The Amu Darya called the Amu or Amo River, known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan, flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Turan. Persian: آمودریا, translit. Âmudaryâ. Ôxos). In classical antiquity, the river was known as the Ōxus in Latin and Ὦξος in Greek — a clear derivative of Vakhsh, the name of the largest tributary of the river. In Vedic Sanskrit, the river is referred to as Vakṣu; the Brahmanda Purana refers to the river as Chaksu. The Avestan texts too refer to the River as Yakhsha/Vakhsha. In Middle Persian sources of the Sassanid period the river is known as Wehrōd; the name Amu is said to have come from the medieval city of Āmul, in modern Turkmenistan, with Darya being the Persian word for "river". Medieval Arabic and Islamic sources call the river Jayhoun, derived from Gihon, the biblical name for one of the four rivers of the Garden of Eden.
Western travelers in the 19th century mentioned that one of the names by which the river was known in Afghanistan was Gozan, that this name was used by Greek, Chinese, Persian and Afghan historians. However, this name is no longer used. "Hara and to the river of Gozan...""the Gozan River is the River Balkh, i.e. the Oxus or the Amu Darya...""... and were brought into Halah, Habor, Hara, to the river Gozan..." The river's total length is 2,400 kilometres and its drainage basin totals 534,739 square kilometres in area, providing a mean discharge of around 97.4 cubic kilometres of water per year. The river is navigable for over 1,450 kilometres. All of the water comes from the high mountains in the south where annual precipitation can be over 1,000 mm. Before large-scale irrigation began, high summer evaporation meant that not all of this discharge reached the Aral Sea – though there is some evidence the large Pamir glaciers provided enough melt water for the Aral to overflow during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Since the end of the 19th century there have been four different claimants as the true source of the Oxus: The Pamir River, which emerges from Lake Zorkul in the Pamir Mountains, flows west to Qila-e Panja, where it joins the Wakhan River to form the Panj River. The Sarhad or Little Pamir River flowing down the Little Pamir in the High Wakhan Lake Chamaktin, which discharges to the east into the Aksu River, which in turn becomes the Murghab and Bartang rivers, which joins the Panj Oxus branch 350 kilometres downstream at Roshan Vomar in Tajikistan. An ice cave at the end of the Wakhjir valley, in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, near the border with Pakistan. A glacier joins the Pamir River about 50 kilometres downstream. Bill Colegrave's expedition to Wakhan in 2007 found that both claimants 2 and 3 had the same source, the Chelab stream, which bifurcates on the watershed of the Little Pamir, half flowing into Lake Chamaktin and half into the parent stream of the Little Pamir/Sarhad River.
Therefore, the Chelab stream may be properly considered the true source or parent stream of the Oxus. The Panj River forms the border of Tajikistan, it flows west to Ishkashim where it turns north and north-west through the Pamirs passing the Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge. It subsequently forms the border of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan for about 200 kilometres, passing Termez and the Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge, it delineates the border of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan for another 100 kilometres before it flows into Turkmenistan at Atamurat. It flows across Turkmenistan south to north, passing Türkmenabat, forms the border of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan from Halkabat, it is split by the Tuyamuyun Hydro Complex into many waterways that used to form the river delta joining the Aral Sea, passing Urgench, Daşoguz, other cities, but it does not reach what is left of the sea any more and is lost in the desert. Use of water from the Amu Darya for irrigation has been a major contributing factor to the shrinking of the Aral Sea since the late 1950s.
Historical records state that in different periods, the river flowed into the Aral Sea, into the Caspian Sea, or both, similar to the Syr Darya. The 534,769 square kilometres of the Amu Darya drainage basin include most of Tajikistan, the southwest corner of Kyrgyzstan, the northeast corner of Afghanistan, a narrow portion of eastern Turkmenistan and the western half of Uzbekistan. Part of the Amu Darya basin divide in Tajikistan forms that country's border with China and Pakistan. About 61% of the drainage lies within Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, while 39% is in Afghanistan; the abundant water flowing in the Amu Darya comes entirely from glaci
Badakhshan is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan, the Tashkurgan county in China. The name is retained in Badakhshan Province, one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan and is located in North-East Afghanistan. Much of historic Badakhshan lies within Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region located in the south-eastern part of the country; the music of Badakhshan is an important part of the region's cultural heritage. The name is derived from the Sasanian official title bēdaxš or badaxš, which may be from an earlier *pati-axša. Badakhshan has religious community. Tajiks and Pamiris are the majority while a tiny minority of Kyrgyzs and Uzbeks are found in their own villages. There are groups of speakers of several Pamir languages of the Eastern Iranian language group. During the 20th century within Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tajikistan the speakers of Pamir languages formed their own separate ethnic identity as Pamiris; the Pamiri people were not recognized as a separate ethnic group in Tajikistan, but in Tajikistan Pamiri movements and associations have been formed.
