The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362. Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world; the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe, because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate. Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, held his caliphal position for a couple of years after the partitioning, but with Mustafa Kemal's secular reforms and the subsequent exile of the royal Osmanoğlu family from the Republic of Turkey in 1924, the caliphal position was abolished.
Since the 14th century, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the Ottoman Empire starting with Murad I, they came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representative of the Islamic world. From Edirne and from Constantinople, the Ottoman sultans ruled over an empire that, at its peak, covered Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, extended deep into Eastern Europe. Strengthened by the Peace of Westphalia and the Industrial Revolution, European powers regrouped and challenged Ottoman dominance. Owing to poor leadership, archaic political norms, an inability to keep pace with technological progress in Europe, the Ottoman Empire could not respond to Europe's resurgence and lost its position as a pre-eminent great power. In the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire initiated a period of modernization known as the Tanzimat, which transformed the nature of the Ottoman state increasing its power despite the empire's territorial losses. Despite the success of its self-strengthening reforms, the empire was unable to match the military strength of its main rival, the Russian Empire, suffered several defeats in the Russo-Turkish Wars.
The Ottoman state defaulted on its loans in 1875–76, part of a wider financial crisis affecting much of the globe. The British supported and propagated the view that the Ottomans were Caliphs of Islam among Muslims in British India and the Ottoman Sultans helped the British by issuing pronouncements to the Muslims of India telling them to support British rule from Sultan Selim III and Sultan Abdülmecid I. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, who ruled 1876–1909, felt that the Empire's desperate situation could only be remedied through strong and determined leadership, he distrusted his ministers and other officials that had served his predecessors and reduced their role in his regime, concentrating absolute power over the Empire's governance in his own hands. Taking a hard-line against Western involvement in Ottoman affairs, he emphasized the Empire's "Islamic" character, reasserted his status as the Caliph, called for Muslim unity behind the Caliphate. Abdul-Hamid strengthened the Empire's position somewhat, succeeded in reasserting Islamic power, by building numerous schools, reducing the national debt, embarking on projects aimed at revitalizing the Empire's decaying infrastructure.
John Hay, the American Secretary of State, asked the Jewish American ambassador to Ottoman Turkey, Oscar Straus in 1899 to approach Sultan Abdul Hamid II to request that the Sultan write a letter to the Moro Sulu Muslims of the Sulu Sultanate in the Philippines telling them to submit to American suzerainty and American military rule, the Sultan obliged them and wrote the letter, sent to Sulu via Mecca where 2 Sulu chiefs brought it home to Sulu and it was successful, since the "Sulu Mohammedans... refused to join the insurrectionists and had placed themselves under the control of our army, thereby recognizing American sovereignty." The Ottoman Sultan used his position as caliph to order the Sulu Sultan not to resist and not fight the Americans when they came subjected to American control. President McKinley did not mention Turkey's role in the pacification of the Sulu Moros in his address to the first session of the Fifty-sixth Congress in December 1899 since the agreement with the Sultan of Sulu was not submitted to the Senate until December 18.
Despite Sultan Abdulhamid's "pan-Islamic" ideology, he acceded to Oscar S. Straus' request for help in telling the Sulu Muslims to not resist America since he felt no need to cause hostilities between the West and Muslims. Collaboration between the American military and Sulu sultanate was due to the Sulu Sultan being persuaded by the Ottoman Sultan. John P. Finley wrote that: "After due consideration of these facts, the Sultan, as Caliph caused a message to be sent to the Mohammedans of the Philippine Islands forbidding them to enter into any hostilities against the Americans, inasmuch as no interference with their religion would be allowed under American rule; as the Moros have never asked more than that, it is not surprising, that they refused all overtures made, by Aguinaldo's agents, at the time of the Filipino insurrection. President McKinley sent a personal letter of thanks to Mr. Straus for the excellent work he had done, said, its accomplishment had saved the United States at least twenty thousand troops in the field.
