Borujerd is a city in and capital of Borujerd County, Lorestan Province in western Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 227,547 in 59,388 families. Among the existing modern cities in Iran, Borujerd is one of the oldest reported at least since the 9th century. In Sassanid Empire, Borujerd was region neighboring Nahavand. Gaining more attention during Great Seljuq Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries, Borujerd stood as an industrial and strategic city in Zagros Mountains until the 20th century. In its golden ages, Borujerd was selected as the state capital of Lorestan and Khuzestan region during Qajar dynasty in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, Borujerd is the second largest city of Lorestan; the city has kept its old architecture and lifestyle through mosques and houses built in the Qajar era. Its people are of Lurish descent, but there are a minority of Laks who live in Borujrd and who are Laki speaking, like Balavand, Shahivand, Ichivand, Jalilavand tribes who inhabit the area of Borujerd township.
Borujerd city is located 1670 meters above sea level and has a moderate climate with cold winters. The highest point is Garrin Mountain 3623 m above sea level and the lowest area is Gelerood River in South with 1400 m elevation. Borujerd Township has 2600 km² area with 400,000 inhabitants distributed in the city of Oshtorinan and more than 180 villages. Owing to favorable topographic and climatic conditions, the plains are devoted to cultivation of grain. Wherever irrigation is possible, melons and fruit trees are grown. Borujerd is located on Silakhor Plain, the largest agricultural land of Lorestan; the high-elevated Zagros Mountains surrounds it from South East to North West and the peaks are covered with snow most of the times. Rural people keep their domestic animals. Other people work in armed forces, factories or small local businesses; the feet of Zagros Mountains is a great destination for nomads and many Lurs and Bakhtiari nomads move there in summer. The area is paved with highways and is a crossroad between Tehran and Khuzestan Province as well as Isfahan Province and Kermanshah Province.
The city of Borujerd is one of the oldest cities in Iran, populated at least for 20 centuries and has been reported at least from Sassanid Empire. Though founded by the Jews having taken refuge to Persia, since the Muslim conquest of Persia, Borujerd has been considered as a strategic area and in Seljuq dynasty and Qajar dynasty it received significant attention and many mosques, schools and castles were made or rebuilt by these dynasties. Borujerd City has 256,962 inhabitants and it is the 31st largest city in Iran and the 2nd largest in Lorestan. Borujerd is the industrial point of Lorestan, its historical and cultural background as well as its remarkable nature, has changed it to a tourist destination. The city is well-structured with many shops and markets. Borujerdi people are easy going and tolerant and different religious minorities such as Jews and Bahá'í Faith have grown there; the city has been named as Dār-Al-Sorūr. Today, Borujerd is sometimes referred to as Paris Kūčūlū namely the little Paris.
The Borujerd area has been populated at least since 3000 BC. Medes used its pastures to train thousands of horses each year. However, it owes much of its development to the Jews which came to Persia after they had got close to extinction. Sassanid Empire built a fire-temple there. During the Muslim conquest of Persia, Borujerd castle was used by Iranian army to support the troops and the final battle occurred in Nahavand, 55 km north West of Borujerd. Yazdegerd III escaped to Borujerd castle and his army reunited again there; the Islamic Arab governor, Abudolf ibn Hamulah, rebuilt the city and constructed the Jameh Mosque of Borujerd on top of a Zoroastrian fire temple. Seljuq rulers had many travels and battles in Borujerd and Barkiyaruq the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1094-1105 died in this city; some references mention that Zavvarian 5 km N of Borujerd City is his tomb, however according to historical books, his body was returned to Isfahan. Since 1000 to 1500, Borujerd Was governed by Atabakan-e Lorestan who governed Lur-e-Kuchak.
