The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature; the Quran is divided into chapters. Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, through the archangel Gabriel, incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad; the word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, other names and words are said to refer to the Quran. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it; the codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures, it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185, it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, it emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional written traditions supplementing the Quran. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
The word qurʼān appears assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning "he read" or "he recited"; the Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it."In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited ". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." The word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran; each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts.
Such terms include kitāb. The latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts with a definite article, the word is referred to as the "revelation", that, "sent down" at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, ḥikmah, sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it; the Quran describes itself as "the discernment", "the mother book", "the guide", "the wisdom", "the remembrance" and "the revelation". Another term is al-kitāb, though it is used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels; the term mus'haf is used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims became literate; as it was spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Mu
Egyptians are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity is tied to geography; the population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity; the daily language of the Egyptians is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri. Additionally, a sizable minority of Egyptians living in Upper Egypt speak Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders. A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptians receive or have received several names: Egyptians, from Greek Αἰγύπτιοι, from Αἴγυπτος, Aiguptos "Egypt". The Greek name is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah, meaning "home of the ka of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Αἴγυπτος had evolved as a compound from Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως Aegaeou huptiōs, meaning "below the Aegean". In English, the noun "Egyptians" appears in the 14th century, in Wycliff's Bible, as Egipcions. Copts a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, that appeared under Muslim rule that overtooked the Roman rule in Egypt, to refer to the Egyptian locals and to separate them from the Arabs rulers. Coptic was the language of the state and people but got replaced by Arabic after the Muslim conquest, Islam became the dominant religion centuries after the Muslim conquest in Egypt due to centuries of conversion from Christianity to Islam due to the higher rate of tax on Christians despite a tax all Egyptians had to pay, the modern term became associated with Egyptian Christianity and Coptic Christians who are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church or Coptic Catholic Church, though references to native Muslims as Copts are attested until the Mamluk period.
Masryeen, the modern Egyptian name, which comes from the ancient Semitic name for Egypt and connoted "civilization" or "metropolis". Classical Arabic Miṣr is directly cognate with the Biblical Hebrew Mitsráyīm, meaning "the two straits", a reference to the predynastic separation of Upper and Lower Egypt. Edward William Lane writing in the 1820s, said that Egyptians called themselves El-Maṣreyyīn'the Egyptians', Ewlad Maṣr'the Children of Egypt' and Ahl Maṣr'the People of Egypt', he added that the Turks "stigmatized" the Egyptians with the name Ahl-Far'ūn or the'People of the Pharaoh'. / rmṯ n Km.t, the native Egyptian name of the people of the Nile Valley, literally'People of Kemet'. In antiquity, it was shortened to Rmṯ or "the people"; the name is vocalized as rem/en/kī/mi ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ in the Coptic stage of the language, meaning "Egyptian". There are an estimated 92.1 million Egyptians. Most are native to Egypt. 84–90% of the population of Egypt are Muslim adherents and 10–15% are Christian adherents according to estimates.
The majority live near the banks of the Nile River. Close to half of the Egyptian people today are urban. A large influx of fellahin into urban cities, rapid urbanization of many rural areas since the early 20th century, have shifted the balance between the number of urban and rural citizens. Egyptians form smaller minorities in neighboring countries, North America and Australia. Egyptians tend to be provincial, meaning their attachment extends not only to Egypt but to the specific provinces and villages from which they hail. Therefore, return migrants, such as temporary workers abroad, come back to their region of origin in Egypt. According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute to the development of their country through remittances, circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living in Europe and North America. Their characteristic rootedness as Egyptians explained as the result of centuries as a farming people clinging to the banks of the Nile, is reflected in sights and atmosphere that are meaningful to all Egyptians.
Dominating the intangible pull of Egypt is the present Nile, more than a constant backdrop. Its varying colors and changing water levels signal the coming and going of the Nile flood that sets the rhythm of farming in a rainless country and holds the attention of all Egyptians. No Egyptian is far from his river and, except for t
Morteza Motahari was an Iranian cleric, philosopher and politician. Motahari is considered to have an important influence on the ideologies of the Islamic Republic, among others, he was a co-founder of the Combatant Clergy Association. He was a disciple of Ayatollah Khomeini during the Shah's reign and formed the Council of the Islamic Revolution at Khomeini's request, he was chairman of the council at the time of his assassination. Motahari was born in Fariman on January 31, 1919, he attended the Hawza of Qom from 1944 to 1952 and left for Tehran. His grandfather was an eminent religious scholar in Sistan province and since he traveled with his family to Khorasan Province, there is little information about his origin as Sistanian, his father Shaykh Mohammad Hosseini was an eminent figure in his village, respected by the people. He was considered as one of the pupils of Akhund Khorasani and besides he was admired by Ayatollah Mara'shi Najafi, it is said that he was intelligent as a child. At the age of 5, he went to school without informing his parents.
