The Aos are one of the major Naga tribes of Nagaland, Northeast India. They were the first Naga tribe to embrace Christianity and by virtue of this development the Aos availed themselves to Western education that came along with Christianity. In the process the Aos became the pioneering tribe among the Nagas in many fields. Christianity first entered into the Ao territory when an American Baptist missionary, Edwin W. Clark, reached an Ao village called Molungkimong in 1872, their main territory is from Tsula Valley in the east to Tsurang Valley in the west in Mokokchung district. They are well known for multiple harvest festivals held each year; the total population of Ao Naga in Nagaland is 227,000 according to the 2011 census. Ao Nagas are found in the north-eastern part of Nagaland in the central Mokokchung District and a few are found in the adjacent Assam state. Mokokchung, one of the districts in Nagaland, is considered as the home of the Ao Naga tribe, it covers an area of 1,615 km2 and is bounded by Assam to its north, Wokha to its west, Tuensang to its east, Zunheboto to its south.
The physiography of the district shows six distinct hill ranges which are more or less parallel to each other and run in the south-east direction. Tzurangkong Range: They lay adjoining the plains of Assam along the valley of Dissai and Jhanzi rivers just before they flow into the plains of Assam; these hillocks are densely covered with bamboos and the climate of the entire range is warm. Japukong Range: It is the outermost range stretching from north-east to south-west lying to the interior south of Tzurangkong Range. Changkikong Range: This is a parallel range east of the Japukong Range. Asetkong Range: It is a central range running from east to west but compared to the other ranges, it is the shortest one; this range lies between Melak and Menung rivers, therefore, it resembles an island. Hence the name Asetkong Langpangkong Range: It is the eastern-most range skirting along the course of Dikhu River; the river forms a natural boundary line of Mokokchung with Mon districts. This range is spread like a bed and so the name has been aptly given to this range.
Onpangkong Range: It is the southern-most range forming an irregular boundary of the Ao area with that of the Lothas and Semas to the south and with the Sangtams to the east. It is called Ongpangkong as the land is cooler than the other ranges. With the arrival of Christian missionaries in the 19th century the Ao became the first to embrace Christianity among the Naga tribes. Many became Christians in the 1870s. Today, the Ao are 100 percent Christians, the majority being Baptists. Many Ao people have undertaken missionary work in other areas as well; the first Naga to convert into a Christian did so out of the act of love. The clan had a beautiful women whose father, the head of the Naga's, had decided that the first one to convert into a Christian would win her hand in marriage; the family is now known to be the most powerful family in the Naga clan. The families youngest members known as the princess are Narochungla Tamjanmenla and Achung. Ao language Naga people Moatsü Tsüngkotepsü - The Ao Naga Shawl Mills, J. P..
The Ao Nagas. London: Macmillan and Co. Smith, William C.. The Ao-Naga tribe of Assam. New Delhi: Mittal. Oppitz, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga – A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. von Stockhausen, Alban. 2014. Imaging the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. Wettstein, Marion. 2014. Naga Textiles: Design, Technique and Effect of a Local Craft Tradition in Northeast India. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-89790-419-4. Moatsü Mong: The Festival of Ao Tribe Narrating an Ao Naga Folktale Ethnologue profile Ao Naga documentary, Part 1: Origin and Migration Ao Naga documentary, Part 2: Culture
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
S. C. Jamir
Dr. Senayangba Chubatoshi Jamir is an Indian politician and former Governor of Odisha, he has served as the Chief Minister of Nagaland, Governor of Maharashtra, Governor of Gujarat, Governor of Goa and Governor of Odisha. Jamir is the son of Senayangba Takatula; the grandson of Jungshinokdang, who in the late 19th century, had the providential opportunity to meet the American Christian Missionary Rev. Edwin W. Clark and was instrumental in bringing Christianity to Nagaland, he was born on 17 October 1931. He did his early education in Mokokchung, at Kolkata's Scottish Church College for his intermediate in arts, higher studies at Allahabad University from where he subsequently obtained his B. A. and LL. B. degrees. Jamir was a member of the negotiation body that held talks with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1960 leading to the establishment of Nagaland as a state within India, he was one of the signatories of the 16th Point Agreement which brought about the creation of Nagaland state and is today considered as one of the architects of modern Nagaland.