Genghis Khan and Mongols attacked the ruined Borujerd and Khorramabad. Timur attacked Borujerd two times and destroyed this city but Timurids used Borujerd Castle and Roomian Castle for military purposes. In Safavid era Borujerd was governed as a separate state including Japlaq or Gapleh, was neighbor of Golpayegan. Zand kings were Laks and from somewhere between Malayer and Borujerd, they paid attention to Borujerd for its brave soldiers which were used by Safavids. Several battles occurred there. In Qajar era Borujerd was a small state at first but changed to the centre of Lorestan Province and Khuzestan Province and the city developed rapidly; the Soltani Mosque of Borujerd, the Great Bazaar of Borujerd and many schools and gardens were built and the city castle was rebuilt. Reza Shah quit insurgencies of Lorestan and established army, roads and modern schools in Borujerd. In his time, Borujerd State was eliminated and according to new political dividing, Borujerd was attached to Lorestan Province.
After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, during the Iran–Iraq War, Borujer
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar was the second Shah of Iran. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death, his reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus, comprising what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia, to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay. Historian Joseph M. Upton says that he "is famous among Persians for three things: his exceptionally long beard, his wasp-like waist, his progeny."At the end of his reign, his difficult economic problems and military and technological liabilities took Iran to the verge of governmental disintegration, quickened by a consequent struggle for the throne after his death. He was born in Damghan on 25 September 1772, was called Fath-Ali, a name which his great-grandfather, a prominent figure bore, he was the son of brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. He was known by his second name of Baba Khan, a name he would use until his coronation in 1797.
Fath-Ali was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fath-Ali ascended the throne and used the name of Fath Ali Shah, he ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan had been chancellor to Qajar rulers for some fifteen years. Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a elaborate court culture with rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign and large-scale oil painting reached a height unknown under any other Islamic dynasty due to his personal patronage. Fath Ali ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs; the latter, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of gems. In 1797, Fath Ali was given a complete set of the Britannica's 3rd edition, which he read completely. In 1803, Fath-Ali Shah appointed his cousin Ebrahim Khan as the governor of the Kerman Province, devastated during the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan. During the early reign of Fath Ali Shah, Imperial Russia took control of Georgia, a territory which Iran had ruled intermittently since 1555 with the Peace of Amasya.
Georgia, led by Erekle II, had forged an alliance with Persia's rival, following the Treaty of Georgievsk. To punish his Georgian subjects, his uncle, Agha Mohammad Khan, had invaded and sacked Tblisi, seeking to reestablishing full Persian suzerainty over Georgia, in which he succeeded. Though the Russian garrisons in the city had to retreat, Persia didn't manage to put back all of its needed garrisons over the country as Agha Mohammad Khan was assassinated soon afterwards in Shusha, following with Russia's act of annexation of those priorly-Iranian ruled parts of Georgia in 1801, after many Georgian embassies and a treaty. Not only was Georgia annexed but was Dagestan invaded, under Persian rule since the early Safavid era; as it was seen as a direct intrusion into Persian territory, Fath Ali Shah, determined to reassert Persian hegemony over the whole region, declared war on Russia after General Pavel Tsitsianov attacked and stormed the city of Ganja, massacring many of its inhabitants and forcing many thousands to flee deeper within the Iranian domains.
In 1804, Fath Ali Shah ordered the invasion of Georgia in order to regain it, under pressure from the Shia clergy, who were urging a war against Russia. The war began with notable victories for the Persians, but Russia shipped in advanced weaponry and cannons that disadvantaged the technologically inferior Qajar forces, who did not have the artillery to match. Russia continued with a major campaign against Persia. However, Britain refused to help Persia claiming that the military agreement concerned a French attack not Russian. Persia had to ask for help from France, sending an ambassador to Napoleon and concluding a Franco-Persian alliance with the signature of the Treaty of Finkenstein. However, just when the French were ready to help Persia, Napoleon made peace with Russia. At this time, John Malcolm arrived in Persia and promised support but Britain changed its mind and asked Persia to retreat. Though many years the war had been stale and located in various parts of Transcaucasia, the peace with Napoleon enabled the Russians to increase their war efforts in the Caucasus against Iran.