Sometimes he was found sleeping near the school. By the age of twelve he learned the preliminary Islamic sciences from his father, he went to the seminary of Mashhad and studied for two years there in the school of Abd ul-Khan along with his brother. But his studies remained unfinished in Mashhad seminary because of problems faced by his family which obliged him to return to Fariman to help them. According to his own account, in this period he could study a great number of historical books, it was in this period. He considered Agha Mirza Mahdi Shahid Razavi as an eminent master in rational sciences, he decided to go to Qom in 1315 Solar Hijri calendar. He took up residence in the school of Feyzieh in Qum, he studied books Kifayah and Makaseb in Shia jurisprudence under instruction of Ayatollah Sayyed Mohaqeq Yazdi popularly known as Damad. He participated in the lectures of Hojjat Kooh Kamarehei ant sough knowledge from Sayyed Sadr Al Din Sadr, Mohammad Taqi Khansari, Aaahmad Khansari and Najafi Marashi.
When Ayatollah Boroujerdi emigrated to Qom, Motahari could take part in his courses on Principles of Jurisprudence. Ayatollah Montazeri was his classmate in this period. Motahari emigrates to Isfahan because of hot climate of Qom. There he becomes familiar with Haj Ali Agha Shirazi, the teacher of Nahj Al Balaghah in 1320 Solar Hijri calendar who Motahari always describes with honor, he joined the University of Tehran, where he taught philosophy for 22 years. Between 1965 and 1973 he gave regular lectures at the Hosseiniye Ershad in Northern Tehran. Motahari wrote several books on Islam and historical topics, his emphasis was on teaching rather than writing. However, after his death, some of his students worked on writing down his lectures and publishing them as books; as of the mid-2008, the "Sadra Publication" published more than sixty volumes by Motahari. Nearly 30 books were quoted from his speeches. Morteza Motahari opposed what he called groups who "depend on other schools materialistic schools" but who present these "foreign ideas with Islamic emblems".
In a June 1977 article he wrote to warn "all great Islamic authorities" of the danger of "these external influential ideas under the pretext and banner of Islam." It is thought he was referring to the People's Mujahideen of the Furqan Group. Motahari was the father in law of Iran's former secretary of National Security Council Ali Larijani, it was by Motahari's advice that Larijani switched from computer science to Western Philosophy for graduate studies. A major street in Tehran known as Takhte Tavoos was renamed after him. Morteza Motahari Street connects two major streets in Tehran. During the struggle with shah’s regime, Morteza Motahari contributed in creating new Islamic discourses. Besides, he was among those who had discussed the conditions of Marja' after the death of Ayatollah Broujerdi, he wrote the book Mutual services of Islam in such acondition. His works had important impact on expanding the movement of religious reform in early days of revolution, his works consisted of traditional Islamic and Shia thoughts.
He wrote an essay about revitalization of religious thought in the occasion. Writing the "need for Candidness in religious leadership", he aimed to show the youth the attractiveness of Islam. During the revolution, while Shapour Bakhtiyar prevented Khomeini's return to Iran in 1978, Ayatollah Motahari was the leader who managed the protester clergies in Tehran University's mosque. Motahari was an important figure, helped Ayatollah Khomeini to organize revolutionary department. Morteza Motahari expressed his opinions in different majors and disciplines such as philosophy, economic and etc. Motahari and Shariati were counted as two prominent figures during Islamic revolution of Iran, he emphasized on Islamic democracy for suitable political structure. Motahari recognized fitra as the truth of human. According to him, fitra is a unchangeable quality in human nature. In fact, he believed, he believed that Imam was a perfect man who shows the high rank of human spirituality. Imam is characterized as a religious leader.
His lengthy footnote on the “book of principles of philosophy and method of realism” by Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i was against the historical Marxism. He believed that Wali-e faqih only had the right of s
The Qoba Mosque is a Mosque in Tehran, with a view of the Alborz Mountains to the north. It is located on Ghoba Street between Khushak Street; the mosque was closed by the Shah in 1975 because of Mohammad Mofatteh's political teachings. Responding to Mir Hossein Mousavi's appeal, Iranian government approved a Sunday June 28, 2009, peaceful prayer gathering at 6pm mourning those killed during the 2009 post-election clashes at the Qoba Mosque on Ghoba Alley in Tehran
Musa al-Sadr is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Born in the Chaharmardan neighbourhood of Qom, Iran, he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran, he belongs to the Sadr family from Jabal Amel in Lebanon, a branch of Musawi family tracing to Musa Ibn Jaafar, the seventh Shia Imam and to the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. Therefore, Musa al-Sadr is styled with the honorific title Sayyid, he returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état. Some years Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Borujerdi and Hakim. Fouad Ajami called him a "towering figure in modern Shi'i political thought and praxis", he gave the Shia population of Lebanon "a sense of community". In Lebanon, he founded and revived many organizations including schools and the Amal Movement. On 25 August 1978, Sadr and two companions departed for Libya to meet with government officials at the invitation of Muammar Gaddafi.