If the reader will pause to consider what this means in men and the millions in money, he will appreciate this wonderful piece of diplomacy, in averting a holy war." Abdulhamid in his position as Caliph was approached by the Americans to help them deal with Muslims during their war in the Philippines and the Muslim people of the area o
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
The Bengal Presidency reorganized as the Bengal Province, was once the largest subdivision of British India, with its seat in Calcutta. It was centred in the Bengal region. At its territorial peak in the 19th century, the presidency extended from the present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the west to Burma and Penang in the east; the Governor of Bengal was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years. Most of the presidency's territories were incorporated into other British Indian provinces and crown colonies. In 1905, Bengal proper was partitioned, with Eastern Bengal and Assam headquartered in Dacca and Shillong. British India was reorganised in 1912 and the presidency was reunited into a single Bengali-speaking province; the Bengal Presidency was established in 1765, following the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 23 June 1757, the Battle of Buxar in 22 October 1764. Bengal was the economic and educational hub of the British Raj, it was the centre of the late 19th and early 20th century Bengali Renaissance and a hotbed of the Indian Independence Movement.
The Partition of British India in 1947 resulted in Bengal's division on religious grounds, between the Indian state of West Bengal and the Pakistanian province of East Bengal, which first became East Pakistan in 1955 under Pakistanian rule and the nation of Bangladesh in 1971. Under Warren Hastings the consolidation of British imperial rule over Bengal was solidified, with the conversion of a trade area into an occupied territory under a military-civil government, while the formation of a regularised system of legislation was brought in under John Shore. Acting through Lord Cornwallis Governor-General, he ascertained and defined the rights of the landholders over the soil; these landholders under the previous system had started, for the most part, as collectors of the revenues, acquired certain prescriptive rights as quasi-proprietors of the estates entrusted to them by the government. In 1793 Lord Cornwallis declared their rights perpetual, gave over the land of Bengal to the previous quasi-proprietors or zamindars, on condition of the payment of a fixed land tax.
This piece of legislation is known as the Permanent Settlement of the Land Revenue. It was designed to "introduce" ideas of property rights to India, stimulate a market in land; the former aim misunderstood the nature of landholding in India, the latter was an abject failure. The Cornwallis Code, while defining the rights of the proprietors, failed to give adequate recognition to the rights of the under-tenants and the cultivators; this remained a serious problem for the duration of British Rule, as throughout the Bengal Presidency ryots found themselves oppressed by rack-renting landlords, who knew that every rupee they could squeeze from their tenants over and above the fixed revenue demanded from the Government represented pure profit. Furthermore, the Permanent Settlement took no account of inflation, meaning that the value of the revenue to Government declined year by year, whilst the heavy burden on the peasantry grew no less; this was compounded in the early 19th century by compulsory schemes for the cultivation of opium and indigo, the former by the state, the latter by British planters.
Peasants were forced to grow a certain area of these crops, which were purchased at below market rates for export. This added to rural poverty. So unsuccessful was the Permanent Settlement that it was not introduced in the North-Western Provinces after 1831, in Punjab after its conquest in 1849, or in Oudh, annexed in 1856; these regions remained administratively distinct. The area of the Presidency under direct administration was sometimes referred to as Lower Bengal to distinguish it from the Presidency as a whole. Punjab and Allahabad had Lieutenant-Governors subject to the authority of the Governor of Bengal in Calcutta, but in practice they were more or less independent; the only all-Presidency institutions which remained were the Civil Service. The Bengal Army was amalgamated into the new British-Indian Army in 1904–5, after a lengthy struggle over its reform between Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy; the partition of the large province of Bengal, decided upon by Lord Curzon, Cayan Uddin Ahmet, the Chief Secretary of Bengal carried into execution in October 1905.
The Chittagong and Rajshahi divisions, the Malda District and the States of Hill Tripura and Comilla were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam. The province of West Bengal consisted of the thirty-three districts of Burdwan, Bankura, Hughli, Twenty-four Parganas, Nadia, Jessore, Patna, Shahabad, Champaran, Darbhanga, Bhagalpur, Santhal Parganas, Balasore and Kandhmal, Sambalpur, Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Manbhum; the princely states of Sikkim and the tributary states of Odisha and Chhota Nagpur were not part of Bengal, but British relations with them were managed
Chittaranjan Das pronunciation, popularly called Deshbandhu, was a leading Indian politician, a prominent lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj Party in Bengal during British occupation in India. Grandfather: Kashiswar Das Parents: Bhuban Mohan Das and Nistarini Debi Wife: Basanti Devi Brother: Prafulla Ranjan Das Son: Chiraranjan Das Daughter: Aparna Debi, Kalyani Debi Chittaranjan Das was born In Calcutta on 5 November 1870 in a well-known Baidya-Brahmin Das family of Telirbagh, Dhaka in Bengal, now part of Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. Bikrampur has a long cultural trail since many centuries. In 12th Century it was the capital of Ballal Sena and Lakshmana Sena, Kings of Sena dynasty and since considered as an important seat of learning and culture of Eastern India. Das family were members of Brahmo Samaj. Chittaranjan was the son of Bhuban Mohan Das, nephew of the Brahmo social reformer Durga Mohan Das, his father was a solicitor and a journalist who edited the English church weekly, The Brahmo Public Opinion.
