The Chapel Royal is an establishment in the Royal Household serving the spiritual needs of the sovereign of the British royal family. It was a body of priests and singers that travelled with the monarch; the term is now applied to the chapels within royal palaces, most notably at Hampton Court and St James's Palace, other chapels within the Commonwealth designated as such by the monarch. The Chapel Royal's role is to perform choral liturgical service, it has played a significant role in the musical life of the nation, with composers such as Tallis and Purcell all having been members of the choir. The choir consists of Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal singing the lower parts alongside the boy choirsters known as the Children of the Chapel. In their early history, the English chapel royal travelled, like the rest of the court, with the monarch and performed wherever he or she was residing at the time; the earliest written record of the chapel dates to c.1135 in the reign of Henry I. Specified in this document of household regulations are two gentlemen and four servants, although there may have been other people within the chapel at this time.
An ordnance from the reign of Henry VI sets out the full membership of the chapel as of 1455: one Dean, 20 Chaplains and Clerks, seven Children, one Chaplain Confessor for the Household, one Yeoman. However, in the same year the clerks petitioned the King asking that their number be increased to 24 singing men due to "the grete labour that thei have daily in your chapell". From the reign of Edward IV further details survive. There were 26 chaplains and clerks, who were to be "cleare voysid" in their singing and "suffisaunt in Organes playing"; the children were supervised by a Master of Song, chosen by the dean from among the gentlemen of the Chapel. They were allocated supplies of meat and ale, their own servant. There were two Yeoman of the Chapel who acted as epistlers, reading from the bible during services; these were appointed from Children of the Chapel whose voices had broken. The chapel remained stable throughout the reign of Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the number of singers did vary during this period however, without apparent reason, from between twenty to thirty gentlemen and eight to ten children.
The chapel travelled with the King to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, on the second invasion of France. In the Tudor period, the chapel took on another, function that would gain in significance into the 17th century - that of performing in dramas. Both the gentlemen and children would act in pageants and plays for the royal family, held in court on feast days such as Christmas. For example at Christmas 1514, the play "The Triumph of Love and Beauty" was written and presented by William Cornysh Master of the Children, was performed to the King by members of the chapel including the children; the chapel achieved its greatest eminence during the reign of Elizabeth I, when William Byrd and Thomas Tallis were joint organists. The Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal had, until at least 1684, the power to impress promising boy trebles from provincial choirs for service in the chapel; the theatre company affiliated with the chapel, known as the Children of the Chapel Royal, produced plays at court and commercially until the 1620s by playwrights including John Lyly, Ben Jonson and George Chapman.
In the 17th century the chapel royal had its own building in Whitehall, which burned down in 1698. The English Chapel Royal became associated with Westminster Abbey, so that by 1625 over half of the Gentlemen of the English Chapel Royal were members of the Westminster Abbey choir. In the 18th century the choristers sang the soprano parts in performances of Handel's oratorios and other works. Under Charles II, the choir was augmented by violinists from the royal consort. In the United Kingdom, the Chapel Royal is a department of the Ecclesiastical Household, formally known as the royal "Free Chapel of the Household"; the household is further divided into two parts: an ecclesiastical household each for Scotland and England, belonging to the Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively. Since such establishments are outside the usual diocesan structure, the chapels royal are royal peculiars. Scotland and England have distinct Deans of the Chapel Royal, that of England being held since 1748 by the Bishop of London, while daily control is vested in the Sub-Dean, presently the Revd Canon Paul Wright, Domestic Chaplain to the sovereign at Buckingham Palace.
He is assisted by the Revd William Whitcombe and the Revd Richard Bolton, who both hold the office of Priest in Ordinary to the Sovereign, Jon Simpson, Sergeant of the Vestry. The chapels royal are served by a choir, six Gentlemen-in-Ordinary and ten Children of the Chapel— all boys; the current Director of Music of the English Chapel Royal is Joe McHardy, assisted by a sub organist. The chapel royal occupies a number of buildings; the Chapel Royal conducts the Service of Remembrance at the Cenotaph in Whitehall and combines with the choir of the host abbey or cathedral on Royal Maundy. The principal locations in which the chapel operated have varied over the years. For example in the early Tudor period and in Elizabeth I's reign, the chapel's activity was centered around the Greenwich Palace and the Palace of Whitehall. Under Elizabeth II the chapel's primary location is at St James's Palace; the chapel at St James's has been used since 1702 and is the most used facility today. Located in the main block of St James's Palace, it was built c. 1540 and altered since
The Queen's Chapel is a chapel in central London, designed by Inigo Jones and built between 1623 and 1625 as an external adjunct to St. James's Palace for the Roman Catholic queen Henrietta Maria, it is one of the facilities of the British monarch's personal religious establishment, the Chapel Royal, should not be confused with the 1540 building known as the Chapel Royal within the palace and just across Marlborough road. It was built as a Roman Catholic chapel at a time when the construction of Catholic churches was prohibited in England, was used by Charles I's Catholic queen Henrietta Maria. From the 1690s it was used by Continental Protestant courtiers, it was built as an integral part of St James's Palace, but when the adjacent private apartments burned down in 1809 they were not replaced and in 1856-57 Marlborough Road was built between the palace and the Queen's Chapel. The result is that physically the chapel now appears to be more part of the Marlborough House complex than of St James's Palace.