The three were last seen on 31 August. They were never heard from again. Many theories exist around the circumstances of Sadr's disappearance, none of which have been proven, his whereabouts remain unknown to this day. Musa al-Sadr came from a long line of clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel, his great-great-grandfather S. Salih b. Muhammad Sharafeddin, a high-ranking cleric, was born in Shhour, a village near Tyre, Lebanon. Following a frantic turn of events related to an anti-Ottoman uprising, he left for Najaf. Sharafeddin's son, left Najaf for Isfahan, the most important centre of religious learning in Iran, he returned to Najaf shortly before his death in 1847. The youngest of his five sons, was born in Isfahan, in Qajar-ruled Iran, became a leading mujtahid; the second son of Ismail named Sadreddin, was born in Ottoman Iraq and decided to settle permanently in Iran. He became Musa al-Sadr's father. While living in Iran, Sadreddin married a daughter of Ayatollah Hussein Tabatabaei Qomi, an Iranian religious leader.
She would become Musa al-Sadr's mother. Musa al-Sadr was born in the Cheharmardan neighborhood of Qom, Iran, on 4 June 1928, he attended Hayat Elementary School in Qom. His teachers considered him a "quick learner and remarkably knowledgeable for his young age". After a while he started teaching other students "lower-level" courses; this coincided with the "liberalizing of Iranian politics", the political climate of his time was secular, so that most religious scholars "felt politically and marginalized". To have some influence in the "national life" he concluded that he had to become familiar with "modern science and contemporary world"; as a result, he started a "full secular education" alongside his seminary studies. He moved to Tehran, where he completed a degree in Islamic jurisprudence and political sciences from Tehran University and learned some English and French, he returned to Qom to study theology and Islamic philosophy under Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai. Following the death of his father in 1953, he left Qom for Najaf to study theology under Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim and Abul Qasim Khui.
There he had teachers such as: Ayatollah Hakim, Shaykh Morteza al Yasin, Ayatollah Abulqasim Khu'i, Shaykh Hossein Hilli, Shaykh Sadra Badkubahi, others, some of whom became Marja after Ayatollah Borujerdi's death. Musa al-Sadr became a mujtahid in Najaf. In 1955 he traveled to Lebanon, he had met him in 1936 when his family had hosted Abd al-Husayn in Iran. The same year he left Iran and returned to Najaf and, in the autumn of 1956, he married the daughter of Ayatollah Azizollah Khalili. After the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état and the overthrow of the monarchy in Iraq, Sadr returned to Iran. There, he accepted the request of Ali Davani, sent by Ayatollah Shariatmadari, became an editor of Darsha'i az maktab-e Eslam known as Maktab-e Eslam, a journal published by the Hawza of Qom and endorsed by Ayatollah Broujerdi, he began contributing with the third issue, focusing on Islamic economics, "a novel subject at the time". His articles in this field were published as a book, he soon became the journal's "de facto editor-in-chief".
He left the journal in December 1959 along with some of its original founders. Musa Sadr took part in devising a new scheme for Hawza called "Tarh-e Moqddamati-ye eslah-e howzeh", withdrawn, in cooperation with Mohammad Beheshti. In 1959, Sadr founded a private high school which provided an alternative to the state educational system for "observant parents". Musa al-Sadr declined Ayatollah Broujerdi's request to go to Italy as his representative and instead left Qom for Najaf. There Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim urged him to accept an invitation to become the leading Shi'a figure in Tyre, succeeding Abdul Hussein Sharif Al Din, who had died in 1957, he left Najaf for Tyre as the "emissary" of Ayatollah Broujerdi and Ayatollah Hakim. At the request of some clerics, he made several trips to Iran delivering several lectures such as "Islam is a Religion of Life" and "The World is Ready to Accept the Call of Islam." The latter included presenting his experiences in Lebanon and emphasizing the need to work "towards the betterment of Muslims."In 1967, Imam al-Sadr traveled to West Africa to get acquainted with the Lebanese community and inspect its affairs and worked to link them to their homeland.
He met with Ivorian President Félix Hou
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral
Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families. Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities, it is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE. Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran; the city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located 360 kilometres southwest of Tehran; the major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian. According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a old city, it may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is mentioned by Herodotus who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."Hamadan was established by the Medes.
It became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.. Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text; because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs. During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan; the city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran.
Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran. During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces, it was occupied by both armies, by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918. Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros; the vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are humid and bring rainfall; the west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate, in transition with a cold semi-arid climate, with snowy winters.
In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild and sunny. According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people; the majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris, a small group of Persian Jews. Hamadan is home to cultural celebrities; the city is said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather and carpets. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in Hamadan; the Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her uncle Mordechai. The scientist and writer Avicenna is interred here.
The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is interred here. Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat, was born here. PAS Hamedan F. C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F. C.. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F. C. is in the Azadegan League. Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan. Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan; some of the popular universities in Hamadan include: Bu-Ali Sina University Hamadan Medical University Hamadan University of Technology Islamic Azad University of Hamadan Abolhassa