Mohammed Zahir Shah was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He expanded Afghanistan's diplomatic relations with many countries, including with both Cold War sides. In the 1950s, Zahir Shah began modernizing the country following the example of Turkey, his long reign was marked by peace and stability, lost afterwards. While staying in Italy for medical treatment, Zahir Shah was overthrown in a surprise coup in 1973 by his cousin and former prime minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who established a republic, he remained in exile near Rome until 2002, returning to Afghanistan after the end of the Taliban government. He was given the title Father of the Nation, which he held until his death in 2007. Zahir Shah was born on 15 October 1914, in City quarter called Deh Afghanan in Afghanistan, he was the son of Mohammed Nadir Shah, a senior member of the Muhamadzai Royal family and commander in chief of the Afghan army for former king Amanullah Khan.
He was son of a Persian-speaking woman. Nadir Shah assumed the throne after the execution of Habibullah Kalakani on 10 October 1929. Mohammed Zahir's father, son of Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan, was born in Dehradun, British India, his family having been exiled after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Nadir Shah was a descendant of Sardar Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai, half-brother of Emir Dost Mohammad Khan, his grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was in charge of the negotiations with the British resulting in the Treaty of Gandamak. After the British invasion after the killing of Sir Louis Cavagnari during 1879, Yaqub Khan, Yahya Khan and his sons, Princes Mohammad Yusuf Khan and Mohammad Asef Khan, were seized by the British and transferred to the British Raj, where they remained forcibly until the two princes were invited back to Afghanistan by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan during the last year of his reign. During the reign of Amir Habibullah they received the title of Companions of the King. Zahir Shah was educated in a special class for princes at Elementary Primary by built 1904 of United Kingdom Habibia High School, many subjects were taught in English, Secondary in went to the Amaniya High School (built during King Amanullah of France, in which many subjects were taught in French.
This School was renamed by Nadir Shah to Esteqlal High School after the fall of King Amanullah. For example, Prince Zahir Khan had to study in Infantiere Military School in Winter, he was sent to France for further trainingKabul. He continued his education in France where his father had served as a diplomatic envoy, studying at the Pasteur Institute and the University of Montpellier; when he returned to Afghanistan he helped his father and uncles restore order and reassert government control during a period of lawlessness in the country. He was enrolled at an Infantry School and appointed a privy counsellor. Zahir Shah served in minister of education. Zahir Shah was fluent in Pashto, Persian,his mother tongue, his mother was Begum Mahparwar, who died in Tehran in 1941, English and perfect French. Zahir Khan was proclaimed king on 8 November 1933 at the age of 19, after the assassination of his father Mohammed Nadir Shah. After his ascension to the throne he was given the regnal title "He who puts his trust in God, follower of the firm religion of Islam".
For the first thirty years he did not rule, ceding power to his paternal uncles, Mohammad Hashim Khan and Shah Mahmud Khan, both serving as prime ministers. This period fostered a growth in Afghanistan's relations with the international community as during 1934, Afghanistan joined the League of Nations while receiving formal recognition from the United States. By the end of the 1930s, agreements on foreign assistance and trade had been reached with many countries, most notably with the'Axis powers': Germany and Japan. Zahir Shah provided aid and Afghan fighters to the Uighur and Kirghiz Muslim rebels who had established the First East Turkestan Republic; the aid was not capable of saving the First East Turkestan Republic, as the Afghan and Kirghiz forces were defeated during 1934 by the Chinese Muslim 36th Division commanded by General Ma Zhancang at the Battle of Kashgar and Battle of Yarkand. All the Afghan volunteers were killed by the Chinese Muslim troops, who abolished the First East Turkestan Republic, reestablished Chinese government control over the area.
Despite close relations to the Axis powers, Zahir Shah refused to take sides during World War II and Afghanistan remained one of the few countries in the world to remain neutral. From 1944 to 1947, Afghanistan experienced a series of revolts by various tribes. After the end of the Second World War, Zahir Shah recognised the need for the modernisation of Afghanistan and recruited a number of foreign advisers to assist with the process. During this period Afghanistan's first modern university was founded. During his reign a number of potential advances and reforms were derailed as a result of factionalism and political infighting, he requested financial aid from both the United States and the Soviet Union, Afghanistan was one of few countries in the world to receive aid from both the Cold War enemies. In a 1969 interview, Zahir Shah said, but I don’t want socialism. I don't want socialism. I don’t want us to become the servants of Russia or China or the servant of any other place."Zahir Shah was able to
Bernard Drainville is a Canadian politician, television host and journalist. He was the Member of National Assembly of Quebec for the riding of Marie-Victorin in Longueuil from 2007 to 2016, representing the Parti Québécois. Drainville was born in Quebec, he attended the University of Ottawa, where he was president of the Student Federation of the University of Ottawa in 1984-85, obtained a bachelor's degree in political science and a master's degree in international relations at the London School of Economics. In 1989, Drainville joined Radio-Canada as a journalist, he became a correspondent for Latin America in 2001, where he was arrested once in Mexico and detained by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Prior to 2007, he was a television host at the network's news channel RDI and the correspondent at the National Assembly, a correspondent for the House of Commons of Canada from 1998 to 2001, he hosted the City of Montreal mayoral debate between Gérald Tremblay and Pierre Bourque during the 2005 municipal election campaign.