Some of his cousins were Atul Prasad Sen, Satya Ranjan Das, Satish Ranjan Das, Sudhi Ranjan Das, Sarala Roy and Lady Abala Bose. His eldest grandson was Siddhartha Shankar Ray and his granddaughter is Justice Manjula Bose, he is referred to by the honorific Desh Bandhu meaning "Friend of the nation". He was associated with a number of literary societies and wrote poems, apart from numerous articles and essays, he had three children, Aparna Devi, Chiraranjan Das and Kalyani Devi. Basanti Devi plunged into the freedom movement and was the first woman to court arrest with her sister-in-law Urmila Devi in Non Cooperation movement in 1921, her warmth and affection for everyone was legendary and she held the position of a matriarch in the freedom fighters fraternity. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose used to regard her as'Ma'. Das family of Durga Mohan was a family of lawyers. Durga Mohan's eldest son Satya Ranjan passed matriculation from Emmanuel College and was at Middle Temple during 1883–1886, followed by Chitta Ranjan Das, Durga Mohan's brother's son, during 1890–1894.
Satish Ranjan Das, Jyotish Ranjan Das and Atul Prasad Sen followed their suit. In London he had befriended with Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, Atul Prasad Sen and Sarojini Naidu among others, together they promoted Dadabhai Naoroji in the British Parliament. In 1894 in a stunning move Chittaranjan Das gave up his lucrative practice, plunged headlong into politics during the non-cooperation movement against the British. Chittaranjan Das again took the brief and defended Aurobindo Ghosh on charges of involvement in the Alipore bomb case in 1909. In his Uttarpara speech, Sri Aurobindo gratefully acknowledged that Chittaranjan Das broke his health to save him. In the historic trial of the Alipore bomb case in 1908, Chittaranjan Das, the defense counsel of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, made this last statement after an eight day long deliberation: "My appeal to you therefore is that a man like this, being charged with the offences imputed to him stands not only before the bar in this Court but stands before the bar of the High Court of History and my appeal to you is this: That long after this controversy is hushed in silence, long after this turmoil, this agitation ceases, long after he is dead and gone, he will be looked upon as the poet of patriotism, as the prophet of nationalism and the lover of humanity.
Long after he is dead and gone his words will be echoed and re-echoed not only in India, but across distant seas and lands. Therefore I say that the man in his position is not only standing before the bar of this Court but before the bar of the High Court of History; the time has come for you, sir, to consider your judgment and for you, gentlemen, to consider your verdict..." Chittaranjan Das was involved in the activities of Anushilan Samiti. When Pramatha Mitter organised the Samiti as its President to produce hundreds of young firebrands who were ready to sacrifice their lives for the cause of the Nation, Chittaranjan became his associate. Anusilan Samiti was maintained by P. Mitter with the assistance of Chittaranjan Das, Haridas Bose, Suren Haldar and Jnanendra Nath Roy, he was a leading figure in Bengal during the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1919–1922, initiated the ban on British clothes, setting an example by burning his own European clothes and wearing Khadi clothes. At one time, his clothes were tailored and washed in Paris and he maintained a permanent laundry in Paris to ship his clothes to Calcutta.
