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Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni

Mohammad-Vali Khan, Khalatbari Tonekāboni, known as Sepahdar A'zam, was the leader of the constitutionalist revolutionary forces from Iran's Northern provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran and known as one of the greatest statesmen and military commanders of Persian history as well as its wealthiest nobleman. He served as colonel for ten years and became Minister of Post and Telegraph as well as Minister of Customs where he was in charge of all imports into and exports out of the Persian empire, he became Minister of Treasury where he was singlehandedly in charge of the entire country's coin issue. He held the title of Minister of Defence and was Prime Minister for four terms, his highest military title was Commander in Chief. He was of the Khalatbari family; as an ethnic Persian, Sepahsalar Khalatbari was the only leader, able to restore security inside Persia by controlling the ethnic Turkomans inside the kingdom. He was called upon many times by not only the various sectors of the Persian government but by the Russians to suppress the Turkomans.

His enormous wealth with income estimated at US$2 million/year in the early 1900s allowed him to be the chief financier of the Persian Empire where he would use his property as collateral for loans the kingdom obtained from Russia and Britain. In 1909 he was given the title Sepahdar Azam and was sent by King Mohammad Ali Shah to crush the Azerbaijani constitutionalist uprising in the northwest headed by Baqer Khan and Sattar Khan, he arrived in Azerbaijan but refused to fight the constitutionalist forces deeming it "fratricide". Instead he returned to Tonekabon and due to his genius military skill and national democratic following became the leader of the constitutionalist and anti-royalist forces, the same forces he was sent to crush; as their new leader he first occupied the city of Qazvin and marched onto Tehran. During his march to Tehran the Russian foreign ministry in Saint Petersburg sent a telegram to the Russian Embassy in Tehran stating: "Please inform His Excellency Sepahdar Azam that if he and his army peacefully march on Tehran and proceed to the house of Saad al Dowleh on the authority of this telegram, Sepahdar Azam and all his relatives and kin will be placed in the protection of the Tsarist government."

Sepahdar Azam wrote back "The Russian government believes I have done all this for my own personal gain. For Iran's freedom and independence and as a Shia Muslim I have to obey Najaf Religious leaders decree to help and support constitutionalist forces." Rejecting the Tsarist government's request, he continued his march and forced the royalists in Tehran to surrender. King Mohammad Ali Shah fled and sought refuge in the Russian embassy left Persia altogether, he accepted the title of Sepahsalar. Sepahsalar-e Khalatbari Tonekaboni became Minister of Defence in the first constitutionalist government that followed dethroning of King Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar in 1909, he subsequently became Prime Minister of Iran four times. As the largest property owner in Persia his noble "Khan" status allowed him to rule several fiefdoms in Gilan and Mazandaran provinces, including the city and regions surrounding Tonekabon. Sepahsalar Khalatbari Tonekaboni continued to fight the religious clerics' attempts to create a theocracy as well as the ruling establishments attempts to continue a monarchy.

He took frequent trips to France to learn the French system of representative democracy. With the advent of the Pahlavi dynasty and the Reza Khans, imposed by the British in the 1920s, Sepahsalar Khalatbari Tonekaboni was placed under increased political pressure. Much of his property was seized by the new government in an attempt to control his wealth and his power, his favorite son, Colonel Ali Asghar Khan, killed suspiciously in Lashkarak Hunting-ground. On July 16, 1926, Sepahsalar Khalatbari Tonekaboni committed suicide, his last note, written to his eldest son Amir Asad, read: "Amir Asad, right away take my body to the shrine for cleansing and burial next to my son Saad al Dowleh. Do it now. For after living eighty years no mourning or tears are needed for me." Sardar As'ad Bakhtiari Bagh-e Ferdows Dr. Manshour Varasteh Cyrus Ghani: Iran and the rise of Reza Shah. From Qajar collapse to Pahlavi rule. I. B. Tauris, London u. a. 1998, ISBN 1-86064-258-6, S. 78

West Brookfield (CDP), Massachusetts

West Brookfield is a census-designated place in the town of West Brookfield in Worcester County, United States. The population was 1,413 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.5 km². 3.2 km² of it is land and 1.3 km² of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,610 people, 581 households, 348 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 501.3/km². There were 656 housing units at an average density of 204.3/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.26% White, 0.25% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.50% of the population. There were 581 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.84. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 35.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 68.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 62.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $41,875, the median income for a family was $52,292. Males had a median income of $37,167 versus $27,692 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $20,712. About 3.3% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over

Phosphoketolase

In enzymology, phosphoketolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions D-xylulose 5-phosphate + phosphateacetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O D-fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate ⇌ acetyl phosphate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate + phosphate ⇌ acetyl phosphate + D-ribose 5-phosphate + H2O Phosphoketolase is considered a promiscuous enzyme as it was demonstrated to use 3 different sugar phosphates as substrates. In a recent genetic study, more than 150 putative phosphoketolase genes exhibiting varying catalytic properties were found in 650 analyzed bacterial genomes; this enzyme belongs to the family of lyases the aldehyde-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. It participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pentose phosphate pathway, methane metabolism, carbon fixation, it employs thiamin diphosphate. Phosphoketolase was used for biotechnological purposes as it enables the construction of synthetic pathways that allow complete carbon conservation without the generation of reducing power.

HEATH EC, HURWITZ J, HORECKER BL, GINSBURG A. "Pentose fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum. I; the cleavage of xylulose 5-phosphate by phosphoketolase". J. Biol. Chem. 231: 1009–29. PMID 13539033. Schramm M, Klybas V, Racker E. "Phospholytic cleavage of fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase from Acetobacter xylinum". J. Biol. Chem. 233: 1283–1288