Drainville jumped into provincial politics and was elected in the 2007 elections in Marie-Victorin and was named the PQ's critic in health. He was re-elected in the 2012 general elections. On September 19, 2012, he became Minister responsible for Democratic Institutions and Active Citizenship under the Marois government, he was responsible for introducing the controversial Quebec Charter of Values, which would have banned state employees from wearing religious symbols. He was re-elected in 2014, despite his party's defeat and was appointed the official opposition critic for energy and natural resources. On October 20, 2014, he declared his candidacy for the Parti Québécois leadership election but dropped out on April 22, 2015 and endorsed Pierre-Karl Péladeau. On September 7, 2015, he was appointed the Opposition House leader by Péladeau. On June 13, 2016, he announced he was leaving politics, saying that Mr. Péladeau's departure had prompted a reflection on his own career, he is going back to work in the media, co-hosting with Éric Duhaime a noon hour radio show on FM93 in Quebec City.
"Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec. PQ webpage
Young Art and Old Hector is a novel by Neil M. Gunn, it concerns itself with an 8-year-old boy "Young Art" growing up in the Scottish Highland community of Clachdrum and in episodic form, catalogues a series of adventures and occurrences in his life connected with his mentor figure "Old Hector", a local character and bootlegger. The same characters would be used in the following satirical, fantasy novel, The Green Isle of the Great Deep. Art is an eight-year-old boy and the book is seen from his perspective, he comes from a large family and, as his father is away fishing, his major father figure is Old Hector, the local elder who has a wide knowledge of local history and story and as is implied throughout the novel revealed in the final chapters, the finest bootlegger in the area. Like many of Gunn's novels, the plot is episodic and we experience events such as the local Highland Games and the birth of Art's baby sister. Indeed several of the chapters appeared extant in other published forms.
The main climax of the novel is when Art, returning out of curiosity to a cave where he and a girl from the village thought a wild beast lived, uncover an illicit still run by Hector and Red Douglas. Art's brother Donul is with them as they are making whisky for Duncan and Donul's eldest brother's wedding. Art's discovery of the still is fortuitous as on his way he encounters three excise agents or "gaugers", who are investigating Hector. Throughout the book, Art wishes to reach the River, a place he has never been with Donul, but when Donul needs to leave to work on a cattle farm, it is Hector who takes Art to the river. Art and Hector represent the extremes of youth and old age; the book is considered to be one of the "finest evocations of childhood written, conveying all the magic and misery and the bursting joys of being a small boy in a great and mysterious world."Hector's role is one of an idealised Gaelic seanachie, his knowledge of his local area and history not limiting him in his dealing with universal issues such as greed and land rights.
The area known as the Clash, where Art and Donul go to snare rabbits early in the book is where Hector was born and was cleared to the present village. The Clash is where Hector takes the Gaugers to act as a red herring when they are making enquiries about the still. Art's role as the hero and saviour of Hector from the Gaugers is a theme which Gunn would develop in the following fantastical novel The Green Isle of the Great Deep. Art's triumph at the Highland Games is considered to be autobiographical due to Gunn's own talent at athletics; the Times Literary Supplement stated that Young Art and Old Hector is the book that "affirms Neil Gunn's place as one of the most important Scottish writers of the Twentieth century." Mor, Rory. "Neil Gunn -- Author from the Scottish Highlands: Meet Neil Gunn". Thistle and Shamrock Books
Frederick H. "Fred" Joseph was the former president and chief executive officer of the investment bank Drexel Burnham Lambert during the 1980s. The Wall Street Journal noted that he was, "The son of an orthodox Jewish cab driver and a dental hygienist, Mr. Joseph was born in 1937 and grew up in Dorchester, Massachusetts". While at Harvard, Joseph won several Harvard Boxing Club medals. In 1963, Joseph began his career in finance in the corporate finance department of E. F. Hutton working for John S. R. Shad. Following Shad's departure from Hutton, Joseph left the firm as well to join Hammill & Co.. By the early 1970s, Joseph was the number-two post in the firm. However, in 1974, Shearson was acquired by Hayden, Stone & Co. and Joseph left the firm to join Drexel Burnham Lambert as co-head of corporate finance. Although Drexel was only a second-tier firm at the time, Joseph had long wanted to get back into investment banking, he boldly promised. Although junk-bond chief Michael Milken was the most powerful man in the firm, it was Joseph, named president in 1984 and CEO in 1985.
