales in the autumn of 2010,took place at various locations in the area; the view is of Anglesey, Yr Eifl and by walking around you can reach common land called Comin Uwch Gwyrfai and Y Lon Wen. Nearby villages include Y Rhostryfan. Rhosgadfan is on the border of Snowdonia National Park; the nearest town is Caernarfon and the nearest city is Bangor. There are no shops in Rhosgadfan with a population of 2,000, but the football club, Mountain Rangers, is well attended and is the focal point of the village. The closest mountain is Moel Tryfan and people from the school walk up to collect money for educational things.
Charles Darwin recognised evidence of glaciation there. A Welsh medium primary school, Ysgol Gynradd Rhosgadfan, serves the village and the local rural community. There were 47 pupils on roll at the school in 2016, 68% of the children speak Welsh at home; the village is not known for industry except for farming. However, the village had a quarry behind it; the Dyffryn Nantlle area is well known for quarries. The one near Rhosgadfan was a film set for the Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life; the farming consists of sheep but some other animals inhabit the area. Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Rhosgadfan and surrounding area
Lists of mountains and hills in the British Isles
The mountains and hills of the British Isles are categorised into lists based on elevation and other criteria. These lists are used for peak bagging, whereby hillwalkers attempt to reach all the summits on a list, the oldest and best-known, being the 282 § Munros in Scotland, which amongst other criteria, must be above 3,000 feet. A height above 2,000 ft, or more latterly 600 m, is considered necessary to be a "mountain" in the British Isles, apart from the Munros, all lists require a prominence of at least 15 metres. A prominence of between 15–30 metres, does not meet the UIAA definition of an "independent" peak. Most lists consider a prominence between 30–150 metres as a "top", not a mountain. A popular designation are the § Marilyns, with a prominence above 150 metres. Prominences above 600 metres, are the § P600, the international classification of a "major" mountain. There is no worldwide consensus on the definition of "mountain", but in Great Britain and Ireland it is taken to be any summit at least 2,000 feet high.
The UK government defines mountain as land over 600 metres for the purposes of freedom of access. When Calf Top in Cumbria, was re-surveyed 2016 and confirmed to be exactly 2,000 ft, 6 millimetres above the 609.6 m threshold for a 2,000 ft peak, the Ordnance Survey described Calf Top as England's "last mountain". List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification In addition, all British Isles definitions, with the exception of definitions that rely on § Isolation, include a minimum topographical prominence requirement, 30–600 m; the lowest minimum prominence is 15 metres, the Nuttalls and Vandeleur-Lynams, however most definitions do not consider prominences below 30 metres. Many definitions use the term Tops to refer to the sub-class of peaks that do not meet a 150 metres prominence threshold for the main definition, but have a prominence of between 30–150 metres.
Some definitions ignore height and just focus purely on prominence. Prominence requirements are strongly debated regarding UIAA classification of major Himalayan mountains. In 1994, regarding classification of summits, the UIAA stated that for a "peak" to be independent, it needed a prominence over 30 m, in addition, a "mountain" had to have a prominence over 300 m. Unlike the single measurement of elevation, prominence requires the detailed measurement of all contours around the peak, is therefore subject to change and revision over time, thus tables based on prominence are subject to revision; some definitions use an imperial measurement for height, but a metric measurement for the topological prominence. List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification No definition of a British Isles mountain or hill uses an explicit quantitative metric of topographic isolation, the concept of isolation is embedded in the qualitative definition of a Scottish Munro, from the Scottish Mountaineering Club requirement of "sufficient separation".