He sacrificed all this luxury. He brought out a newspaper called Forward and changed its name to Liberty to fight the British Raj; when the Calcutta Municipal Corporation was formed, he became its first mayor. He was a believer in non-violence and constitutional methods for the realisation of national independence, advocated Hindu-Muslim unity and communal harmony and championed the cause of national education, he resigned his presidency of the Indian National Congress at the Gaya session after losing a motion on "No Council Entry" to Gandhi's faction. He founded the Swaraj Party, with veteran Motilal Nehru and young Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, in 1923, to express his uncompromising opinion and position, his legacy was carried forward by follower Subhas Chandra Bose. Chittaranjan Das emerged as a distinguished Bengali poe
The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian independence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi which had some success. Strategies of the Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic products and production processes. L. M. Bhole identifies five phases of the Swadeshi movement. 1850 to 1904: developed by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Ranade, Tilak, G. V. Joshi and Bhaswat. K. Nigoni; this was known as First Swadeshi Movement. 1905 to 1917: Began with and because of the partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon. 1918 to 1947: Swadeshi thought shaped by Gandhi, accompanied by the rise of Indian industrialists. 1948 to 1991: Widespread curbs on international and inter-state trade. India became a bastion of obsolete technology during the licence-permit raj. 1991 onwards: liberalization privatisation and globalization.
Foreign capital, foreign technology, many foreign goods are not excluded and doctrine of export-led growth resulted in modern industrialism. The Swadeshi movement started with the partition of Bengal by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon in 1905 and continued up to 1911, it was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movement. Its chief architects were Aurobindo Ghosh, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Babu Genu. Swadeshi, as a strategy, was a key focus of Mahatma Gandhi, it was strongest in Bengal and was called vandemataram movement. Credit to starting the Swadeshi movement goes to Baba Ram Singh of the Sikh Namdhari sect, whose revolutionary movements which heightened around 1871 and 1872. Naamdharis were instructed by Baba Ram Singh to only wear clothes made in the country and boycott foreign goods; the Namdharis resolved conflict in the peoples court and avoided British law and British courts they boycotted the educational system as Baba Ram Singh prohibited children from attending British School, amongst other forms and measures he employed.
The proposal of partition of Bengal became publicly known in 1905, followed by immediate and spontaneous protests all over Bengal. Lord Curzon asked Queen Victoria to separate Bengal; because they were scared if the Muslims and Hindus got together they could start a war. 500 meetings were held in East Bengal alone. 50,000 copies of pamphlets with a detailed critique of partition were distributed. This phase is marked by moderate techniques of protest such as petitions, public meetings, press campaign, etc. to turn public opinion in India as well as in Britain against nothing else. This movement involved the boycott of British products. Western clothes were thrown onto bonfires. To let the British know how unhappy the Indians were at the partition of Bengal, leaders of the anti-partition movement decided to use only Indian goods and to boycott British goods. People burnt the imported clothes that they had. People picketed the shops selling foreign goods, imported sugar was boycotted. People resolved to use things made only in India and this was called the Swadeshi movement.
The Swadeshi movement had genesis in the anti-partition movement which started to oppose the British decision to partition Bengal. There was no questioning the fact that Bengal with a population of 70 million had indeed become administratively unwieldy. There was no escaping the fact that the real motive for partitioning Bengal was political, as Indian nationalism was gaining in strength; the partition was expected to weaken. Though affected in 1905, the partition proposals had come onto the public domain as early as 1903. Therefore, since 1903, the ground for the launch of the Swadeshi movement had been prepared. In the official note, the Home Secretary to the Government of India said, "Bengal united is power; the partition of the state intended to curb Bengali influence by not only placing Bengalis under two administrations, but by reducing them to a minority in Bengal itself. In the new proposal, Bengal proper was to have 17 million Bengali and 37 million Oriya and Hindi speaking people; the partition was meant to foster another kind of division—this time on the basis of religion, i.e. between the Muslims and the Hindus.
The Indian Nationalist saw the design behind the partition and condemned it unanimously. The anti-partition and Swadeshi movement had begun; the Bengalis adopted the boycott movement as the last resort after they had exhausted the armoury of constitutional agitation known to them, namely vocal protests, appeals and Conferences to coerce the British to concede the unanimous national demand. The original conception of Boycott was an economic one, it allied purposes in view. The first was to bring pressure upon the British public by the pecuniary loss they would suffer by the boycott of British goods the Manchester cotton goods for which Bengal provided the richest market in India. Secondly, it was regarded as essential for the revival of indigenous industry which being at its infant stage could never grow in the face of free competition with foreign countries which had developed industry. Like the Boycott, the Swadeshi as a purely economic measure for the growth of Indian Industry was not an altogether novel idea in India.
