Moiety (chemistry)

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Benzyl acetate has an ester functional group (in red), an acetyl functional group (encircled with dark green) and a benzyloxy moiety (encircled with light orange). Other divisions can be made.

In organic chemistry, a moiety (/ˈmɔɪəti/) is a part of a molecule[1][2] which is typically given a name as it can be found within other kinds of molecules as well.

The term moiety should be reserved to describe the larger characteristic parts of molecules and not used to describe smaller functional groups,[1][2] which are made up of atoms that participate in similar chemical reactions in most molecules that contain them.[3] In some instances moieties may be composed of yet smaller moieties and functional groups.

Moieties that constitute branches extending from the backbone of a hydrocarbon molecule, which can often be broken off and substituted with others, are called substituents or side chains.

Active moiety[edit]

In pharmacology, an active moiety is the part of a molecule or ion – excluding appended inactive portions – that is responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of a drug substance. Inactive appended portions of the drug substance may include either the alcohol or acid moiety of an ester, a salt (including a salt with hydrogen or coordination bonds), or other noncovalent derivative (such as a complex, chelate, or clathrate);[4][5] the parent drug may itself be an inactive prodrug and only after the active moiety is released from the parent in free form does it become active.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "moiety". doi:10.1351/goldbook.M03968
  2. ^ a b "Illustrated Glossary of Organic Chemistry - Moiety". web.chem.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-22.
  3. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "functional group". doi:10.1351/goldbook.F02555
  4. ^ "CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". United States Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations Title 21: Food and Drugs § 314.3". Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. United States Government Publishing Office. 22 January 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019. Active moiety is the molecule or ion, excluding those appended portions of the molecule that cause the drug to be an ester, salt (including a salt with hydrogen or coordination bonds), or other noncovalent derivative (such as a complex, chelate, or clathrate) of the molecule, responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of the drug substance.