In early 1813, under General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky, the Russians stormed Lankaran. Russian troops invaded Tabriz in 1813 and Persia was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia. On account of consecutive defeats of Persia and after the fall of Lankaran on 1 January 1813, Fath Ali Shah, was forced to sign the disastrous Treaty of Gulistan; the text of treaty was prepared by a British diplomat. By this treaty all of the cities and villages of Georgia and towns on the coast of the Black Sea, all of the cities, tow
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907; the origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. Prior to Tehran being the capital of Iran Isfahan was the capital. Isfahan has a significant Armenian Population; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages.
In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia. In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population consisted of Iranians of all classes; the Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Ital
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. Designating a commander-in-chief, it came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage, where the rank survived the longest, it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces, although in centuries it became devalued into a mere honorific title, its equivalents in Arabic were amir al-umara, in Persian, mir-i miran. The title was used by the Khans of the Indian princely state of Kalat; the title originated with the Seljuqs, was used in the Sultanate of Rum as an alternative for the Arabic title of malik al-umara, designating the army's commander-in-chief. Among the Mongol Ilkhanids, the title was used to designate the chief amir al-ulus —also known by the Turkic title ulusbegi and the Arabic amir al-umara–while in the Golden Horde it was applied to all the holders of the rank of amir al-ulus.
The Mamluks of Egypt used it as an alternative title for the atabak al-asakir, the commander-in-chief of the army. The Ottomans used the title from the late 14th until the mid-19th century, with varying meanings and degrees of importance; the early Ottoman state continued to use the term beylerbey in the meaning of commander-in-chief, held by princes of the Ottoman dynasty: under the Ottoman Empire's founder, Osman I, his son Orhan held the post, during Orhan's reign, his brother Alaeddin Pasha and Orhan's son Süleyman Pasha. The first step towards the transformation of the office into a gubernatorial title occurred when the title was given by Murad I to Lala Shahin Pasha, as a reward for his capture of Adrianople in the 1360s. In addition, Lala Shahin was given military authority over the Ottoman territories in Europe; this marked the beylerbey as the viceroy of the European territories as the Sultans still resided in Anatolia, as the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which connected the two parts of the Ottoman state, continued to escape full Ottoman control until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
After Lala Shahin's death, sometime in 1385–87 he was succeeded in the position of commander-in-chief in Rumelia by Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha. In 1393, Sultan Bayezid I appointed Kara Timurtash as beylerbey and viceroy was in Anatolia, when Bayezid crossed over into Europe to campaign against Mircea I of Wallachia; this process marked the birth of the first two, by far the most important, beylerbeyliks, of Rumelia and Anatolia, while the third beylerbeylik, that of Rûm, followed soon after. The beylerbey was in charge of a province—termed beylerbeylik or generically vilayet, "province", while after 1591 the term eyalet was used and beylerbeylik came to mean the office of beylerbey—further subdivided into sanjaks or "liwa"s under sanjakbeys. With the continuous growth of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, new provinces were established, the ranks of the beylerbeys swelled to a maximum of 44 by the end of the 16th century. A list of eyalets in 1609 mentions 32 in total, of which 23 regular eyalets where revenue was distributed among the military fief-holders, while the rest were under the salyane system, i.e. their revenue was sent to the imperial treasury, the officials and soldiers were paid salaries from it.
The size of these new provinces varied enormously: some containing as many as twenty sanjaks, others as few as two, including the beylerbey's own residence. Among themselves, the various beylerbeys had an order of precedence based on the date of conquest or formation of their provinces; the beylerbey of Rumelia, retained his pre-eminence, ranking first among the other provincial governors-general, being accorded a seat in the Imperial Council after 1536. In addition, the post was held by the Sultan's chief minister, the Grand Vizier himself. In his province, the beylerbey was regarded as a virtual viceroy of the Sultan: he had full authority over matters of war and administration, except in so far as they were limited by the authority of other officials appointed by the central government, chiefly the various fiscal secretaries under the mal defterdari and the kadı, who could appeal directly to the imperial government. In addition, as a further check to their power, the Janissary contingents stationed in the province's cities were outside his authority, beylerbeys were forbidden from entering the fortresses garrisoned by the Janissaries.