It was preached by several eminent personalities in the 19th century, Gopal Hari Deshmukh, better known as Lokahitawadi of Bombay, Arya Samaj founder Dayanand Saraswati and Bholanath Chandra of Calcutta. But the seeds sown by them did not ger
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947, as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death, he is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam and Baba-i-Qaum, "Father of the Nation"). His birthday is considered a national holiday in Pakistan. Born at Wazir Mansion in Karachi, Jinnah was trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. Upon his return to British India, he enrolled at the Bombay High Court, took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century. In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated Hindu–Muslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, in which Jinnah had become prominent. Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims.
In 1920, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, which he regarded as political anarchy. By 1940, Jinnah had come to believe that Muslims of the Indian subcontinent should have their own state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims; the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for the subcontinent to be united as a single state, leading all parties to agree to the independence of a predominantly Hindu India, for a Muslim-majority state of Pakistan. As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation's government and policies, to aid the millions of Muslim migrants who had emigrated from the new nation of India to Pakistan after independence supervising the establishment of refugee camps.
Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom. He left a respected legacy in Pakistan. Innumerable streets and localities in the world are named after Jinnah. Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Jinnah's name. According to his biographer, Stanley Wolpert, he remains Pakistan's greatest leader. Jinnah's given name at birth was Mahomedali, he was born most in 1876, to Jinnahbhai Poonja and his wife Mithibai, in a rented apartment on the second floor of Wazir Mansion near Karachi, now in Sindh, Pakistan but within the Bombay Presidency of British India. Jinnah's family was from a Gujarati Ismaili background, though Jinnah followed the Twelver Shi'a teachings. After his death, his relatives and other witnesses claimed that he had converted in life to the Sunni sect, his religion at the time of his death was disputed in multiple court cases. Jinnah was from a wealthy merchant background, his father was a merchant and was born to a family of textile weavers in the village of Paneli in the princely state of Gondal.
They had moved to Karachi in 1875. Karachi was enjoying an economic boom: the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 meant it was 200 nautical miles closer to Europe for shipping than Bombay. Jinnah was the second child; the parents were native Gujarati speakers, the children came to speak Kutchi and English. Jinnah was not fluent in Gujarati, his mother-tongue or in Urdu, he was more fluent in English. Except for Fatima, little is known of his siblings, where they settled or if they met with their brother as he advanced in his legal and political careers; as a boy, Jinnah lived for a time in Bombay with an aunt and may have attended the Gokal Das Tej Primary School there on studying at the Cathedral and John Connon School. In Karachi, he attended the Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam and the Christian Missionary Society High School, he gained his matriculation from Bombay University at the high school. In his years and after his death, a large number of stories about the boyhood of Pakistan's founder were circulated: that he spent all his spare time at the police court, listening to the proceedings, that he studied his books by the glow of street lights for lack of other illumination.
His official biographer, Hector Bolitho, writing in 1954, interviewed surviving boyhood associates, obtained a tale that the young Jinnah discouraged other children from playing marbles in the dust, urging them to rise up, keep their hands and clothes clean, play cricket instead. In 1892, Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, a business associate of Jinnahbhai Poonja, offered young Jinnah a London apprenticeship with his firm, Graham's Shipping and Trading Company, he accepted the position despite the opposition of his mother, who before he left, had him enter an arranged marriage with his cousin, two years his junior from the ancestral village of Paneli, Emibai Jinnah. Jinnah's mother and first wife both died during his absence in England. Although the apprenticeship in London was considered a great opportunity for Jinnah, one reason for sending him overseas was a legal proceeding against his father, which placed the family's property at risk of being sequestered by the court. In 1893, the Jinnahbhai family moved to Bombay.
