Shinjuku is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is a major commercial and administrative centre, housing the northern half of the busiest railway station in the world and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, the administration centre for the government of Tokyo; as of 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 337,556, a population density of 18,517 people per km². The total area is 18.23 km². Since the end of the Second World War, Shinjuku has been a major secondary center of Tokyo, rivaling to the original city center in Marunouchi and Ginza. Shinjuku is commonly used to refer to the entire area surrounding Shinjuku Station; the southern half of this area and of the station are in fact part of the Yoyogi and Sendagaya districts of the neighboring Shibuya ward. Shinjuku is surrounded by Chiyoda to the east; the current city of Shinjuku grew out of several separate towns and villages, which have retained some distinctions despite growing together as part of the Tokyo metropolis. East Shinjuku: The area east of Shinjuku Station and surrounding Shinjuku-sanchome Station known as Naito-Shinjuku, houses the city hall and the flagship Isetan department store, as well as several smaller areas of interest: Kabukichō: Tokyo's best-known red-light district, renowned for its variety of bars and sex-related establishments.
Golden Gai: An area of tiny shanty-style bars and clubs. Musicians, journalists and directors gather here, the ramshackle walls of the bars are plastered with film posters. Shinjuku Gyoen: A large park, 58.3 hectares, 3.5 km in circumference, blending Japanese traditional, English Landscape and French Formal style gardens. Shinjuku Ni-chōme: Tokyo's best-known gay district. Nishi-Shinjuku: The area west of Shinjuku Station known as Yodobashi, is home to Tokyo's largest concentration of skyscrapers. Several of the tallest buildings in Tokyo are located in this area, including the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, KDDI Building and Park Tower. Ochiai: The northwestern corner of Shinjuku, extending to the area around Ochiai-minami-nagasaki Station and the south side of Mejiro Station, is residential with a small business district around Nakai Station. Ōkubo: The area surrounding Okubo Station, Shin-Okubo Station and Higashi-Shinjuku Station is best known as Tokyo's historic ethnic Korean neighborhood after World War Ⅱ.
Totsuka: The northern portion of Shinjuku surrounding Takadanobaba Station and Waseda University, today referred to as Nishi-Waseda. The Takadanobaba area is a major residential and nightlife area for students, as well as a commuter hub. Toyama: A residential and school area, in the east of Ōkubo and south of Waseda University, extending to the area around Nishi-Waseda Station, Gakushuin Women's College and Toyama Park. Ushigome: A residential area in the eastern portion of the city. Ichigaya: A commercial area in eastern Shinjuku, site of the Ministry of Defense. Kagurazaka: A hill descending to the Iidabashi Station area, once one of Tokyo's last remaining hanamachi or geisha districts, known for hosting a sizable French community. Yotsuya: An upscale residential and commercial district in the southeast corner of Shinjuku; the Arakichō area is well known for its many small restaurants and izakaya."Shinjuku" is popularly understood to mean the entire area surrounding Shinjuku Station, but the Shinjuku Southern Terrace complex and the areas to the west of the station and south of Kōshū Kaidō are part of the Yoyogi and Sendagaya districts of the special ward of Shibuya.
Most of Shinjuku is occupied by the Yodobashi Plateau, the most elevated portion of which extends through most of the Shinjuku Station area. The Kanda River runs through the Ochiai and Totsuka areas near sea level, but the Toshima Plateau builds elevation in the northern extremities of Totsuka and Ochiai; the highest point in Shinjuku is Hakone-san in 44.6 m above sea level. In 1634, during the Edo period, as the outer moat of the Edo Castle was built, a number of temples and shrines moved to the Yotsuya area on the western edge of Shinjuku. In 1698, Naitō-Shinjuku had developed as a new station on the Kōshū Kaidō, one of the major highways of that era. Naitō was the family name of a daimyō. In 1920, the town of Naitō-Shinjuku, which comprised large parts of present-day Shinjuku, parts of Nishi-Shinjuku and Kabukichō was integrated into Tokyo City. Shinjuku began to develop into its current form after the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, since the seismically stable area escaped the devastation.
West Shinjuku is one of the few areas in Tokyo with many skyscrapers. The Tokyo air raids from May to August 1945 destroyed 90% of the buildings in the area in and around Shinjuku Station; the pre-war form of Shinjuku, the rest of Tokyo, for that matter, was retained after the war because the roads and rails, damaged as they were and these formed the heart of the Shinjuku in the post-war construction. Only in Kabuki-cho was a grand reconstruction plan put into action; the present ward was established on March 15, 1947 with the merger of the former wards of Yotsuya and Yodobashi. It served as part of the athletics 50 km marathon course during the 1964 Summer Olympics. In 1991, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government moved from the Marunouchi district of Chiyoda to the current building in Shinjuku. (The Tokyo International F
Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Although waka in modern Japanese is written as 和歌, in the past it was written as 倭歌, a variant name is yamato-uta; the word waka has two different but related meanings: the original meaning was "poetry in Japanese" and encompassed several genres such as chōka and sedōka. Up to and during the compilation of the Man'yōshū in the eighth century, the word waka was a general term for poetry composed in Japanese, included several genres such as tanka, chōka, bussokusekika and sedōka. However, by the time of the Kokinshū's compilation at the beginning of the tenth century, all of these forms except for the tanka and chōka had gone extinct, chōka had diminished in prominence; as a result, the word waka became synonymous with tanka, the word tanka fell out of use until it was revived at the end of the nineteenth century.