Jamir was elected as the first Lok Sabha Member from the state of Nagaland. From 1961 to 1970, he has served as Member of Parliament and during this period he has served as the Union Deputy Minister of Railways, Labour & Rehabilitation, from 1968 to 1970, served as the Union Deputy Minister of Community Development & Cooperation and Agriculture, he was appointed as the Parliamentary Secretary to Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister, in charge of the Ministry of External Affairs. He was a member of UN delegation in 1962. In 1971, he was first voted to the Nagaland Legislative Assembly, he served as Chief Minister of Nagaland five times. For his first two terms he was a member of the Progressive United Democratic Front, but by 1989 his party merged with the Indian National Congress, his tenure as the Chief Minister of Nagaland is considered as the longest, from 1993 to 2003. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha from Nagaland for the term 1987-1992, but resigned in 1989. Jamir served as Governor of Goa from July 2004 to July 2008.
Following the resignation of Maharashtra Governor S. M. Krishna, on 6 March 2008, President Pratibha Patil asked Jamir to temporarily take the additional charge of Maharashtra. Jamir was formally appointed as Governor of Maharashtra on 8 July 2008, while Shivinder Singh Sidhu was appointed to succeed him in Goa. Jamir was sworn in as Governor of Maharashtra on 19 July 2008. In July 2009 he took additional charge of Gujarat state during the medical absence and subsequent death of Governor-designate Devendra Nath Dwivedi. On 9 March 2013, he was appointed Governor of Odisha. During his tenure as Chief Minister, The Comptroller and Auditor General unearthed a major financial scandal in the Nagaland state lottery amounting to Rs 38,297 crore; the entire scam took place between October 1993 and November 1997. Jamir denied his government's involvement in the financial scandal but the special audit by the Comptroller and Auditor General, ordered by the Union Home Ministry, indicted both the Nagaland Government and the state's sole distributor of tickets, M.
S Associates, for defrauding the public as well as the exchequer of the amount on July 1999. This case continues to be pending in the court till date. Jamir married Imkonglemla, daughter of Senkalemba in 1958 and they have five children and twelve grandchildren, his younger daughter died in 1996, while his mother died in 2016, at the age of 101. He was conferred an Honorary Doctoral Degree in International Relations from The University of Cambodia in 2017
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Imphal is the capital city of the Indian state of Manipur. Ruins of the Palace of Kangla, the royal seat of the erstwhile Kingdom of Manipur, are in the city metropolitan centre, surrounded by a moat; the Battle of Imphal took place between March and July 1944, during World War II. As of 2011 the population within Imphal's city limits was 277,196 including out growths; the average literacy rate in the town was over 90%, male literacy at 95% exceed the female literacy rate of 87%. Nearly 70% of the inhabitants were Hindu, 10% were Christian, 3.7% Muslim, 0.54% Buddhist, 0.45% Jain, 0.18% Sikh. The Imphal metropolitan area had a population of 918,739, which included the towns and suburbs of Bijoy Govinda, Chingangbam Leikai, Khurai Sajor Leikai, Kongkham Leikai, Laipham Siphai, Lairikyengbam Leikai, Lamshang, Langthabal Kunja, Langthabal Mantrikhong, Lilong, Naorem Leikai, Naoria Pakhanglakpa, Oinam Thingel, Porompat Plan Area, Sagolband, Takyel Mapal and Torban. Imphal is located at 24.8074°N 93.9384°E / 24.8074.
