Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Hickory Creek station
Hickory Creek is one of two commuter rail stations along Metra's Rock Island District line in Mokena, Illinois. The station is located at 9430 Hickory Creek Drive east of a former section of US 45, near Exit 145A on Interstate 80, the current southbound exit to US 45, it is 27.2 miles away from the northern terminus of the line. In Metra's fare-based system, Hickory Creek is in zone F. Hickory Creek was built in 1993, is a enclosed brick-faced shelter with no ticket agents. Parking is available in front of the station on Hickory Creek Drive. No bus connections are available at the station. There are 2 tracks at this station. On weekdays between 5:00 am – 2:00 pm trains from Chicago run on track 2 and trains to Chicago run on track 1. After 2:00 pm trains from Chicago run on track 1 and trains to Chicago run on track 2. On weekends all trains run on track 1. Metra – Stations – Hickory Creek
The Lincoln Highway was one of the earliest transcontinental highways for automobiles across the United States of America. Conceived in 1912 by Indiana entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, formally dedicated October 31, 1913, the Lincoln Highway ran coast-to-coast from Times Square in New York City west to Lincoln Park in San Francisco through 13 states: New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah and California. In 1915, the "Colorado Loop" was removed, in 1928, a realignment relocated the Lincoln Highway through the northern tip of West Virginia. Thus, there are a total of 14 states, 128 counties, more than 700 cities and villages through which the highway passed at some time in its history; the first recorded length of the entire Lincoln Highway in 1913 was 3,389 miles. Over the years, the road was improved and numerous realignments were made, by 1924 the highway had been shortened to 3,142 miles. Counting the original route and all of the subsequent realignments, there have been a grand total of 5,872 miles.
The Lincoln Highway was replaced with numbered designations after the establishment of the U. S. Numbered Highway System in 1926, with most of the route becoming part of U. S. Route 30 from Pennsylvania to Wyoming. After the Interstate Highway System was formed in the 1950s, the former alignments of the Lincoln Highway were superseded by Interstate 80 as the primary coast-to-coast route from the New York City area to San Francisco. Note: A interactive online map of the entire Lincoln Highway and all of its re-alignments, markers and points of interest can be viewed at the Lincoln Highway Association Official Map website. Google Maps prominently labels the 1928–30 route. Most of U. S. Route 30 from Philadelphia to western Wyoming, portions of Interstate 80 in the western United States, most of U. S. Route 50 in Nevada and California, most of old decommissioned U. S. Route 40 in California are alignments of the Lincoln Highway; the final alignment of the Lincoln Highway corresponds to the following roads: 42nd Street from the intersection of Broadway at Times Square in New York City westward 6 blocks to the Hudson River.
Holland Tunnel from New York City westward under the Hudson River to New Jersey. U. S. Route 1/9 Truck from Jersey City westward to New Jersey. New Jersey Route 27 from Newark southwestward to New Jersey. U. S. Route 206 from Princeton southwestward to New Jersey. U. S. Route 1 from Trenton southwestward to Pennsylvania. U. S. Route 30 from Philadelphia westward across Pennsylvania, the northern tip of West Virginia, westward across Ohio and Indiana, to Aurora, Illinois. Illinois Route 31 from Aurora northwestward to Illinois. Illinois Route 38 from Geneva westward to Illinois. Illinois Route 2 from Dixon westward to Illinois. U. S. Route 30 from Sterling westward across western Illinois, Iowa and Wyoming, to Granger, Wyoming. Interstate 80 from Granger westward to West Wendover, Nevada. U. S. Route 93 Alternate and U. S. Route 93 from West Wendover southward to Nevada. U. S. Route 50 from Ely to 9 miles west of Fallon, Nevada. From 9 miles west of Fallon to Sacramento, there are two Lincoln Highway routes over the Sierra Nevada: Sierra Nevada Northern Route: U.