The beylerbey had his own court and government council and could grant fiefs without prior approval by the Sultan, although this right was curtailed after 1530, when his authority was restricted to smaller timars only. Having its origin in the military, the primary responsibility of the beylerbeys and their sanjakbeys was the maintenance the sipahi cavalry, formed by the holders of the military fiefs, whom they led in person on campaign. From the reign of Mehmed II onwards, the title of beylerbey became an honorary court rank, coming after the viziers. From the 16th century on, viziers could be appointed as provincial beylerbeys, enjoying precedence and authority over the ordinary beylerbeys of the nei
Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty. He is the progenitor of the Dowlatshahi Family of Persia, he was born in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran. He was the first son of Fath-Ali Shah, the second Qajar king of Persia, Ziba Chehr Khanoum, a Georgian slave girl of the Tsikarashvili family, he was the elder brother of Abbas Mirza. Dowlatshah was the governor of Fars at age 9, Qazvin and Gilan at age 11, Khuzestan and Lorestan at age 16, Kermanshah at age 19. In the battles with Russia and Persia's archrival, the Ottoman Empire, he defeated the Ottomans in Baghdad and Basra, crushed the Russians in Yerevan and Tbilisi. Dowlatshah developed and improved the city of Kermanshah and established the city of Dowlat-Abad, renamed Malayer. Dowlatshah had 10 sons, his descendants live in different countries in the world and carry the last names دولتشاهی, Dowlatshahi and Doulatchahi. Though older than his brother Abbas Mirza, Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatash was never heir to the Persian throne, because his mother was not of the royal dynasty.
However, his father Fath-Ali Shah appointed Dowlatshah to rule and protect the boundaries of the two Iraqs and adjoined Khuzestan province to his territories. In fact, during Dowlatshah's time, Kermanshah had become a citadel against the Ottomans. Dowlatshah carried the last, very successful, attack on the Ottoman Iraq in 1821. Persia was resentful of the inability of the Ottoman government to protect the Shia population of Iraq against the Saudi-Wahhabi attacks that had begun in 1801. Many of the Shias killed in the raids were Iranians, some of whom related to the ruling Qajar dynasty of Persia, his forces occupied Shahrazur and Kirkuk, laid siege to Baghdad. His skills and ambitions mirrored those of his younger brother, he was a great military leader and a patron of the arts and philosophy. The origin of the family names "Dowlatshah," "Dowlatshahi," and close variations such as "Dolatshahi" are from this ancestor's title. Dowlatshah has been respected among the people of Kermanshah because of his contributions such as Dowlatshah mosque His mosque is located in the Javanshir Square of Kermanshah and was built in the years 1820–1822 AD.
In recent years this mosque has been repaired. It consists of separate nocturnal areas along with a courtyard; the city of Kermanshah has a temperate climate. It is one of the ancient cities of Iran and it is said that Tahmores Divband, a mythical ruler of the Pishdadian, had constructed it; some attribute its constructions to Bahram Sassanid. During the reign of Qobad I and Anushirvan Sassanid, Kermanshah was at the peak of its glory, but in the Arab attack suffered great damage. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Esfahan, Kermanshah was destroyed due to the Ottoman invasion, but from the beginning of the 11th century AH it began to flourish. In order to prevent a probable aggression of the Zangeneh tribe and due to its proximity with the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid ruler paid great attention to this city, but in the Zandieh period upheavals increased, whereas during the Qajar era, Ottoman attacks reduced. Mohammad Ali Mirza in 1221 AH was seated in Kermanshah in order to prevent Ottoman aggression, Khuzestan came under his realm.