It has a humid subtropical climate with a hot monsoon season. July temperatures average about 29 °C; the city receives about 1,320 mm of rain, with June the wettest month. The highest recorded temperature was 35.6 °C, on 22 May 2009, the lowest temperature was −2.7 °C on 10 January 1970. |source 2 = Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures Kangla Fort is on the banks of the Imphal River, is known as the Palace of Kangla. Kangla means "dry land" in the Meitei language; the fort was the palace of King Pakhangba, has religious significance. In the fort are a number of temples, it is surrounded on three sides by a lake. A religious site and a tourist attraction, the temple complex is noted for its annual Durga Puja festival in September or October; the Red Hill is a historical hillock located 17 km south on Tiddim Road. The place was the scene of action and the theater of the fierce battle that took place between Allied Forces and Japanese Forces fighting alongside the Indian National Army in World War II.
Red Hill has now become a tourist attraction since the Japanese war veterans constructed a monument at the foot of this hill. This cemetery remembers Indian soldiers who fought and died in the Second World War; the market stalls are all run by women, it is the only such market in the world. Three Mothers Art Gallery is one of the hidden tourist attractions in the city of Imphal. Located at Thangapat Road, Palace Compound, It is situated at a distance of a mere 4. 3 Km from Imphal, Manipur. It is a renowned museum housing a unique form of art. Imphal International Airport is 8 kilometres south of the city which connects direct flights to New Delhi, Kolkata and Agartala. Imphal is connected through National Highway which connects major cities like Guwahati, Agartala, Dimapur and many more and connects its neighbour states. In October 2012, India's Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure approved an extension of the Jiribam-Silchar railway to Imphal; the extension is expected to reach the city by Q4 of 2019.
The total length of the Jiribam-Tupul railway line is 110.62 km and the total revised estimated cost is Rs 9658 crore. So far, Rs 4927.65 crore has been spent. The Ministry has set a target of sanctioning Rs 1000 crore within the current financial year in order to speed up the railway construction work. Khuman Lampak Main Stadium is the multi-purpose stadium in India, it is used for football and athletics. The stadium holds 30,000 people and was built in 1999; this stadium lies inside the Khuman Lampak Sports Complex. The professional football club NEROCA FC of I League is based in Imphal and they use Khuman Lampak Main Stadium as their home ground. Jio 4G Vodafone 4G/3G/2G Idea 4G/3G/2G Airtel 4G/3G/2G BSNL 4G/3G/2G Manipur Central University Central Agricultural University National Sports University Manipur University of Culture Indian Institute of Information Technology, Manipur Manipur Institute of Technology National Institute of Technology, Manipur Manipur Technical University Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Science There are many schools in imphal affiliated from C.
B. S. E and ICSE Board, as well as state government schools. Areca school, Ragailong Comet School,Changangei Dav public school, Chingmeirong Don Bosco school Imphal, Chingmeirong Guru nanak public school Herbert school Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya including Khumbong, Imphal east, Bishnupur, CCpur, Thoubal and Senapati Johnstone higher secondary public school Maria International Montessori School, Koirengei Kendriya vidyalaya No 1 Imphal, Lamphelpat Kendriya vidyalaya No 2 Imphal, Langjing Little flower school Lodestar public school Manipur public school Sainik International School&College Imphal St. Anthony's English School&College Imphal St. Joseph school St. Paul's English School Sanfort International School&College Imphal Sangai higher secondary public school Imphal is facilitated with many private and government hospitals which are open 24 hours and provide all required facilities. Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Shija Hospitals & Research Institutes City Hospital Imphal Hospital Raj Medicity Sky hospital and Research Institute Mother's Care Hospital and Research Centre Apex Hospital Jawahar Lal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences Horizon Hospital and Rese
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Dimapur is the largest city in Nagaland, India. Contrary to popular belief, the city's formation in Nagaland is separate from that of Assam. In the Middle Ages, it was the capital of the Kachari Kingdom. In the heart of the town there is an old relic of the Kachari Kingdom which speaks about the once prosperous era, it is located at 25°54′45″N 93°44′30″E and is bounded by Kohima district on the south and east, the Karbi Anglong district of Assam on the west and stretch of Golaghat District of Assam, in the west and the north. The name Dimapur is derived from the Kachari language, it is the gateway to Nagaland and its only railhead. The city has the only functional airport in the state, it became a town in 1961 with a population about 5,800 at the time. Dimapur was a part of Assam but was leased out to Nagaland in 1918. Situated on the banks of the Dhansiri, Dimapur described as the ‘Brick City’ by European scholars and by the Ahoms, was the ancient capital of the Dimasa Kachari community and an independent nation of the Dimasa, who were once a powerful and predominant race in the entire North-East India region.