S. Route 50 Alternate northwestward to Wadsworth, Nevada Interstate 80 & old U. S. Route 40 westward, through Reno and over Donner Pass and the Sierra Nevada to Sacramento. Sierra Nevada Southern Route: U. S. Route 50 westward, through Carson City, Nevada around Lake Tahoe and over Johnson Pass and the Sierra Nevada to Sacramento. Old U. S. Route 40 from Sacramento southwestward across California's Central Valley to the University Avenue exit in Berkeley, California. University Avenue from Interstate 80 westward to the Berkeley Pier. From the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, take: Hyde Street southward 2 blocks to North Point Street. North Point Street westward 3 blocks to Van Ness Avenue. Va
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Chicago Transit Authority
The Chicago Transit Authority is the operator of mass transit in Chicago and some of its surrounding suburbs, including the trains of the Chicago "L" and CTA bus service. The CTA is an Illinois independent governmental agency that started operations on October 1, 1947 upon the purchase and combination of the transportation assets of the Chicago Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago Surface Lines streetcar system. In 1952, CTA purchased the assets of the Chicago Motor Coach Company, under the control of Yellow Cab Company founder John D. Hertz, resulting in a unified system. Today, the CTA is one of the three service boards financially supported by the Regional Transportation Authority and CTA service connects with the commuter rail Metra, suburban bus and paratransit service, Pace; the Chicago Transit Authority provides service in 10 surrounding suburbs. The CTA provided a total of 532 million rides in 2011, a 3 percent increase over 2010 with ridership rising to levels not seen for 20 years.
CTA operates 24 hours each day and on an average weekday provides 1.7 million rides on buses and trains. It has 1,800 buses that operate over 140 routes traveling along 2,230 route miles. Buses provide about one million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops; the Chicago Transit Authority's 1,450 train cars operate over eight routes and 222 miles of track. Its trains provide about 750,000 customer trips each weekday and serve 145 stations in Chicago and seven suburbs; the CTA operates in Chicago and the bordering suburbs of Forest Park, Skokie, Oak Park, Cicero, North Riverside and Wilmette. The CTA accepts payment with a Ventra Card which can be purchased with a single-ride, 1 day unlimited ride, 3 day unlimited ride, 7 day unlimited ride, 30 day unlimited ride, a Ventra disposable ticket, contactless credit or debit card, certain smartphones. Unlimited ride. CTA buses accept cash. Up to three children under 7 can ride free with a fare-paying rider; the CTA has many free and discounted fare options, for elementary and high school students and university students, people with disabilities, senior citizens, military service members.
Only buses allow riders to pay directly with cash at a farebox and no change is given. Exact fare is required. Since January 7, 2018, the bus full fare is $2.50, disabled & seniors is $1.25 and students is $.75. No cash transfers are available; some rail station turnstiles accepted cash but this feature has been removed in an effort to speed up boarding. Cash at rail stations is only accepted at Ventra Vending Machines to purchase Ventra paper fare cards; the CTA no longer sells Transit Cards. All remaining Transit Cards must have been used by July 1, 2014. In its place CTA has adopted the Ventra Card system; the Ventra Card can be purchased online, Ventra Vending Machines at CTA rail stations, at authorized retailers like Walgreens, CVS Pharmacies and check cashing locations. Ventra is an electronic fare payment system for the Chicago Transit Authority and Pace that replaced the Chicago Card and the Transit Card automated fare collection system. Ventra launched in August 2013, with a full system transition slated for July 1, 2014.
The Ventra payment system includes several options of payment, including a contactless smart card powered by RFID, a single day or use ticket powered by RFID, any personal bank-issued credit card or debit card that has an RFID chip, a compatible mobile phone. Which includes Samsung Pay and Android Pay. Ventra is operated by Cubic Transportation Systems. Riders when using Ventra pay. Disabled & seniors who are 65 or older pay. Elementary and high school students 7-20 years old: Valid 5:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. on school days pay $.75 during school hours and pay $1.10 during weekends and holidays. Transfers within two hours are $.25 full fare, $.15 for disabled and students. Ventra readers on buses and rail station turnstiles can accept contactless payments directly from mobile devices. Riders can pay a PAYG fare by touching mobile phones with Apple Pay, Google Pay and Samsung Pay—or any contactless bankcard with the contactless wave symbol; the Chicago Transit Authority produced a monthly television show, from May 2003 through December 2011.
