Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist; this Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. According to Jains, the Universe is made up of six simple and eternal substances called dravya which are broadly categorized under Jiva and Ajiva as follows: Jīva Jīva i.e. Souls – Jīva exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it, it is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva Pudgala – Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles.
Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala are indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-dravya and Adharma-dravya – Dharmastikāya and Adharmastikāya are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Kāla is an eternal substance according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha: Conventional time is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances.
Real time, however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes that go on incessantly in all substances. The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws; the existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa, a Jain text authored by Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape, measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called Rajju, supposed to be large; the Digambara sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases till the middle where it is one Rajju; the width increases till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high; the total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju.
Apart from the apex, the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-wind and thin-wind, it is surrounded by infinitely large non-world, empty. The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too; the mobile region of universe is one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki. Deva live in top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes: 1. Fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. Beings with two sense. 4. Beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6.
Beings with five sense without mind. 7. Beings with five sense with a mind; these can be developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human beings are the only ones which can attain salvation; the early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts: Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans and plants Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regionsThe following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail: Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree.
Paryushana is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is celebrated in August or September in Hindi calendar Bhadrapad Month's Shukla Paksha. It lasts 10 days for Digambara sect of Jains. Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity using fasting and prayer/meditation to help; the five main vows are emphasized during this time. There are no set rules, followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires. Digambaras refer it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana; the duration of Paryushana is for eight days for Śvētāmbara Jains and ten days for Jains belonging to the Digambara sect. The festival ends with the celebration of Kshamavani. Paryushana means "abiding and coming together", it is a time when the Jains take on vows of fasting. The Digambara Jains recite the ten chapters of the sacred Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra on ten days of fasting. Digambaras celebrate Ananta Chaturdashi. Many towns have a procession leading to the main Jain temple.
Ananta Chaturdashi marks the day. At the conclusion of the festival, followers request forgiveness from others for any offenses committed during the last year. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam to others, which means, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action I seek your forgiveness." During the eight-day festival, the Śvētāmbara Murtipujakas recite the Kalpa Sūtra, which includes a recitation of the section on birth of Mahavira on the fifth day. Some Śvētāmbara Sthānakavāsīs recite the Antagada Sutra, which details the life of great men and women who attained moksha during the eras of Neminatha and Mahavira. During Paryushana, Jains observe a fast; the span of the fast can last from a day to 30 days or more. In Digambara Jainism, śrāvakas do not take food and/or water more than once in a day when observing fasts, while Śvētāmbaras observing a fast survive on boiled water, consumed only between sunrise and sunset. At the conclusion of the festival, śrāvakas request each other for forgiveness for all offenses committed during the last year.
This occurs on the Paryusha day for Śvētāmbaras and on the Prathama of the month of Ashvin Krashna for Digambaras. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Uttam Kshama to each other, it means "If I have caused you offence in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought word or deed I seek your forgiveness". Das-Dharma are mentioned in Tattvartha Sutra; these are: Uttam Kshama - उत्तम क्षमा Uttam Mardava - उत्तम मार्दव Uttam Aarjava - उत्तम आर्जव Uttam Satya - उत्तम सत्य Uttam Soch - उत्तम सोच Uttam Sanyam - उत्तम संयम Uttam Tap - उत्तम तप Uttam Tyaga - उत्तम त्याग Uttam Aakinchanya and - उत्तम अकिंचन्य Uttam Brahmcharya - उत्तम बह्मचर्यIn the full form, it is a 10-day vrata that comes every year. It may be undertaken during Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Magh or Chaitra months; however it is common to do it during Bhadrapada. The Das-dharmas are all prefixed by the word ‘Uttam’ to signify that they are practiced at the highest level by the Jain monks; the householder practises them to a lesser extent.
It lasts over a period of ten days, each day being dedicated to one of the ten Dharmas. In the sections below a) stands for the temporary point of view of modes and modification b) stands for the permanent point of view of underlying substance. A) We forgive those who have wronged us and seek forgiveness from those we have wronged. Forgiveness is sought not just from human colleagues, but from all living beings ranging from one sensed to five sensed. If we do not forgive or seek forgiveness but instead harbor resentment, we bring misery and unhappiness on ourselves and in the process shatter our peace of mind and make enemies. Forgiving and seeking forgiveness oils the wheel of life allowing us to live in harmony with our fellow beings, it attracts meritorious karma. B) Forgiveness here is directed to oneself; the soul, in a state of mistaken identity or false belief, assumes that it consists of the body, the karmas and the emotions – likes, anger, pride etc. As a result of this incorrect belief, it inflicts pain upon itself and is thus the cause of its own misery.
