National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Asahi Shimbun is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. Its circulation, 7.96 million for its morning edition and 3.1 million for its evening edition as of June 2010, was second behind that of Yomiuri Shimbun. The company has its registered headquarters in Osaka. One of Japan's oldest and largest national daily newspapers, the Asahi Shimbun began publication in Osaka on 25 January 1879 as a small-print, four-page illustrated paper that sold for one sen a copy, had a circulation of 3,000 copies; the three founding officers of a staff of twenty were Kimura Noboru, Murayama Ryōhei, Tsuda Tei. The company's first premises were at Edobori in Osaka. On 13 September of the same year, Asahi printed its first editorial. In 1881, the Asahi adopted an all-news format, enlisted Ueno Riichi as co-owner. From 1882, Asahi began to receive financial support from the Government and Mitsui, hardened the management base. Under the leadership of Ueno, whose brother was one of the Mitsui managers, Murayama, the Asahi began its steady ascent to national prominence.
On 10 July 1888, the first issue of the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun was published from the Tokyo office at Motosukiyachō, Kyōbashi. The first issue was numbered No. 1,076 as it was a continuation of three small papers: Jiyū no Tomoshibi, Tomoshibi Shimbun and Mesamashi Shimbun. On 1 April 1907, the renowned writer Natsume Sōseki 41, resigned his teaching positions at Tokyo Imperial University, now Tokyo University, to join the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun; this was soon after the publication of his novels Wagahai wa Neko de Aru and Botchan, which made him the center of literary attention. On 1 October 1908, Osaka Asahi Shimbun and Tokyo Asahi Shimbun were merged into a single unified corporation, Asahi Shimbun Gōshi Kaisha, with a capitalization of 600,000 yen. In 1918, because of its critical stance towards Terauchi Masatake's cabinet during the Rice Riots, government authorities suppressed an article in the Osaka Asahi, leading to a softening of its liberal views, the resignation of many of its staff reporters in protest.
Indeed, the newspaper's liberal position led to its vandalization during the February 26 Incident of 1936, as well as repeated attacks from the right wing throughout this period. From the latter half of the 1930s, Asahi ardently supported Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe's wartime government and criticized capitalism harshly under Taketora Ogata, the Editor in Chief of Asahi Shimbun. Influential editorial writers of Asahi such as Shintarō Ryū, Hiroo Sassa, Hotsumi Ozaki were the center members of the Shōwa Kenkyūkai, a political think tank for Konoe. Ogata was one of the leading members of the Genyōsha, formed in 1881 by Tōyama Mitsuru; the Genyōsha was an ultranationalist group of organized crime figures and those with far right-wing political beliefs. Kōki Hirota, hanged as a Class A war criminal, was a leading member of the Genyōsha and one of Ogata's best friends. Hirota was the chairman of Tōyama's funeral committee, Ogata was the vice-chairman. Ryū, a Marxist economist of the Ōhara Institute for Social Research before he entered Asahi, advocated centrally planned economies in his Nihon Keizai no Saihensei.
And Sassa, a son of ultranationalistic politician Sassa Tomofusa, joined hands with far-right generals and terrorists who had assassinated Junnosuke Inoue, Baron Dan Takuma and Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi to support Konoe. In 1944, they attempted assassination of Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō. On 9 April 1937 the Kamikaze, a Mitsubishi aircraft sponsored by the Asahi Shimbun company and flown by Masaaki Iinuma, arrived in London, to the astonishment of the Western world, it was the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe. On 1 September 1940, the Osaka Asahi Shimbun and the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun unified their names into the Asahi Shimbun. On 1 January 1943, the publication of the Asahi Shimbun was stopped by the government after the newspaper published a critical essay contributed by Seigō Nakano, one of the leading members of the Genyōsha and Ogata's best friend. On 27 December 1943, Nagataka Murayama, a son-in-law of Murayama Ryōhei and the President of Asahi, removed Ogata from the Editor in Chief and relegated him to the Vice President to hold absolute power in Asahi.
On 22 July 1944, Vice President of Asahi, became a Minister without Portfolio and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Kuniaki Koiso's cabinet. On 7 April 1945, Hiroshi Shimomura, former Vice President of Asahi, became the Minister without Portfolio and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Kantarō Suzuki's cabinet. On 17 August 1945, Ogata became the Minister without Portfolio and the Chief Cabinet Secretary and the President of Cabinet Intelligence Agency in Prince Higashikuni's cabinet. On 5 November 1945, as a way of assuming responsibility for compromising the newspaper's principles during the war, the Asahi Shimbun's president and senior executives resigned en masse. On 21 November 1946, the newspaper adopted the modern kana usage system. On 30 November 1949, the Asahi Shimbun started to publish the serialized cartoon strip Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa; this was a la
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, in China; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.
The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.
This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan Campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, were former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.
The allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the armies of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime. In the Burma Campaign, other members, such as the anti-Britsh Indian National Army of Free India and Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan.
Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina as well as Timorese militia. These units the assisted Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities; the major Allied participants were the United States and their colonies, the Republic of China, engaged in bloody war against Japan since 1937, the United Kingdom (mos
The Kyūjō incident was an attempted military coup d'état in the Empire of Japan at the end of the Second World War. It happened on the night of 14–15 August 1945, just before the announcement of Japan's surrender to the Allies; the coup was attempted by the Staff Office of the Ministry of War of Japan and many from the Imperial Guard to stop the move to surrender. The officers killed Lieutenant General Takeshi Mori of the First Imperial Guards Division and attempted to counterfeit an order to the effect of occupying the Tokyo Imperial Palace, they attempted to place the Emperor under house arrest, using the 2nd Brigade Imperial Guard Infantry. They failed to persuade the Eastern District Army and the high command of the Imperial Japanese Army to move forward with the action. Due to their failure to convince the remaining army to oust the Imperial House of Japan, they committed suicide; as a result, the communiqué of the intent for a Japanese surrender continued as planned. On July 26, the Potsdam Conference issued a declaration on the terms for the surrender of Japan.
When the Potsdam Declaration was received in Japan over shortwave, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Shigenori Tōgō brought a copy to the Emperor of Japan, Hirohito. After going over the declaration point by point, the emperor asked Tōgō if those terms "were the most reasonable to be expected in the circumstances". Tōgō said; the emperor said, "I agree. In principle they are acceptable." In late July, the other ministers were not ready to accept the declaration. On August 9, 1945, the Japanese government, responding to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to the declaration of war by the Soviet Union and to the effective loss of the Pacific and Asian-mainland territories, decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration. On the same day the Supreme Council for the Direction of War opened before the Japanese Imperial court. In the Council the Prime Minister Kantarō Suzuki, the Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Shigenori Tōgō suggested to Hirohito, that the Japanese should accept the Potsdam Declaration and unconditionally surrender.
After the closure of the air-raid shelter session, Suzuki mustered the Supreme Council for the Direction of War again, now as an Imperial Conference, which Emperor Hirohito attended. From midnight of August 10, the conference convened in an underground bomb shelter. Hirohito agreed with the opinion of Tōgō. Subsequently, the Japanese envoy to Switzerland and Sweden communicated the decision to the Allies; the War Ministry knew the decision of the conference and stirred up a fierce reaction from many officers who intended continued resistance. At 9 o'clock, in the session held at the Ministry of War, the staff officers complained to the Minister Korechika Anami, not all of them heeded Anami's explanations. After midnight on 12 August a San Francisco radio station relayed the reply from the Allies, there was a suggestion that the Allies had decided that the authority of the sovereignty of the Japanese government and the Emperor would be subordinated to the headquarters of the Allies, against the requisition for the protection of the Kokutai from the Imperial Japanese government, a military occupational system, applied to the fallen German Reich.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs interpreted this sentence as restricting sovereignty, but the Japanese Army interpreted it more as enslavement. From 3 o'clock the attendees of the imperial families council agreed to the surrender of Japan, yet the cabinet council, supposed to be held at the same time did not concur; the Supreme Council for the Direction of War tangled with the problem of protection for the Kokutai. After these proceedings, some Army officers for protection of the Kokutai decided that a coup d'état was needed. At this time, the core group of these officers had prepared some troops in Tokyo. Late on the night of August 12, 1945, Major Kenji Hatanaka, along with Lieutenant Colonels Masataka Ida, Masahiko Takeshita, Inaba Masao, Colonel Okikatsu Arao, the Chief of the Military Affairs Section, spoke to War Minister Korechika Anami, asked him to do whatever he could to prevent acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. General Anami refused to say; as much as they needed his support and the other rebels decided they had no choice but to continue planning and to attempt a coup d'état on their own.
Hatanaka spent much of August 13 and the morning of August 14 gathering allies, seeking support from the higher-ups in the Ministry, refining his plot. Shortly after the Imperial Conference on the night of August 13–14 at which the surrender was decided, Anami had two conversations in which he expressed opposition to the surrender, he asked Yoshijirō Umezu if "the war should be continued at the risk of launching a coup d'état", to which Umezu concluded, "There is nothing we can do now but to comply with the Emperor's decision." Anami confronted a Colonel Saburo Hayashi in a washroom and asked about "the possibility of attacking a large American convoy rumored to be outside of Tokyo." Hayashi dashed Anami's suggestion by reaffirming the Imperial decision while noting the presence of the convoy was only a rumor. His brother-in-law Lieutenant Colonel Masahiko Takeshita confronted Anami first suggesting Anami resign, which would topple the government suggesting he support the coup. To the first, Anami noted that the fall of the government would not st
Dōmei News Agency was the official news agency of the Empire of Japan. Dōmei was the end result of years of efforts by Japanese journalists and business leaders to create a national news agency in Japan that could compete with Reuters and other internationally recognized news agencies on a global basis. After the Manchurian Incident of 1931, president Yukichi Iwanaga of the Nihon Shimbun Rengosha proposed the merger of his news agency with the Nihon Dempo Tsushinsha. Despite government backing for the move, the merger was resisted by Dentsu president Hoshio Mitsunaga, reluctant to give up control of his company’s lucrative advertising business, by concerns that a merger would threaten his advertising customer base – the provincial newspapers who competed against Rengo; as a compromise, Mitsunaga agreed to split Dentsu, separate the news agency from the advertising agency. The news agency was reorganized in a merger with Rengo on 28 December 1935 to form the Dōmei Tsūshinsha. During World War II, Dōmei News Agency came under the control of the Ministry of Communications, a pre-war cabinet level ministry in the Japanese government.