The main religions of Badakhshan are Sunni Islam. The people of this province have a rich cultural heritage and they have preserved unique ancient forms of music and dance. Nasir Khusraw propagated Ismailism. Badakhshan was an important trading center during antiquity. Lapis lazuli was traded from there as early as the second half of the 4th millennium BC. Badakhshan was an important region, its significance is its geo-economic role in trades of silk and ancient commodities transactions between the East and West. According to Marco Polo, Badashan/ Badakshan was a province where Balas ruby could be found under the mountain "Syghinan"; the region was ruled over by the mirs of Badakhshan. Sultan Muhammad of Badakhshan was the last of a series of kings who traced their descent to Alexander the Great, he was killed by Abu Sa'id Mirza the ruler of Timurid Empire and took possession of Badakhshan, which after his death fell to his son, Sultan Mahmud, who had three sons, Baysinghar Mirza, Ali Mirza and Khan Mirza.
When Mahmud died, Amir Khusroe Khan, one of his nobles, blinded Baysinghar Mirza, killed the second prince, ruled as usurper. He submitted to Mughal Emperor Babur in 1504 CE; when Babur took Kandahar in 1506 CE, from Shah Beg Arghun, he sent Khan Mirza as governor to Badakhshan. A son was born to Khan Mirza by the name of Mirza Sulaiman in 1514 CE. After the death of Khan Mirza, Badakhshan was governed for Babur by Prince Humayun, Sultan Wais Khan, Prince Hindal, lastly, by Mirza Sulaiman, who held Badakhshan till October 8, 1541, when he had to surrender himself and his son, Mirza Ibrahim, to Prince Kamran Mirza, they were released by Emperor Humayun in 1545, took again possession of Badakhshan. When Humayun had taken Kabul, he made war upon and defeated Mirza Sulaiman who once in possession of his country, had refused to submit. Bent on making conquests, he had to return, his son, Mirza Ibrahim, was killed in battle. When Akbar became Mughal Emperor, his stepbrother Mirza Muhammad Hakim's mother had been killed by Shah Abul Ma'ali.
Mirza Sulaiman went to Kabul, had Abul Ma'ali hanged. But Mirza Muhammad Hakim did not go on well with Mirza Sulaiman, who returned next year to Kabul with hostile intentions, he returned to Kabul in 1566, when Akbar's troops had left that country, but retreated on being promised tribute. Mirza Sulaiman's wife was Khurram Begum, of the Kipchak tribe, she had her husband so much in her power, that he did nothing without her advice. Her enemy was the widow of Prince Kamran Mirza. Mirza Sulaiman wanted to marry her; when Mirza Ibrahim fell in the war with Balkh, Khurram Begum wanted to send the Khanum to her father, Shah Muhammad of Kashgar. As soon as Shahrukh had grown up, his mother and some Badakhshi nobles excited him to rebel against his grandfather Mirza Sulaiman; this he did, again making peace. Khurram Begum died. Shahrukh took away those parts of Badakhshan which his father had held, found so many adherents, that Mirza Sulaiman, pretending to go on a pilgrimage to Makkah, left Badakhshan for Kabul, crossing the Indus went to India in 1575 CE.