An epigraph of Mohammad Ali Mirza in Taq-e-Bostan has been remained as a relic. The regime of Crown Prince Abbas Mirza launched an attack on Ottoman Turkey under the leadership of Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah; the war was sparked by Turkish aid to Azerbaijani rebels in Persia. The rebels were given refuge by the Ottomans; the war opened with a Persian invasion of Turkey in the Lake Van region, a counter-invasion by the Ottoman Pasha of Baghdad, who invaded western Persia. This invasion force was driven back across the border, but Dowlatshah's newly modernized army of 30,000 troops defeated 50,000 Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Erzurum near Lake Van in 1821. A peace treaty in 1823 ended the war with no changes to their mutual border. Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah had 10 sons. Prince Mohammad Hossein Mirza, governor of Kermanshah from 1821 to 1834 Prince Tahmasp Mirza, governor of Kermanshah from 1877 to 1877 Prince Nasrollah Mirza Vali Prince Assadollah Mirza Prince Fathollah Mirza Prince Emam Qoli Mirza, governor of Kermanshah from 1834 to 1875.
Prince Nour-ol-Dahr Mirza Prince Jahangir Mirza Prince Mohammad Rahim Mirza Prince Abol Hossein Mirza Princess Jasmine Dowlatshahi Governor of Fars 1797–1799 Governor of Gilan and Qazvin 1799–1804 Governor of Khuzestan and Lorestan 1804–1807 Governor of Kermanshah 1807–1821 Qajar Dynasty
Donboli are a Turkic-speaking sub-ethnic group of Kurds originality in the Khoy khanate and Tabriz khanate regions of West Azarbaijan Province of Iran. The Donboli came from Bokhtan, a Kurdish region between Siirt and Cizre in what is now southeastern Turkey; the first ancestor was a certain Isa Beg. His descendant Sheikh Ahmad Beg entered service of the Turkmen Aq Quyunlu, the family held several post in Persian administration. Ahmad Beg's son Hajji Beg was governor of Sokmanabad and Khoy under Tahmasp I of the Safavid dynasty who ruled as Shah of Persia 1501-1722. In 1530 the Donboli family could establish a semi-autonomous emirate in that area, including the regions of Churs, Salmas. In the time of Shah Abbas I the family spread into a line in Churs and in Khoy, sometimes fighting for superpower over the other. After the fall of the Safavid dynasty the Donboli governors became in 1736 the hereditary Khans of Khoy and Tabriz; the Doboli clan reigned the Khoy Khanate as well as the Tabriz Khanate as semi-independent rulers for nearly fifty years between the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747 and the coronation of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar in 1796.
They allied as well with three succeeding ruling houses, the Afshar dynasty, Zand dynasty and Qajar dynasty of Persia. The first outstanding emir of this time was Najaf Qoli Khan. After Najaf Qoli Khan's father Shahbaz Khan I was killed in 1731 by his cousin Ayub Khan of Churs, he succeeded him as governor of Churs and Salmas. In 1734 he entered the service of the Nader Shah Afshar as chief musketeer, he followed the shah on his conquests to India and was made amir ol-'omara and governor of Khoy. In 1742 he became beglerbegi of Tabriz. In 1747 he became ruling Khan of Tabriz and remained in this post under Nader Shah's successor. In the war of succession between several pretenders to the Persian throne, Najaf Qoli Khan and his nephew Shahbaz Khan II joined in 1750 Fath Ali Khan Afshar-Arashlu of Urmia; the acting rule of Khoy and Salmas was commissioned to Shahbaz Khan II, Najaf Qoli Khan held Tabriz and Churs. After the death of Fath Ali Khan, the Donboli khans pledged their allegiances in 1757 to Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, who made his minor son Agha Mohammad Khan ruler of Tabriz and Najaf Qoli Khan the young prince's guardian.
