The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chūō-ku is one of the seven wards of Fukuoka city in Japan. The ward is located in the center of the city, it includes Tenjin and Daimyō which are among the largest downtown areas in Kyūshū, known for its fish market, Ōhori Park. Fukuoka Art Museum Fukuoka Municipal Zoo and Botanical Garden Fukuoka Yafuoku! Dome Fukuoka Kyuden Kinen Gymnasium Acros Fukuoka Kūkō Line Nanakuma Line Tenjin Omuta Line Love FM Nakasu Kōki Hirota Fukuoka Japan Temple of the LDS Church New Otani Hotels Media related to Chūō-ku, Fukuoka at Wikimedia Commons
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Seto Inland Sea
The Seto Inland Sea known as Setouchi or shortened to Inland Sea, is the body of water separating Honshū, Kyūshū, three of the four main islands of Japan. The region that includes the Seto Inland Sea and the coastal areas of Honshū, Kyūshū is known as the Setouchi Region, it serves as a waterway. It connects to Osaka Bay and provides a sea transport link to industrial centers in the Kansai region, including Osaka and Kobe. Before the construction of the San'yō Main Line, it was the main transportation link between Kansai and Kyūshū. Yamaguchi, Okayama, Hyōgo, Wakayama, Ehime, Fukuoka, Ōita prefectures all have coastlines on the Seto Inland Sea; the Setouchi region is known for its moderate climate, with a stable year-round temperature and low rainfall levels. The sea is famous for its periodic red tides caused by dense groupings of certain phytoplankton that result in the death of large numbers of fish. Since the 1980s, the sea's northern and southern shores have been connected by the three routes of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project, including the Great Seto Bridge, which serves both railroad and automobile traffic.
The International Hydrographic Organization's definition of the limits of the Seto Inland Sea is as follows: On the West. The Southeastern limit of the Japan Sea. On the East. A line running from Takura Saki in Honsyû to Oishi Hana in the island of Awazi, through this island to Sio Saki and on to Oiso Saki in Sikoku. On the South. A line joining Sada Misaki in Sikoku and Seki Saki in Kyûsyû; the Seto Inland Sea is 450 km long from east to west. The width from south to north varies from 15 to 55 km. In most places, the water is shallow; the average depth is 38 m. Hydrologically, Setouchi is not a true inland sea, being neither an epeiric body of water like Hudson Bay nor an isolated endorheic basin like the Caspian Sea. Rather, it is a marginal sea; the Naruto Strait connects the eastern part of the Seto Inland Sea to the Kii Channel, which in turn connects to the Pacific Ocean. The western part of the Seto Inland Sea connects to the Sea of Japan through the Kanmon Straits and to the Pacific through the Bungo Channel.
Each part of the Seto Inland Sea has a separate name in Japanese. For example, Iyo-nada refers to the strait between Ehime, Ōita prefectures in the western portion of the sea. There are many straits located between the major islands, as well as a number of smaller ones that pass between islands or connect the Seto Inland Sea to other seas or the Pacific. 3,000 islands are located in the Seto Inland Sea, including the larger islands Awaji-shima and Shōdo-shima. Many of the smaller islands are uninhabited. Eastern part: Awaji Island, Shōdo Island, Ieshima Islands, Naoshima Islands, Shiwaku Islands Central part: Ōmishima, Itsukushima, Hinase Islands, Kasaoka Islands Western part: Suō-Ōshima, Uwakai Islands, Hashira-jima Islands. Over 500 marine species are known to live in the Seto Inland Sea. Examples are the ayu, an amphidromous fish, the horseshoe crab, the finless porpoise, the great white shark, which has attacked people in the Seto Inland Sea. In the past whales entered the sea to feed or breed, however due to whaling and pollution, they have disappeared from the Seto Inland Sea, except for occasional lost individuals.
It is believed. After the ice age, sea water poured into a basin between the Chūgoku mountains and Shikoku mountains and formed the Seto Inland Sea as we know it today. From ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea served as a main transport line between its coastal areas, including what is today the Kansai region and Kyūshū, it was a main transport line between Japan and other countries, including Korea and China. After the creation of major highways such as the Nankaidō and San'yōdō, the Seto Inland Sea remained a major transport route. There are records that some foreign emissaries from Korea sailed on the Seto Inland Sea. Due to the importance of water traffic, regional powers had their own private navies. In many documents, these navies were called suigun, or pirates. Sometimes they were considered to be public enemies, but in most cases they were granted the right to self-governance as a result of their strength. In the 12th century, Taira no Kiyomori planned to move the capital from Kyoto to the coastal village of Fukuhara to promote trade between Japan and the Song dynasty of China.
This transfer was unsuccessful, soon after Kyoto became the capital again. The Battle of Yashima took place off the coast of present-day Takamatsu. During the feudal period, suigun seized power in most coastal areas; the Kono in Iyo Province and Kobayakawa in Aki Province clans
Tobata-ku is a ward of Kitakyūshū, Japan. It is the smallest ward of Kitakyūshū city at 16.66 km². The population was 64,330 as of the national census in 2000. In 1899 Tobata-cho was created, in 1924 Tobata-shi; the city was merged into Kitakyushu in 1963. Tobata became a ward of Kitakyushu on April 1, 1963. Part of Tobata ward faces the sea inlet or firth called Dokai wan, the surrounding outer sea is called Hibiki nada; the red-painted bridge between Tobata and Wakamatsu wards is called the Waka-To Ohashi and was the first suspension bridge in Asia, completed in 1963. On September 30, 2005 it passed into the control of Kitakyushu city. A new tunnel was constructed in 2005-8 between Tobata and Wakamatsu wards to link the Hibiki container terminal with Kokura. Much of this ward the part facing the open sea, is taken up by the Nippon Steel foundries, blast furnaces, coaling docks; however the numbers employed there are reduced since the heyday of steelmaking in the 1960s, from about 25,000 to 8,000 employees.
The Congregation of Notre Dame has a community in Tobata. The West Japan Industrial Club, a large house and garden adjoining Yomiya park, was designed by Tatsuno Kingo who designed Tokyo Station as a monument to Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War. A scene from the 2003 movie "Spy Sorge" about Richard Sorge was shot in the garden, Nearby Kyushu Institute of Technology has its oldest campus in Tobata; the most important annual folk-cultural event is the Tobata Gion festival designated a national intangible cultural asset, the Kitakyushu city art museum is here. There are standing exhibits of Western and Japanese art and changing art exhibitions. Sayagatani field and athletic stadium was built by Yahata steel workers and is still used for ball sports and athletics. Kyushu Institute of Technology was founded in Tobata in 1907. Zenrin, a mapping and navigation software company, has its headquarters in the ward; the notable rugby player Takuro Miuchi is from Tobata. There is a rugby ground at Astem no Mori, another at Sayagatani.
Miuchi first learned to play rugby at Sayagatani rugby school and at Yahata High School. There are two JR Kyushu rail stations on the Kagoshima Main Line: Tobata Station and Kyushu Koudaimae Station, named after Kyushu Institute of Technology, seven minutes walk from there. Buses are run by the Nishitetsu company. A small shopping mall,Tobata Aeon, is located next to JR Tobata station, it is a kind of local and down-market department store, as compared with Isetan and Izutsuya in nearby Kokura Kita ward. Wakato ferry is for passengers with bicycles, it is one of the cheapest ferries in Japan. Media related to Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū at Wikimedia Commons Tobata Gion festival KIT Tobata campus 100 Photos of Tobata Tobata ward office Kitakyushu Municipal Museum of Art Kitakyushu Techno Center Wel Tobata
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K