There are two accounts of the way in which Dimapur got its name: many writers are of the opinion that the name ’ Dimapur’ was derived from Dimasa Kachari words Di-meaning water, Ma-meaning big and Pur-meaning city or township in the Dimasa dialect. According to the second theory, the name Hidimbapur is conjectured to have been abbreviated to Dimbapur and subsequently to have lost a consonant to become Dimapur. In some accounts preserved in Dimasa Kachari folklore Dimapur is called Dimabang Halali an earlier name of the city Sanskritised. In the Ahom Chronicles, Dimapur Is referred to sometimes as ‘Che-din-chi-pen’ meaning ‘brick town’ and at others as'Che-Dima’ meaning'town of the Dimasa'; the seat of capital of Dimapur Kingdom was enclosed by a brick wall four feet wide and sixteen feet high, surrounded by an outer ditch sixteen feet in width and twelve feet in depth, except on the southern side where the River Dhansiri formed a natural moat. On the eastern side there was a fine solid gateway with brick masonry of pointed double arches.
The gate was secured by heavy double doors, the hinges of which were seated in holes pierced in solid stone blocks. At both ends of the battlement there were turrets of half quadrant shape and in between the archway and the turrets were niches resembling ornamental windows. High up, on either side of the arch, were carvings of sunflowers, which were faced with brass so as to present a dazzling spectacle when seen sparkling in the sun from afar. Edward Albert Gait said of the brick structures of Dimapur that they showed the Kacharis' civilization to be further advanced than that shown by the timber and mud plaster constructions of the Ahoms. Dimapur marked a progressive point in the history of the lineage of the Mech/Mechha Dynasty. Inside the fortified city, there were seventeen ornamental stone pillars; these funerary monuments were decorated with carvings of foliage, familiar animals and birds but nowhere with any human images - such as those of gods and goddesses. This suggests; these monoliths are believed to be lineal monuments of the ruling kings of Dimapur.
The largest of them was seventeen feet high and twenty-four feet in circumference and was said to be the memorial of Makardhwaj, greatest of the rulers of Dimapur in whose time the Dimasa Kachari Kingdom reached its apogee. It was during this golden age that the conquests of Manipur and Burma took place under the leadership of Sengyah Demalu Kemprai, the greatest warlord of the Kacharis. During this period, heroes like Rangadao and mystic heroines like Wairingma and Waibangma won renown in war and the pursuit of mystical attainment. Other V-shaped stone monuments, seventeen in number, symbolised the seventeen royal clans of the'Dimasa Kachari Aristocracy’ a term coined by Dr. Francis Hamilton, a renowned scholar of the Dimasa Kachari Royal Clan. Shri SK. Barpujari in his book ‘ History of the Dimasa’ and some writers opined that the Dimasa Kachari Kings to commemorate their Victory over other tribesman, erected monoliths of different shapes indicating the different traditions of the vanquished tribes.
This tradition of carving victory memorials is part of the culture of the hill tribes and may have been adopted by the Dimasa Kachari Kings in order to demonstrate the legitimacy of their rule. Dr H. Bareh in the ‘Gazetteer of India’ writes that the oblong V-Shaped stone pillars correspond to the V-Shaped post protruding from the roof of the house of wealthy Angamis, who are said to have adopted the practice; the tallest and largest megalith, which lies isolated from others and has a unique Sultanate style, is believed to have been erected by the founder king of Dimapur, who after vanquishing the tribes all around made his triumphal tower to commemorate his victory and this became a tradition sett