Khan Jahan, governor of the Punjab, received orders from Emperor Akbar to invade Badakhshan, but was ordered to go to Bengal instead, as Mun'im Khan had died and Mirza Sulaiman did not care for the governorship of Bengal, which Akbar had offered him. Mirza Sulaiman went to Ismail II of Safavid Iran; when the death of that monarch deprived him of the assistance which he had just received, he went to Muzaffar Husain Mirza at Kandahar, t
Kunduz is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. The city has a population of about 268,893, making it about the 6th-largest city of Afghanistan, the largest city in the northeastern section of the country. Kunduz is located in the historical Tokharistan region of Bactria, near the confluence of the Kunduz River with the Khanabad River. Kunduz is linked by highways with Kabul to the south, Mazar-i-Sharif to the west, Badakhshan to the east. Kunduz is linked with Dushanbe in Tajikistan to the north, via the Afghan dry port of Sherkhan Bandar; the land use of the city is agricultural. Residential land comprises nearly half of the'built-up' land area with 29,877 dwellings. Institutional land comprises 17.9% of built-up land use, given that the airport is located within the municipal boundary. Kunduz is sometimes spelled as Kundûz, Qondûz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz; the name of the city is derived from Persian compound, kuhan diz, "old/ancient fort". Until the 1960s, the city served as the capital to the now-defunct province of Qataqan, itself meaning "Old/Ancient city".
Kunduz is the site of the ancient city of Drapsaka. It was a great centre of Buddhist learning and prosperous during the 3rd century AD; the city used to be called Walwalij and the name Kuhandiz began to be used from the Timurid time. In the 18th and 19th centuries it was the capital of a rather large eponymous, sometimes independent, sometimes autonomous Uzbek-Tajik khanate that in the 1820s encompassed land from Balkh to the Pamir Mountains, it was part of The Great Game between the Russians. This khanate was destroyed by Afghanistan in 1859. Between one hundred and two-hundred thousand Tajiks and Uzbeks fled the conquest of their homeland by Russian Red Army and settled in northern Afghanistan. In the early 20th century, under the governance of Sher Khan Nasher, Kunduz became one of the wealthiest Afghan provinces; this was due to Nasher's founding of the Spinzar Cotton Company, which continues to exist in post-war Afghanistan. Kunduz is the most important agricultural province which produces wheat, rice and other products and obtained the nickname of "the hive of the country."
Kunduz is the centre for the northeast provinces and was captured by the Taliban in 1997. It was the last major city held by the Taliban before its fall to US-backed Afghan Northern Alliance forces on November 26, 2001; the city is strategically important because it is the only way connecting Takhar province and Badakhshan provinces, which play a critical role in the existing government. During the summer of 2015, the Taliban advanced and attacked the city, which resulted in a battled for control of the city against Afghan forces. Tens of thousands of inhabitants were displaced internally by the fighting. On 28 September 2015 the Taliban flag was again raised in the city center and the Taliban managed to capture the city prison and free many prisoners; the Afghan Armed Forces managed to re-capture the city in 15 days. The Taliban announced that, after achieving their objectives, they have withdrawn from the city's center. Zabiullah Mujahid, a Taliban spokesperson, said that their main object in leaving the city is to avoid civilian casualties from air raids.
On April 2018 the Afghan Air Force conducted an airstrike that killed and injured dozens of civilians at a religious school in Kunduz. Kunduz has a cold semi-arid climate with cold winters. Precipitation is low except from January to April, with summers always rainless; the city of Kunduz has a population of about 268,893, while Kunduz District has a population of 304,600. Ethnic Pashtuns make up the largest percent followed by Uzbeks, Arabs and a few others; the Kunduz Arabs speak Afghanistan's two official languages, rather than Arabic. However, they claim a strong Arab identity, based on their tribes; this may in fact point to the 7th and 8th centuries migration to this and other Central Asian locales of many Arab tribes from Arabia in the wake of the Islamic conquests of the region. There are other such Arabs to the north and west, between Kholm, Mazar-i-Sharif and Shibarghan, as well as in eastern Afghanistan in Jalalabad. Kunduz city is divided into 8 Police Districts with a total land area of 11,206 hectares.