In 1762 they allied with Karim Khan Zand, who sent 1763 Shahbaz Khan and Najaf Qoli Khan's son Abdol-Razzaq Beg as hostages to Shiraz. While Najaf Qoli Khan stayed as pacified ruler in his khanate and Shahbaz Khan remained de facto governor of Khoy in Shiraz, the real power in the Donboli domains was Shahbaz' brother Amir Ahmad Khan, who reigned 1763 until his death in 1786 as the strongest Donboli ruler and opponent to Agha Mohammad Khan's claims as overlord of all Persia. In 1786 Ahmad Khan was killed with his eldest son by Shahbaz' sons, maybe on behalf of the Qajar shah. Ahmad Khan's second son Hossein Qoli Khan succeeded his father in 1786. In 1791 he arranged with Agha Mohammad Khan and his Qajar dynasty,and became governor of Tabriz and Ardabil. In 1792 Hossein Qoli Khan was entitled amir ol - ` beglerbegi of Azerbaijan, he attended 1792 the shah's coronation on the Mughan steppe, where Agha Mohammad was proclaimed shahanshah and emperor of all of Iran. In 1793 he fell out of favor when he allied 1793 with Ibrahim Khali Khan Javanshir, the ruling khan of Karabakh, married his daughter.
But he was in 1797 reinstated in all posts by Fath Ali Shah Qajar, who married his son Mohammad Taqi Mirza to Hossein Qoli Khan's daughter. After Hossein Qoli Khan's death in 1798 he was succeeded by his younger brother Jafar Qoli Khan who went in open rebellion against the central government, was with 15.000 men defeated by crown prince Abbas Mirza, migrated to Russia in 1800. In addition with the two Russo-Persian wars this terminated the Donboli rule in 1809 and ended their regional dominance in 1827, but members of the family held other provinces of Iran. Another branch of the Donboli went to Kashan, its most prominent member became Fath Ali Khan Saba Donboli "Malek al-Sho'ara", poet laureate and painter of Fath Ali Shah. Amir Isa Beg, 1378 ruler of Sokmanabad Amir Nazer Ali Khan Amir Sheikh Ahmad Beg, 1467 entered Aq Quyunlu administration Amir Bahlol called "Haji Beg", 1526 governor of Sokmanabad and Khoy, died 1548 Soltan Ali Beg Soltan Nazer Beg Soltan Qobeh Beg Amir Rostam called "Shahverdi Khan" Amir Behruz Khan I called "Salman Khalifa" Amir Ayub Khan I Amir Behruz Khan II called "Salman Khan", 1616-1636 governor of Churs and Salmas, founded the Churs line: Amir Ayub Khan II called "Subashi Khan", 1630-1659, governor of Churs and Khoy Amir Morteza Qoli Khan the Great, governor of Churs.
Amir Shahbandeh Khan Amir Ali Khan called "Safi Qoli Khan", 1630-1674 Amir Morteza Qoli Khan I, founded the Kashan line: Ghias od-Din Beg Sharif Beg, called "Abbas Manzur Khan" Fazel Beg Agha Mohammad Khan "Zarrabi" Fath Ali Khan "Saba", called "Malek ol-Sho'ara", lit. "King of the Poets". Mohammad Hossein Khan "Andalib", called "Malek ol-Sho'ara Thani" Mahmoud Khan "Sharif", called "Malek ol-Sho'ara", † 1893 Mirza Jafar Khan "Sadr ol-Hokama", married Princess Beigom Rokni. Hessamoddin Kamyar Abolghasem Saba Kamal os-Saltaneh Abolhasan Saba Mirza Ali Khan Mirza Mahdi Khan Mirza Ahmad Khan Mirza Mohammad Khan Na
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahān Khānom and the third longest reigning monarch in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty and Tahmasp I of the Safavid Dynasty. Nasser al-Din Shah had sovereign power for close to 50 years and was the first modern Iranian monarch to formally visit Europe; the state under Naser Al-Din was the recognized government of Iran but its authority was undermined by local tribal leaders. The religious and tribal chieftains held quite a bit of autonomy over their communities. Naser Al-Din was not effective in implementing his sovereignty over his people. Local groups had their own militias and oftentimes did not obey laws passed by the monarchy since they did not have the power to enforce them; the people followed. When Naser Al-Din took power, his army had 3,000 men, smaller than the armies under various tribal leaders.