Nischay Kshama Dharma teaches the soul to identify itself by encouraging it to contemplate in its true nature and hence achieve the state of right Belief. It is only by achieving Samyak Darshan that the soul ceases to inflict pain on itself and attains supreme happiness. A) Wealth, good looks, reputable family or intelligence lead to pride. Pride means to believe one to look down on others. By being proud you are measuring your worth by temporary material objects; these objects will either leave you or you will be forced to leave them when you die. These eventualities will cause you unhappiness as a result of the ‘dent’ caused to your self-worth. Being humble will prevent this. Pride leads to the influx of the bad karmas. B) All the souls are equal, none being superior or inferior to another; the Nischay view encourages one to understand their true nature. All souls have the potential to be liberated souls; the only difference between the liberated souls and those in bondage is that the former have attained liberation as a result of their ‘effort’.
With effort the latter can achieve liberation. A) The action of a deceitful pe
The Kalpa Sūtra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira. Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE. it was put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. Within the six sections of the Jain literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras; this Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was illustrated with miniature painting. The oldest surviving copies are written on paper in western India in the 14th century. Kalpasutra is ascribed to Bhadrabahu, traditionally said to have composed it some 150 years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira, it was compiled during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. The book is read and illustrated in an eight-day-long festival of Paryushan by Jain monks for general people. Only Monks can read this scriptures as in Jainism, this book has high spiritual values.
Parshvanatha Neminatha Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 "The Kalpa Sûtra" translated in English by Hermann Jacobi is published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers in Delhi in " The Sacred Books of the East" ISBN 81-208-0123-7 TranslationsKalpa Sutra text The Kalpa sutra, Nava tatva
Dravya is a term used to refer to a substance. According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls, non-sentient substance or matter, principle of motion, the principle of rest and time; the latter five are united as the ajiva. As per the Sanskrit etymology, dravya means substances or entity, but it may mean real or fundamental categories. Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body, or thing, by declaring the former as a simple element or reality while the latter as a compound of one or more substances or atoms, they claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can be destroyed. According to Jain philosophy, this universe consists of infinite jivas or souls that are uncreated and always existing. There are two main categories of souls: un-liberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this samsara due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death.
All souls are found in bondage with karma since beginning-less time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its pure form. 10th-century Jain monk Nemichandra describes the soul in Dravyasamgraha:The sentient substance is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions, is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer, located in the world of rebirth emancipated has the intrinsic movement upwards; the qualities of the soul are upyoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are the modes of the soul, thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in samsara, may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired. Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter.
It possesses at all times four qualities, namely, a color, a taste, a smell, a certain kind of palpability. One of the qualities of the paramāṇu and pudgala is that of indestructibility, it combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same. Dharma means the principles of Motion. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharma motion is not possible; the medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water fish. However, it does not set in motion those. Without adharma and stability is not possible in the universe; the principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay without moving, like the shade helps travellers. It does not stabilize those that move. According to Champat Rai Jain:The necessity of Adharma as the accompanying cause of rest, that is, of cessation of motion will be perceived by any one who will put to himself the question, how jīvas and bodies of matter support themselves when coming to rest from a state of motion.
Gravitation will not do, for, concerned with the determination of the direction which a moving body may take... Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time, it is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla is said to be the cause of continuity and succession. Champat Rai Jain in his book "The Key of Knowledge wrote:... As a substance which assists other things in performing their ‘temporal’ gyrations, Time can be conceived only in the form of whirling posts; that these whirling posts, as we have called the units of Time, cannot, in any manner, be conceived as parts of the substances that revolve around them, is obvious from the fact that they are necessary for the continuance of all other substances, including souls and atoms of matter which are simple ultimate units, cannot be imagined as carrying a pin each to revolve upon. Time must, therefore, be considered as a separate substance which assists other substances and things in their movements of continuity.
Jaina philosophers call the substance of Time as Niścay Time to distinguish it from vyavhāra Time, a measure of duration- hours and the like. Out of the six dravyas, five except time have been described as astikayas, that is, extensions or conglomerates. Since like conglomerates, they have numerous space points, they are described as astikaya. There are innumerable space points in the sentient substance and in the media of motion and rest, infinite ones in space. Time has only one. Hence the corresponding conglomerates or extensions are called—jivastikaya, dharmastikaya and akastikaya. Together they are called the five astikayas; these substances have some common gunas such as: Astitva: indestructibility.