Tanka consist of five lines of 5-7-5-7-7 on or syllabic units. Therefore, tanka is sometimes called meaning it contains 31 syllables in total. The term waka encompassed a number of differing forms, principally tanka and chōka, but including bussokusekika, sedōka and katauta; these last three forms, fell into disuse at the beginning of the Heian period, chōka vanished soon afterwards. Thus, the term waka came in time to refer only to tanka. Chōka consist of 5-7 on phrases repeated at least twice, conclude with a 5-7-7 ending The briefest chōka documented is Man'yōshū no. 802, of a pattern 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7-7. It was composed by Yamanoue no Okura in the Nara period and runs: The chōka above is followed by an envoi in tanka form written by Okura: In the early Heian period, chōka was written and tanka became the main form of waka. Since the generic term waka came to be synonymous with tanka. Famous examples of such works are the diaries of Ki no Tsurayuki and Izumi Shikibu, as well as such collections of poem tales as The Tales of Ise and The Tales of Yamato.
Lesser forms of waka featured in the Man'yōshū and other ancient sources exist. Besides that, there were many other forms like: Bussokusekika: This form carved on a slab of slate – the "Buddha footprint" or bussokuseki – at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara. Recorded in the Man'yōshū; the pattern is 5-7-5-7-7-7. Sedōka: The Man'yōshū and Kokinshū recorded this form; the pattern is 5-7-7-5-7-7. Katauta: The Man'yōshū recorded this form. Katauta means "half-poem"; the pattern is 5-7-7. Waka has a long history, first recorded in the early 8th century in the Kojiki and Man'yōshū. Under influence from other genres such as kanshi and stories such as Tale of Genji and Western poetry, it developed broadening its repertoire of expression and topics. In literary historian Donald Keene's books, he uses four large categories: Early and Heian Literature The Middle Ages Pre-Modern Era Modern Era; the most ancient waka were recorded in the historical record the Kojiki and the 20 volumes of the Man'yōshū, the oldest surviving waka anthology.
The editor of the Man'yōshū is anonymous, but it is believed that the final editor was Ōtomo no Yakamochi. He was a waka poet; the first waka of volume 1 was by Emperor Ōjin. Nukata no Ōkimi, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Yamabe no Akahito, Yamanoue no Okura, Ōtomo no Tabito and his son Yakamochi were the greatest poets in this anthology; the Man'yōshū recorded not only the works of the royalty and nobility, but works of soldiers and farmers whose names were not recorded. The main topics of the Man'yōshū were love and other miscellaneous topics. Early songsSongs and poetry in the Kojiki and the Nihon ShokiThe Man'yōshū During the Nara period and the early Heian period, the court favored Chinese-style poetry and the waka art form fell out of official favor, but in the 9th century, Japan stopped sending official envoys to Tang dynasty China. This severing of ties, combined with Japan's geographic isolation forced the court to cultivate native talent and look inward, synthesizing Chinese poetic styles and techniques with local traditions.
The waka form again began flourishing and Emperor Daigo ordered the creation of an anthology of waka. where the waka of ancient poets and their contemporaries were collected and the anthology named "Kokin Wakashū", meaning Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poems. It was presented to the emperor in 905; this was the first waka anthology edited and issued under imperial auspices, it commenced a long and distinguished tradition of imperial anthologies of waka that continued up to the Muromachi period. Rise of Japanese national cultureThe first three chokusenshūThe first three imperially-commissioned waka anthologies were the Kokin Wakashū, the Gosen Waka
Tanka is a genre of classical Japanese poetry and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. In the time of the Man'yōshū, the term tanka was used to distinguish "short poems" from the longer chōka. In the ninth and tenth centuries, notably with the compilation of the Kokinshū, the short poem became the dominant form of poetry in Japan, the general word waka became the standard name for this form. Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki revived the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Haiku is a term of his invention, used for his revision of standalone hokku, with the same idea. Tanka consist of five units with the following pattern of on: 5-7-5-7-7; the 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku, the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku. During the Kojiki and Nihonshoki periods the tanka retained a well defined form, but the history of the mutations of the tanka itself forms an important chapter in haiku history, until the modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples as contributors.
Yosano Tekkan and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō magazine were one example, but that magazine was short-lived. A young high school student, Otori You, Ishikawa Takuboku contributed to Myōjō. In 1980 the New York Times published a representative work: Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing have had a more lasting influence; the magazine Hototogisu, which he founded, still publishes. In the Meiji period, Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, waka should be modernized in the same way as other things in the country, he praised the style of Man'yōshū as manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū, the model for waka for a thousand years, which he denigrated and called feminine. He praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate, a disciple of Fujiwara no Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. Following Shiki's death, in the Taishō period, Mokichi Saitō and his friends began publishing a magazine, which praised the Man'yōshū.
Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Their modernization aside, in the court the old traditions still prevailed; the court continues to hold many utakai both and privately. The utakai that the Emperor holds on the first of the year is called Utakai Hajime and it is an important event for waka poets. After World War II, waka began to be considered out-of-date, but since the late 1980s it has revived under the example of contemporary poets, such as Tawara Machi. With her 1987 bestselling collection Salad Anniversary, the poet has been credited with revitalizing the tanka for modern audiences. Today there are many circles of tanka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly tanka column, there are many professional and amateur tanka poets; as a parting gesture, outgoing PM Jun'ichirō Koizumi wrote a tanka to thank his supporters. The Japanese imperial family continue to write tanka for the New Year. In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose.
In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home; the exchanged waka were called Kinuginu, because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress. Works of this period, The Pillow Book and The Tale of Genji provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu uses 795 waka in her The Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story; some of these are her own. Shortly and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture, they recited a part of appropriate waka to imply something on an occasion. Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party that produced occasional poetry: Uta-awase.
Utakai was a party in which all participants recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme; the judge gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner; the first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with more formality. Ochiai Naobumi Masaoka Shiki Yosano Akiko Ishikawa Takuboku Saitō Mokichi Itō Sachio Kitahara Hakus