Soon after his arrival in Londo
Aliah University is a state government controlled minority autonomous university in New Town, West Bengal, India. Known as Mohammedan College of Calcutta, it was elevated to university in 2008, it offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in different Engineering, Science and Nursing subjects. The Aliah University is one of oldest modern educational institute in Asia and first in India in conical period, it was set up in October 1780 by Warren Hastings, the British Governor general of East India Company near Sealdah in Calcutta. A number of a name was common like Islamic College of Calcutta, Calcutta Madrasah, Calcutta Mohammedan College and Madrasah-e-Aliah. Among of these name, Calcutta Mohammedan College was given by the Warren Hastings himself; the original bulling was completed in 1782 at Bow Bazaar of Calcutta the college moved to its present old campus Wellesley Square in the 1820s. This madrasah college taught Natural Philosophy, Persian and Islamic Law, Grammar, Arithmetic, Geometry and Oratory.
The Calcutta Madrasa followed different models for different subjects, like Darse Nizamiyah of Firingi Mahal for Persian and Arabic, the old Peripatetic School Model for the Logic and Philosophy. The first head preceptor of this college was Mulla Majduddin, he was a well-known personality and an erudite in Islamic learning in that time in Bengal. In 1791, Mulla Majduddin was replaced by Muhammad Ismail because of allegations of mismanagement against him. Capt Ayron, a British army officer was appointed in 1819 as the first secretary by East India Company to take total power of administration of the Madrasa and he was in the administration power up to 1842. Capt Ayron made several reforms, the first annual examination of the madrasah was held on August 15, 1827, first medical class of India was arranged by this instituted in 1826 under Dr. Breton, the professor of medicine. After 10 years successful medical classes, the administration of the Madrasa decided to establish a separate Medical College, Calcutta Medical College in 1836 and this medical is first medical of India until now.
However, the facility to study medical subjects by the Madrasah students in the Calcutta Medical College was retained. Introduction of elementary English courses was started in college in 1826 under his administration but this English course had not to get huge success. Nawab Abdool Luteef and Waheedunnabi were first English scholars from this college. Dr. Aloys Sprenger was appointed as a Principal for the first time in 1850 to resist the college from a current of continuing deterioration. In 1854, another reform attempt consisting of opening the Anglo-Persian department to make English as an official language under the direct control of Calcutta Madrasah College; the college failed to create enthusiasm. FA level college classes added to the Calcutta Madrasa in 1863, this reform failed. After the Dr. Aloys Sprenger, few other European Principals was appointed and AH Harley was the last European Principals of this Madrasa. One by one failure of the reforms of Madras and after 1857, the year of the Sepoy Mutiny, the British Government started to see the Muslim community of the Bengal as constant suspicion.
Lord Macaulay was a British Whig politician and historian, who advised the British Government to introduce English education to produce to Anglicized Indians. The main aim of this was to extend the British influence into vast areas of India. British Government was decided to establish the Calcutta University in 1857. After the establishment of the Calcutta University created a precarious position for the Calcutta Madrasah. There were a number of proposals for closure to Calcutta university to British Authority in India, but the Authority allowed it to continue to function with only a traditional Madrasah teaching Arabic and Sharia Laws, thus from the year 1857, the Calcutta Madrasa grew up as a separate stream in the education system of the Indian subcontinent. Shamsul Ulema Kamaluddin Ahmed was appointed as the first Indian principal of the Calcutta Madrasah College in 1927. In this same year, the first madrasah education board was established for the conducting various examinations the Alim, Fazil and Mumtazul Muhaddesin.
The year of 1947 in which portion of India took place was painful in the history of the Calcutta Madras in Bengal. All moveable properties like large numbers manuscripts and books were transferred to East Bengal at Dhaka madrasah and other things became topsy-turvy. In 1949 with help of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Calcutta Madrasah was reopened. Now the Calcutta Madrasah was elevated to the university as the Aliah University under West Bengal state government controlled minority autonomous university in 2008; the newly set up buildings of Aliah University are located in Taltala, Park Circus and Rajarhat in Kolkata. The Rajarhat campus is used for Science, technology students and the main office while the Park circus campus and Taltala campus Nursing and Arts students, the Islamic Theology students. Now this university offers undergraduate and Doctorates programs in different Arts, Management, Engineering and Islamic theology subjects. Admission to most undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Aliah University is granted through written entrance examinations and for B.
Tech programs through WBJEE. Admission to M. S. and Ph. D. programmes is based on a personal interview. Admission to undergraduate programmes is based on merit rank of the "Aliah University Admission Test", which consists of a written examination of multiple choice type questions, clearing of which leads to an interview and f