By this time, Drexel had more than fulfilled his bold promise, had grown to become the fifth-largest investment bank in the nation. In 1988, Joseph was responsible for negotiating Drexel's settlement with the federal government, in which the firm entered an Alford plea to six felony counts and paid $650 million in fines and penalties—at the time, the largest fine imposed under the 1930s securities laws. In 1990, the New York Stock Exchange banned him from holding any management role in a firm affiliated with the exchange for three years. In 1993, the SEC barred Joseph for life from serving as president, chairman or CEO of a securities firm. Both the NYSE and SEC faulted Joseph for not properly supervising Milken. In 2009, Portfolio.com and CNBC named Joseph the seventh-worst CEO in American business history, stating that his over-reliance on Milken's junk-bond unit "left the company without a crisis plan."After three years as a consultant for Drexel as it wended its way through bankruptcy, Joseph served as head of Clovebrook Capital, a corporate finance consulting firm, from 1994 to 1998.
He became head of corporate finance at the American subsidiary of ING Barings from 1998 to 2001. After losing a bid to buy ING Barings' American operations, Joseph co-founded Morgan Joseph & Company, an investment banking firm that focuses on middle-market businesses, catering to a clientele that Drexel served in its heyday. Although the firm carried his name and he was part-owner, he was only co-head of corporate finance as a result of the SEC's lifetime ban. Joseph died on November 27, 2009 from complications of multiple myeloma. Fred Joseph, Who Led Drexel in Its Heyday, Dies at 72. New York Times, December 1, 2009 Former Drexel CEO Dies at Age 72; the Wall Street Journal, November 30, 2009 Frederick Harold Joseph. New York Times, December 23, 1988 Drexel, Symbol of Wall St. Era, Is Dismantling. New York Times, February 14, 1990 Drexel Chief's Tough Task: To Regain Client Confidence. New York Times, April 5, 1989
Infernal is the sixth full-length studio album by the Swedish death metal band Edge of Sanity, released by Black Mark Production on February 5, 1997. Dan Swanö left the band after recording for the album was completed due to artistic differences between himself and Andreas Axelsson. Swanö would return and continue using the Edge of Sanity name after the other members had disbanded following the release of Cryptic. Swanö's other band Nightingale recorded a cover version of the song "Losing Myself" for their album Nightfall Overture. Edge of SanityDan Swanö − lead vocals, electric guitar, bass guitar, E-Bow, piano Andreas Axelsson − lead vocals, electric guitar Sami Nerberg − electric guitar Anders Lindberg − bass guitar Benny Larsson − drums, percussionGuestsPeter Tägtgren − lead guitar Anders Mareby − cello
David Hykes is a composer, musician and meditation teacher. He was one of the earliest modern western pioneers of overtone singing, has developed since 1975 a comprehensive approach to contemplative music which he calls Harmonic Chant. After early research and trips studying Mongolian and Middle Eastern singing forms, Hykes began a long series of collaborations with traditions and teachers of wisdom and sacred art, including the Dalai Lama and the Gyuto and Gyume monks. Hykes founded the Harmonic Choir in 1975, has performed and taught Harmonic Chant and the related Harmonic Presence work in America, Germany, Switzerland, Japan and many other countries. Of overtone singing and his own study of the form, music theorist Charles Madden writes, "David Hykes has done everything I had hoped to do, more." His choir incorporates both basic overtone signing as well as additional advanced forms. His work is organised within The Harmonic Presence Foundation, his song "Rainbow Voice" is featured in the films "Blade: Trinity", "Blade", "Baraka", "Dead Poets Society".
Hykes was educated at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio where he studied with avant-garde experimental filmmakers Tony Conrad and Paul Sharits, free jazz with the Cecil Taylor Unit, contemporary and medieval music with John Ronsheim and David Stock. He received an M. F. A. from Columbia University in New York in 1993. For many years he studied North Indian raga singing and the history of Indian music with Sheila Dhar. David Hykes is a Dharma student of Choky Nyima Rinpoche, who gave him the name Shenpen Yeshe, "the Primordial Wisdom that brings happiness to beings," and Tsoknyi Rinpoche, he completed twenty years of spiritual studies in the Gurdjieff Foundations in New York, San Francisco, Paris, as a student of Gurdjieff's successors Lord John Pentland and Dr. Michel de Salzmann. Over the years he has received teachings from Tibetan Buddhist masters including Dhuksey Rinpoché and the Dalai Lama, as well as the Gyuto and Gyume Monks, whom he helped bring to the United States for the first time in 1985–86.
1976 Rockefeller Foundation, for his development of Harmonic Chant, a global sacred music 1978 National Endowment for the Arts, for his development of Harmonic Chant, a global sacred music Bellamy and MacLean, Donald Radiant Healing: The Many Paths to Personal Harmony and Planetary Wholeness ISBN 0-9756878-5-9 Madden, Charles Fractals in Music: Introductory Mathematics for Musical Analysis ISBN 0-9671727-5-6 Campbell, Don The Roar of Silence: Healing Powers of Breath and Music ISBN 0-8356-0645-7 World Music Central biography Overtone Music Network Page of David Hykes