It became a Chapel Royal again in 1938. Having been taken from the Royal Chapel of All Saints in Windsor Great Park, the body of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother lay at the Queen's Chapel for several days during the preparations for her lying-in-state in Westminster Hall before her ceremonial funeral. Savoy Chapel Bradley, Simon, "The Queen's Chapel in the Twentieth Century", Architectural History, 44: 293–302, doi:10.2307/1568758, JSTOR 1568758 The Buildings of England London 6: Westminster pages 587-88. "The Queen's Chapel, St James's Palace". Retrieved 2008-10-13
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada
The association between the Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada stretches back to the first decisions between North American Indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and Indigenous tribes. Canada's First Nations, Métis peoples now have a unique relationship with the reigning monarch and, like the Māori and the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand view the affiliation as being not between them and the ever-changing Cabinet, but instead with the continuous Crown of Canada, as embodied in the reigning sovereign; these agreements with the Crown are administered by Canadian Aboriginal law and overseen by the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs. The association between Canada's Indigenous peoples and the Canadian Crown is both statutory and traditional, the treaties being seen by the first peoples both as legal contracts and as perpetual and personal promises by successive reigning kings and queens to protect Aboriginal welfare, define their rights, reconcile their sovereignty with that of the monarch in Canada.
The agreements are formed with the Crown because the monarchy is thought to have inherent stability and continuity, as opposed to the transitory nature of populist whims that rule the political government, meaning the link between monarch and Aboriginals will theoretically last for "as long as the sun shines, grass grows and rivers flow."The relationship has thus been described as mutual—"cooperation will be a cornerstone for partnership between Canada and First Nations, wherein Canada is the short-form reference to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada"—and "special," having a strong sense of "kinship" and possessing familial aspects. Constitutional scholars have observed that First Nations are "strongly supportive of the monarchy," if not regarding the monarch as supreme; the nature of the legal interaction between Canadian sovereign and First Nations has not always been supported. While treaties were signed between European monarchs and First Nations in North America as far back as 1676, the only ones that survived the American Revolution are those in Canada, which date to the beginning of the 18th century.
Today, the main guide for relations between the monarchy and Canadian First Nations is King George III's Royal Proclamation of 1763. The proclamation set parts of the King's North American realm aside for colonists and reserved others for the First Nations, thereby affirming native title to their lands and making clear that, though under the sovereignty of the Crown, the Aboriginal bands were autonomous political units in a "nation-to-nation" association with non-native governments, with the monarch as the intermediary; this created not only a "constitutional and moral basis of alliance" between indigenous Canadians and the Canadian state as personified in the monarch, but a fiduciary affiliation in which the Crown is constitutionally charged with providing certain guarantees to the First Nations, as affirmed in Sparrow v. The Queen, meaning that the "honour of the Crown" is at stake in dealings between it and First Nations leaders. Given the "divided" nature of the Crown, the sovereign may be party to relations with Aboriginal Canadians distinctly within a provincial jurisdiction.
This has at times led to a lack of clarity regarding which of the monarch's jurisdictions should administer his or her duties towards indigenous peoples. From time to time, the link between the Crown and Aboriginal peoples will be symbolically expressed, through pow-wows or other types of ceremony held to mark the anniversary of a particular treaty — sometimes with the participation of the monarch, another member of the Canadian Royal Family, or one of the Sovereign's representatives—or an occasion mounted to coincide with the presence of a member of the Royal Family on a royal tour, Aboriginals having always been a part of such tours of Canada. Gifts have been exchanged and Aboriginal titles have been bestowed upon royal and viceregal figures since the early days of indigenous contact with the Crown: The Ojibwa referred to King George III as the Great Father and Queen Victoria was dubbed as the Great White Mother. Queen Elizabeth II was named Mother of all People by the Salish nation in 1959 and her son, Prince Charles, was in 1976 given by the Inuit the title of Attaniout Ikeneego, meaning Son of the Big Boss.