The show was hosted by Dale Rivera, Jeanne Sparrow, Omar Barragan. Connections was broadcast on City of Chicago Public-access television cable TV channels 23 & 49, as well as on Comcast's CN100 in the Chicago media market, including areas of Michigan and Indiana. Connections featured news and information about the CTA and services it provides. Individual segments from Connections are available on CTA's YouTube channel; as mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 for all transit operators in the U. S. all CTA buses are handicap accessible, the ramp on every bus is available for use upon request by anyone who has trouble with steps temporarily. The majority of train stations CTA operates have elevators or ramps to provide access for customers with disabilities. All trains include accessible rail cars. CTA provides the means to view alerts regarding elevator status at the CTA's Elevator Status Alerts page or by calling an Elevator Status Hotline at 1-888-YOUR-CTA. Accessibility alert notifications appear, by default, in CTA "Train Tracker", a station arrival prediction tool appearing on its website.
Until 1973, CTA's fleet included a large number of electric trolley buse
James Augustine is a retired American professional basketball player. He played college basketball for the Illinois Fighting Illini before being drafted 41st overall in the 2006 NBA draft by the Orlando Magic. Augustine was born in Midlothian, but moved to Mokena, Illinois where he attended Lincoln-Way Central High School in New Lenox, Illinois where he graduated in 2002. While at Lincoln-Way, Augustine played both basketball. Augustine played for the University of Illinois men's basketball team from 2002 to 2006; as a freshman, Augustine was a starter for a team. Playing both the power forward and center positions, his career with the Illini included many team records, a trip to the national championship game, several awards. Throughout his college career, Augustine was complimented by announcers for his athleticism for a big man. Many attributed this ability to the fact that Augustine played Quarterback for his high school football team. Augustine is the first player in school history and just the 12th player in Big Ten history with 1,000 career points and 1,000 career rebounds.
Augustine finished his college career with 1,023 rebounds. He is the school-record holder for career field goal percentage at 61.7 percent, which ranks fifth in Big Ten history. Augustine Played in 137 games during his college career, the second most in school history Augustine was selected with the 41st pick by the Orlando Magic in the 2006 NBA draft. In August 2008, after playing two seasons in the NBA and its affiliate Development League, Augustine signed with Gran Canaria of the Spanish league. On July 30, 2010 he signed a one-year contract with Power Electronics Valencia. In August 2011 he signed with UCAM Murcia. In May 2012, he signed a contract with the Russian team Khimki. On July 4, 2016, Augustine signed with CSKA Moscow. On July 8, 2017, CSKA announced the termination of their contract with Augustine. On August 3, 2017, Augustine signed with Spanish club Unicaja for the 2017–18 season. Note: The EuroLeague is not the only competition in which the player participated for the team during the season.
He played in domestic competition, regional competition if applicable. Augustine holds the school record for career rebounds with 1,023, he became the first Fighting Illini player and the 12th player in Big Ten Conference history to accumulate 1,000 points and 1,000 rebounds. This feat was last accomplished Indiana's by Alan Henderson, who played from 1992 to 1995. Augustine holds the school record for career field goal percentage at 61.7 and shares the school award for career victories with Dee Brown, with 114 wins. Augustine was named Most Outstanding Player in the 2005 Big Ten Tournament. Before playing in a regular-season game with the Magic, Augustine was assigned to an affiliate NBA Development League team, the Anaheim Arsenal, in January 2007, appearing in 8 games and averaging 10 points and eight rebounds, he recorded 4 double-doubles in his 8 games. Augustine made his first appearance in a regular-season game on February 2, 2007 against the New Jersey Nets, recording two points, two assists, three rebounds in four minutes of playing time.
His uncle, Jerry Augustine, played professional baseball for the MLB's Milwaukee Brewers from 1975 to 1984 and was the head baseball coach at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee for the 1995-2006 seasons. Augustine is the cousin of former NFL safety Nick Sorensen. Career statistics and player information from NBA.com James Augustine at Basketball-Reference.com James Augustine at euroleague.net James Augustine at fightingIllini.com Draft Profile at NBA.com