Anekāntavāda refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India. It states that reality is complex and has multiple aspects. Anekantavada has been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, "intellectual Ahimsa", religious pluralism, as well as a rejection of fanaticism that leads to terror attacks and mass violence; some scholars state that modern revisionism has attempted to reinterpret anekantavada with religious tolerance and pluralism. According to Jainism, no single, specific statement can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth; this knowledge, is comprehended only by the Arihants. Other beings and their statements about absolute truth are incomplete, at best a partial truth. All knowledge claims, according to the anekāntavāda doctrine must be qualified in many ways, including being affirmed and denied. Anekāntavāda is a fundamental doctrine of Jainism; the origins of anekāntavāda can be traced back to the teachings of Mahāvīra, the 24th Jain Tīrthankara.
The dialectical concepts of syādvāda "conditioned viewpoints" and nayavāda "partial viewpoints" arose from anekāntavāda in the medieval era, providing Jainism with more detailed logical structure and expression. The details of the doctrine emerged in Jainism in the 1st millennium CE, from debates between scholars of Jain and Hindu schools of philosophies; the word anekāntavāda is a compound of two Sanskrit words: vāda. The word anekānta itself is composed of three root words, "an", "eka" and "anta", together it connotes "not one ended, sided", "many-sidedness", or "manifoldness"; the word vāda means "doctrine, speak, thesis". The term anekāntavāda is translated by scholars as the doctrine of "many-sidedness", "non-onesidedness", or "many pointedness"; the term anekāntavāda is not found in early texts considered canonical by Svetambara tradition of Jainism. However, traces of the doctrines are found in comments of Mahavira in these Svetambara texts, where he states that the finite and infinite depends on one's perspective.
The word anekantavada was coined by Acharya Siddhasen Divakar to significant the teaching of Mahavira that truth can be expressed in infinite ways. The earliest comprehensive teachings of anekāntavāda doctrine is found in the Tattvarthasutra by Acharya Umaswami, is considered to be authoritative by all Jain sects. In the Digambara tradition texts. The'two-truths theory' of Kundakunda provides the core of this doctrine; the Jain doctrine of anekāntavāda known as anekāntatva, states that truth and reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is naya, or "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From truth, according to Māhavira, language not the other way around. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it still remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete".
In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. The anekāntavāda premises of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññaphala Sutta; the Jain āgamas suggest that Māhavira's approach to answering all metaphysical philosophical questions was a "qualified yes". These texts identify anekāntavāda doctrine to be one of the key differences between the teachings of the Māhavira and those of the Buddha; the Buddha taught the Middle Way, rejecting extremes of the answer "it is" or "it is not" to metaphysical questions. The Māhavira, in contrast, taught his followers to accept both "it is" and "it is not", with "perhaps" qualification and with reconciliation to understand the absolute reality. Syādvāda and Nayavāda of Jainism expand on the concept of anekāntavāda. Syādvāda recommends the expression of anekānta by prefixing the epithet syād to every phrase or expression describing the nature of existence.
The Jain doctrine of anekāntavāda, according to Bimal Matilal, states that "no philosophic or metaphysical proposition can be true if it is asserted without any condition or limitation". For a metaphysical proposition to be true, according to Jainism, it must include one or more conditions or limitations. Syādvāda is the theory of conditioned predication, the first part of, derived from the Sanskrit word syāt, the third person singular of the optative tense of the Sanskrit verb as,'to be', which becomes syād when followed by a vowel or a voiced consonant, in accordance with sandhi; the optative tense in Sanskrit has the same meaning as the present tense of the subjunctive mood in most Indo-European languages, including Hindi, Russian, etc. It is used; the subjunctive is commonly used in Hindi, for example, in'kya kahun?','what to say?'. The subjunctive is commonly used in conditional constructions. Syat can be translated into English as meaning "perchance, may be, perhaps"; the use of the verb'as' in
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, India. The city of the same name, known as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies"; this site on Shatrunjaya hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said. There are 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size; the main temple is dedicated to the first Tirthankara. The main temple is reached by stepping up 3500 steps. Along with Shikharji in the state of Jharkhand, the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Jain community. Jains believe that a visit to this group of temples is essential as a once-in-a-lifetime chance to achieve nirvana or salvation. Of note, Digambara Jains have only one temple here on the hills. Hingraj Ambikadevi is considered as the presiding deity of the hill, a Hindu Goddess worshiped in Baluchistan province of Pakistan, Sindh province and Saurashtra provinces of Gujarat state, near by regions.