When the state needed a proper army, he would hire the local militias. Prior to his reforms, Naser's government had little power over their subjects and during the reforms, they faced more scrutiny over their ability to implement those reforms successfully. Naser al-Din was in Tabriz from Qajars tribe when he heard of his father's death in 1848, he ascended to the Sun Throne with the help of Amir Kabir. Naser al-Din was dictatorial in his style of government. With his sanction, some Babis were killed after an attempt on his life; this treatment continued under his prime minister Amir Kabir, who ordered the execution of the Báb – regarded as a manifestation of God to Bábí's and Bahá'ís, to historians as the founder of the Bábí religion. Unable to regain the territory in the Caucasus irrevocably lost to Russia in the early 19th century, Naser al-Din sought compensation by seizing Herāt, Afghanistan, in 1856. Great Britain regarded the move as a threat to British India and declared war on Persia, forcing the return of Herāt as well as Persia's recognition of the kingdom of Afghanistan.
Naser al-Din was the first modern Persian monarch to visit Europe in 1873 and again in 1878, in 1889 and was amazed with the technology he saw. During his visit to the United Kingdom in 1873, Naser al-Din Shah was appointed by Queen Victoria a Knight of the Order of the Garter, the highest English order of chivalry, he was the first Persian monarch to be so honoured. His travel diary of his 1873 trip has been published in several languages, including Persian, German and Dutch. In 1890 Naser al-Din met British major Gerald F. Talbot and signed a contract with him giving him the ownership of the Persian tobacco industry, but he was forced to cancel the contract after Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi issued a fatwa that made farming and consuming tobacco haram. Consuming tobacco from the newly monopolized'Talbet' company represented foreign exploitation, so for that reason it was deemed immoral, it affected the Shah's personal life as his wives did not allow him to smoke. This was not the end of Naser al-Din's attempts to give concessions to Europeans.
Most of Naser al-Din's modernizing reforms happened during the prime ministership of Amir Kabir. He defeated various rebels in Iranian provinces, most notably in Khorasan, balanced the budget by introducing reforms to the tax system, curbed the power of the clergy in the judiciary, built some military factories, improved relations with other powers to curb British and Russian influence opened the first newspaper called Vaghaye-Ettefaghieh and modernized cities by building for example the Tehran Bazaar and most opened the first Iranian school for upper education called the Dar ol-Funun where many Iranian intellectuals received their education; however Amir Kabir's reforms were unpopular with some people and Naser al-Din Shah first exiled him and ordered his assassination. The Shah lost interest for reform. However, he took some important measures such as introducing telegraphy and postal services and building roads, he increased the size of the state's military and created a new group called the Persian Cossack Brigade, trained and armed by the Russians.
He was the first Persian to be photographed and was a patron of photography who had himself photographed hundreds of times. His final prime minister was Ali Asghar Khan, who after the shah's assassination aided in securing the transfer of the throne to Mozaffar al-Din. Although he was successful in introducing these western based reforms, he was not successful in gaining complete sovereignty over his people or getting them to accept these reforms; the school he opened, Dar al-Funun, had small enrollment numbers. The restriction's defined by Sh'ia Islam on the shah's collection of the zakat led to those funds going straight into the coffers of the ulama. Therefore, the financial autonomy given to the ulama enabled them to remain structurally independent, keeping madrasahs open and supporting the students therein; the ulama maintained their authority to challenge state law. To fund these new institutions and building projects, Naser used tax farming to increase state revenue. Tax collectors abused their power and the government was viewed as corrupt and unable to protect them from abuse by the upper class.
This anti-government sentiment increased the ulama's power over the people because they were able to provide them security