Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. The site is threatened by erosion and improper restoration. Mohenjo-daro, the name for the site, has been variously interpreted as Mound of the Dead Men in Sindhi. The citys original name is unknown, based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the citys ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, Mohenjo-daro may also have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens. Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan and it is sited on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres from the town of Larkana. The Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the side is now dry. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE and it was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering, when the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned. The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D and this led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-daro led by Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924–25, and John Marshall in 1925–26. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar, further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler. The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by Dr. George F. Dales, a dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistans National Fund for Mohenjo-daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area. Mohenjo-daro has a layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick, some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick, the covered area of Mohenjo-daro is estimated at 300 hectares. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers an estimate of a peak population of around 40,000. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of buildings and facilities. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City
Image: Mohenjodaro view of the stupa mound
Map showing the major sites and theorised extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation, including the location of the Mohenjo-daro site
Regularity of streets and buildings suggests the influence of ancient urban planning in Mohenjo-daro's construction.
View of the site's Great Bath, showing the surrounding urban layout