On the summit, there is a shrine of a Muslim saint by name Angar Pir, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions in early 14th century. As the temple-city was built to be an abode for the divine, no one is allowed to stay overnight, including the priests. Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". There are 108 names of Shatrunjaya but only some of them are in common use; the Gulf of Cambay is to the south of the Shatrunjaya Hills, Bhavnagar city is to the north of the hills with the Shetrunji River flowing in between. The temple complex on the hills is located 56 kilometres southwest of Bhavnagar. Palitana, a town in the foothill is 2 kilometres away; the Palitana town is at an altitude of only 66 m. The Palitana Temples are situated at the saddle linking them; the summit is situated at an elevation of 7,288 feet. Reaching it involves climbing over 3,750 stone steps; the temples remain closed for the devotees during the monsoon season.
PathsIt takes two hours to make the 3.5 kilometres climb. There are multiple routes; the shortest one goes around the outer walls of the temples on the hilltop and passes Angar Pir, the shrine of a Muslim saint, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions. A second route goes around the foot of the mountain. Elderly pilgrims who cannot climb the stairs are carried on a doli carried by porters and charged based on the pilgrim's weight. A large number of pilgrims take part in a third route in the month of Phalguna, which passes five sacred temple sites over a distance of 45 kilometres. GroundsFrom the top of Shatrunjaya are views of the Shetrunji river and the rugged, drought-affected landscape; the narrow streets or lanes in the temple complex are similar to the ones found in the medieval cities of Europe. The high walls surrounding the temples give the appearance of a fort. Important features include the Ashok tree, the Chaitra tree, four-faced idol of Mahavir, Hingraj Ambikadevi, Kumarpal and Samprati.
According to the Shatrunjaya Mahatmya, the first Tirthankara Rishabha sanctified the hill where he delivered his first sermon. It was his grandson Pundarika, grandson of Rishabha who attained Nirvana at Shatrunjay, hence the hill was known as "Pundarikgiri". There exists a marble image of Pundaraksvami consecrated in V. S. 1064 by Shersthi Ammeyaka to commemorate the sallekhana of a muni belonging to the Vidhyadhara Kula. Bharata Chakravartin, the father of Pundarik and half-brother of Bahubali came to Shatrunjaya many times, he is credited with building a temple here in honour of his father Rishabha. Legendarily it is associated with many other Tirthankaras.:249The Palitana temples were built over a period of 900 years starting in the 11th century. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron built the earliest temples, it is said that sculptors' skills and capacity to carve with abrasive cords the intricate designs was paid on the basis of the marble dust that they had collected every evening after their hard labour.
They were destroyed by Turkish Muslims invaders in 1311 AD, when the saint Jinaprabhasuri, 50 years old, presided over the temples. Two years the rebuilding began. While some temple building activity took place under Samara Shah, it was only two centuries that it picked up momentum, when in 1593, Hiravijayasuri organized a major pilgrimage to this location to attend the consecration ceremony of the temple built for Rishabha by Tej Pal Soni, a merchant. Following this, there was proliferation of temples here. Most of the temples which are now present date to the 16th century. In 1656, Shah Jahan's son Murad Baksh granted Palitana villages to the prominent Jain merchant Shantidas Jhaveri, a Svetambara Jain, in 1656, subsequently when all taxes were exempted that the temple town further prospered, it was brought under the control of the Anandji Kalyanji Trust in 1730 to manage not only Palitana temples but many other temples of Svetambara Jains, since the Mughal period. History makes a mention that Lunia Seth Tilokchand, a merchant from Ajmer led a large contingent of pilgrims to
Shravanabelagola is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style. Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka, it is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road, 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore; the sacred places are spread over two hills and Vindyagiri among the village at the foothill.
Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town. The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning; some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox. This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant; the place is designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs. Shravanabelagola has two hills and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there. Chandragupta Basadi, dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was built there by Ashoka in the third century BC.
Chandragiri has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya; the 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill. It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue; the base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, who erected the statue for his mother; every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka or Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste and gold and silver flowers. Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month; the next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030. The statue is referred to as Gommateshwara by Kannadigas, but the Jains refer to the same as "Bahubali".
Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries. In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are Jaina and cover a extended period from 600 to 1830 A. D; some refer to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola. That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A. D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon. More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD.
A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century; these inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here, it is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Halegannada characters; some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature. On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India. 49% votes went in favor of the statue. 1. Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A. D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.
2. Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century; the middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture. 3. Shantinatha Basadi:This temple is dedicated to Shantinatha, it was built around 1200 A. D. 4. Parshwanatha Basadi: This is a beautiful structure with decorated outer walls. The