Kunduz Province is divided into six districts: Khan Abad, Ali Abad, Char Dara, Dashti Archi, Qala-e-Zal and Imam Sahib, plus Kunduz City. Kunduz has nine representatives in the lower house and two in the upper house and has a provincial council; the most influential leader of Kunduz was Arif Khan, a governor of Kunduz Province and was shot dead in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan in the year 2000. Soon after the incident his brother Haji Omar Khan took his responsibility and was appointed as the Governor of Kunduz. In the Karzai administration, Haji Omar Khan was elected to be a representative of Kunduz Province in the Lower House and at a time serve as an advisor minister to President Hamid Karzai. Spinzar Cotton Company founders, Ghulam Sarwar Nashir, Nazik Mir Khan Zakhel, Raees Munawar Khan seen as the founding fathers of the province. Gholam Nabi Nasher Khan, parliamentarian Sayed Noorullah Murad Imam Saheb district. Javed Ahmadi, player in the current Afghanistan national cricket team Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi is current Afghan National Parliament Speaker.
List of cities in Afghanistan F
Bukhara is a city in Uzbekistan. Bukhara is rich in historical sites, with about 140 architectural monuments; the nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population of 247,644 as of 31 August 2016. People have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, the city has existed for half that time; the mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is Tajik. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship and religion. UNESCO has listed the historic center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara was known as Bokhara in 19th- and early-20th-century English publications and as Buhe/Puhe（捕喝) in Tang Chinese. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica the name Bukhara is derived from the Sogdian βuxārak Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara mentions: Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat, it has been called "Bumiskat". It has 2 names in Arabic. One is "Madinat al Sufriya" meaning—"the copper city" and another is "Madinat Al Tujjar" meaning—"The city of Merchants".
But, the name Bukhara is more known than all the other names. In Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names. Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Persian sources; the modern Uzbek spelling is Buxoro. The city's name was mythologized as Albracca in the Italian epic poem Orlando Innamorato published in 1483 by Matteo Maria Boiardo; the history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. It is now the capital of Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became a major intellectual center of the Islamic world, second only to Baghdad; the historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara has been one of the main centres of world civilisation from its early days in 6th century BCE. From the 6th century CE, Turkic speakers moved in, its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian art.
The region of Bukhara was a part of the Persian Empire for a long time. The origin of many of its current inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region; the Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, in 903 CE. Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for fifteen days in 1220 CE; as an important trading centre, Bukhara was home to a community of medieval Indian merchants from the city of Multan who were noted to own land in the city. Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city of Bukhara. On 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara. On 2 September 1920, after four days of fighting, the emir's citadel was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret. On 14 September 1920, the All-Bukharan Revolutionary Committee was headed by A. Mukhitdinov.
The government—the Council of People's Nazirs —was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev. The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic existed from 1920 to 1925 when the city was integrated into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Fitzroy Maclean a young diplomat in the British Embassy in Moscow, made a surreptitious visit to Bokhara in 1938, sight-seeing and sleeping in parks. In his memoir Eastern Approaches, he judged it an "enchanted city" with buildings that rivalled "the finest architecture of the Italian Renaissance". In the latter half of the 20th century, the war in Afghanistan and civil war in Tajikistan brought Dari- and Tajik-speaking refugees into Bukhara and Samarkand. After integrating themselves into the local Tajik population, these cities face a movement for annexation into Tajikistan with which the cities have no common border. Po-i-Kalyan ComplexThe title Po-i Kalan belongs to the architectural complex located at the base of the great minaret Kalân. Kalyan minaret. More properly, Minâra-i Kalân.
Known as the Tower of Death, as according to legend it is the site where criminals were executed by being thrown off the top for centuries. The minaret is most famed part of the ensemble, dominates over historical center of the city; the role of the minaret is for traditional and decorative purposes—its dimension exceeds the bounds of the main function of the minaret, to provide a vantage point from which the muezzin can call out people to prayer. For this purpose it was enough to ascend to a roof of mosque; this practice was common in initial years of Islam. The word "minaret" derives from the Arabic word "minara"; the minarets of the region were possible adaptations of "fire-towers" or lighthouses of previous Zoroastrian eras. The architect, whose name was Bako, designed the minaret in the form of a circular-pillar brick tower, narrowing upwards; the diameter of the base is 9 meters. The tower is 45.6 m high, can be seen from vast distances over the flat plains of Central Asia. There is a brick spiral staircase that twists up inside around the pillar, leading to the landing in sixteen-arched rotunda and skylight, upon which i