Mountains in Scotland are referred to as "hills" no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills and the Torridon Hills. The Database of British and Irish Hills was created in 2001 "with the intention of providing a comprehensive, up-to-date resource for British hillwalkers", it is now maintained by a team of eight editors, is described by the Long Distance Walkers Association as "now the most reliable online source for all Registers". The DoBIH has been used as a source by books, hillwalking websites and smartphone apps, including Mark Jackson's 2010 book on the HuMPS, titled "More Relative Hills of Britain". DoBIH is available in an online version under the title Hill Bagging; as of August 2018 the database included 20,859 hills, including all Marilyns, HuMPs, TuMPs, Dodds and Tops, Corbetts and Tops and Tops, Donalds and Tops, Hewitts, Buxton & Lewis, Murdos, Donald Deweys, Highland Fives, Birketts, Fellrangers, County tops, SIBs, Arderins, Vandeleur-Lynams, Myrddyn Deweys and Binnions, "with subs and deletions".
Since 2012, the DoBIH has a data-sharing agreement with the Irish online database of mountains and hills, called MountainViews. The P600s are mountains in the British Isles that have a topographical prominence of at leas
Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951, it contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales at 3560 ft. In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. A held belief is that the name is derived from eryr, thus means'the abode/land of eagles', but recent evidence is that it means Highlands, is related to the Latin oriri as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved; the term Eryri first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in an account of the downfall of the semi-legendary 5th-century king Gwrtheyrn. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Before the boundaries of the national park were designated, "Snowdonia" was used to refer to a smaller area, namely the upland area of northern Gwynedd centred on the Snowdon massif, whereas the national park covers an area more than twice that size extending far to the south into Meirionnydd.
This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow and The Mountains of Snowdonia by H. Carr & G. Lister. F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states "When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper." The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau and the Moel Siabod group. It does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog; as Eryri, this area has a unique place in Welsh history and culture. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District, it covers 827 square miles, has 37 miles of coastline. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of the counties of Conwy; the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, made up of local government and Welsh representatives, its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth.
Unlike national parks in other countries, Snowdonia are made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows: More than 26,000 people live within the park. 58.6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is either open or mountainous land, there is a significant amount of agricultural activity within the park. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park lies in the county of Gwynedd, in the county borough of Conwy, it is governed by the 18-member Snowdonia National Park Authority. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, a slate quarrying centre; this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry. The Snowdonia Society is a registered charity formed in 1967, it is a voluntary group of people with an interest in its protection.
Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, with 9.74 million tourist days spent in the park during that year. Total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013. Snowdonia may be divided into four areas: The northernmost area is the most popular with tourists, includes Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; these last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, include all Wales' mountains higher than 3000 feet. The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, the Moelwynion, the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog; the third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint, Rhobell Fawr. This area is not as popular with tourists as the other areas, due to its remoteness; the southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, the Dyfi hills, the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon.
The Berwyn range to the south east, has the western part of it in the park, but the highest summits to the east have been omitted. Many of the hikers in the area concentrate on Snowdon itself, it is regarded as a fine mountain, but at times gets crowded. The other high mountains with their boulder-strewn summits—as well as Tryfan, one of the few mountains in the UK south of Scotland whose ascent needs hands as well as feet—are very popular. However, there are some spectacular walks in Snowdonia on the lower mountains, they tend to be unfrequented. Among hikers' favourites are Y Garn along the ridge to Elidir Fawr.
Betws Garmon is a community and small hamlet outside Waunfawr and near Beddgelert in Gwynedd, Wales. It has a population of 249; the summit of Snowdon lies within the community boundaries. Bryn Gloch has the newly reopened narrow gauge Welsh Highland Railway passing alongside it. Over the road from Bryn Gloch there is a parish church. Along the mountain extensive slate workings can be seen. Betws Garmon has a park near it. Near the station there is a road. Up that road there is a footpath. A river that flows through the hamlet is called Afon Gwyrfai. There was a folk tale concerning the family of Pellings, who lived at Betws Garmon until the 19th century, it was said that they were descended from a fairy named Penelope. Penelope lived with her human husband until she was accidentally touched with a piece of iron, whereupon she disappeared forever. Betws Garmon's population was 249, according to the 2011 census; the 2011 census showed 54.8% of the population could speak Welsh, a rise from 45.0% in 2001.
Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Betws Garmon and surrounding area