Charles was further honoured in 1986, when Cree and Ojibwa students in Winnipeg named Charles Leading Star, again in 2001, during the Prince's first visit to Saskatchewan, when he was named Pisimwa Kamiwohkitahpamikohk, or The Sun Looks at Him in a Good Way, by an elder in a ceremony at Wanuskewin Heritage Park. Since as early as 1710, Aboriginal leaders have met to discuss treaty business with Royal Family members or viceroys in private audience and many continue to use their connection to the Crown to further their political aims; the above-mentioned pageants and celebrations have, for instance, been employed as a public platform on which to present complaints to the Monarch or other members of the Royal Family. It has been said that Aboriginal people in Canada appreciate their ability to do this witnessed by both national and international cameras. Explorers commissioned by French and English monarchs made contact with North American Aboriginals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
These interactions were peaceful—the agents of each sovereign seeking the Indians' alliance in wresting territories away from the other monarch—and the partnerships were sec
Carpenter Gothic sometimes called Carpenter's Gothic or Rural Gothic, is a North American architectural style-designation for an application of Gothic Revival architectural detailing and picturesque massing applied to wooden structures built by house-carpenters. The abundance of North American timber and the carpenter-built vernacular architectures based upon it made a picturesque improvisation upon Gothic a natural evolution. Carpenter Gothic improvises upon features that were carved in stone in authentic Gothic architecture, whether original or in more scholarly revival styles; the genre received its impetus from the publication by Alexander Jackson Davis of Rural Residences and from detailed plans and elevations in publications by Andrew Jackson Downing. Carpenter Gothic houses and small churches became common in North America in the late nineteenth century; these structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, towers to traditional American light-frame construction.
The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the High Gothic. But in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables; the best known example of Carpenter Gothic is the house in Eldon, that Grant Wood used for the background of his famous painting American Gothic. Carpenter Gothic is confined to small domestic buildings and outbuildings and small churches, it is characterized by its profusion of jig-sawn details, whose craftsmen-designers were freed to experiment with elaborate forms by the invention of the steam-powered scroll saw. A common but not necessary feature is batten siding. A less common feature is buttressing on churches and larger houses. Carpenter Gothic ornamentation is not limited to use on wooden structures but has been used on other structures Gothic Revival brick houses such as the Warren House in a historic district in Newburgh, New York, said to epitomize the work of Andrew Jackson Downing, but was done by his one-time partner, Calvert Vaux.
Carpenter Gothic structures are found in most states of the United States, except Arizona and New Mexico. There is one Carpenter Gothic in the Huning Highlands Historical District in downtown Albuquerque circa 1882 built by the Seth family who lived there until 2002. Many Carpenter Gothic houses still exist. In Canada, carpenter Gothic places of worship are found in all provinces and the Northwest Territories, while Carpenter Gothic houses seem to be limited to Ontario and the Maritime Provinces. Many American Carpenter Gothic structures are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, which may help to ensure their preservation. Many, are not listed and those in urban areas are endangered by the increased value of the land they occupy. A current example of this is St. Saviour's Episcopal Church, New York, built in 1847 by Richard Upjohn, it was sold to a developer in 2006. Its rectory had been demolished and a deal with the City of New York to preserve the church in exchange for higher density on the remaining vacant land fell through and the parcel went on the market for $10 million.
After a number of postponements, in March 2008, just hours before the final deadline to demolish the church, a deal was struck with a local community group, whereby they were allowed time to raise money to move the structure. At a cost of some $2 million, the building was reduced to its original appearance and dismantled into pieces, so it could be transported through the narrow, winding streets of the neighborhood, it was reconstructed on the grounds of a cemetery in the nearby neighborhood of Middle Village, where it is now used for community activities. Some Carpenter Gothic buildings have been relocated for reasons ranging from historic preservation to aesthetics. Some, such as All Saints, Jensen Beach, have been moved only a few hundred feet on the same property in order to get a better view and to allow for expansion, while others such as Holy Apostles, Satellite Beach, have been barged many miles in order to be preserved. Others such as All Saints, DeQuicy, have been dismantled, transported long distances and reassembled in order to be preserved and reused.
Some structures have been moved many times. St. Luke's, Alabama, has had an interesting history of moves. In 1876, due to the danger of flooding in Cahaba, it was dismantled and moved from its original location 25 miles or so to Browns where it was reassembled. In 2006–2007, it was dismantled by students from Auburn University and moved back to Cahaba, where it is now being reassembled by the students on the Cahaba State Historic Site not too far from its original location; some Carpenter Gothic structures such as St. Stephen's in Ridgeway, South Carolina, have had their exteriors altered by stuccoing, brick veneering, etc. so that their original style is no longer apparent. "American Gothic" is a painting by Grant Wood from 1930. Wood's inspiration came from a cottage designed in the Carpenter Gothic style with a distinctive upper window and a decision by the artist to paint the house along with "the kind of people I fancied should live in that house." Steamboat Gothic architecture, a term popularized by Frances Parkinson Keyes's novel of that name, is sometimes confused with Carpenter Gothic architecture, but Steamboat Goth