Domei maintained a network of offices outside Japan, dispatching reporters to all allied and neutral countries, was involved in film and radio work. It collected news and information from various sources to pass on to the government and military, produced various works of propaganda aimed at foreign countries. Dōmei issued news to the public, censored along government-approved lines, broadcast news in Japanese and in major European languages through an extensive network of radio stations in east Asia, Manchukuo and in Japanese-occupied China, it was authorized by the Japanese military to develop a news network and radio stations in Japanese-occupied Singapore and Malaya. A number of documented incidents from the period around the outbreak of the Pacific War show that on a personal level Dōmei's staff had good relationships with foreign journalists. Under the Allied occupation of Japan Dōmei was disbanded, its functions divided split between Kyodo News and Jiji Press in 1945 following the end of World War II.
Huffman, James. Modern Japan, An Encyclopedia of History and Nationalism. Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-2525-8
Hirohito was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989. He was succeeded by Akihito. In Japan, reigning emperors are known as "the Emperor" and he is now referred to by his posthumous name, Emperor Shōwa; the word Shōwa is the name of the era coinciding with the Emperor's reign, after which he is known according to a tradition dating to 1912. The name Hirohito means "abundant benevolence". At the start of his reign, Japan was one of the great powers—the ninth-largest economy in the world, the third-largest naval power, one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations, he was the head of state under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion and involvement in World War II. After Japan's surrender, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, his degree of involvement in wartime decisions remains controversial.
During the post-war period, he became the symbol of the new state under the post-war constitution and Japan's recovery, by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy. Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace on 29 April 1901, Hirohito was the first son of 21-year old Crown Prince Yoshihito and 17-year old Crown Princess Sadako, he was the grandson of Yanagihara Naruko. His childhood title was Prince Michi. On the 70th day after his birth, Hirohito was removed from the court and placed in the care of the family of Count Kawamura Sumiyoshi, a former vice-admiral, to rear him as if he were his own grandchild. At the age of 3, Hirohito and his brother Chichibu were returned to court when Kawamura died – first to the imperial mansion in Numazu, Shizuoka back to the Aoyama Palace. In 1908, he began elementary studies at the Gakushūin; when his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on 30 July 1912, Hirohito's father, assumed the throne and Hirohito became the heir apparent. At the same time, he was formally commissioned in both the army and navy as a second lieutenant and ensign and was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum.
In 1914, he was promoted to the ranks of lieutenant in the army and sub-lieutenant in the navy to captain and lieutenant in 1916. He was formally proclaimed Crown Prince and heir apparent on 2 November 1916. Hirohito attended Gakushūin Peers' School from 1908 to 1914 and a special institute for the crown prince from 1914 to 1921. In 1920, Hirohito was promoted to the rank of Major in the army and Lieutenant Commander in the navy. In 1921, Hirohito took a six-month tour of Western Europe, including the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium. After his return to Japan, Hirohito became Regent of Japan on 29 November 1921, in place of his ailing father, affected by a mental illness. In 1923, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army and Commander in the navy, to army Colonel and Navy Captain in 1925. During Hirohito's regency, a number of important events occurred: In the Four-Power Treaty on Insular Possessions signed on 13 December 1921, the United States and France agreed to recognize the status quo in the Pacific, Japan and Britain agreed to terminate formally the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on 6 February 1922. Japan withdrew troops from the Siberian Intervention on 28 August 1922; the Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo on 1 September 1923. On 27 December 1923, Daisuke Namba attempted to assassinate Hirohito in the Toranomon Incident but his attempt failed. During interrogation, he claimed to be a communist and was executed but some have suggested that he was in contact with the Nagacho faction in the Army. Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni, the eldest daughter of Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, on 26 January 1924, they had five daughters. The daughters who lived to adulthood left the imperial family as a result of the American reforms of the Japanese imperial household in October 1947 or under the terms of the Imperial Household Law at the moment of their subsequent marriages. On 25 December 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon Yoshihito's, death; the Crown Prince was said to have received the succession. The Taishō era's end and the Shōwa era's beginning were proclaimed.
The deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his given name, but rather was referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor", which may be shortened to "His Majesty". In writing, the Emperor was referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor". In November 1928, the Emperor's ascension was confirmed in ceremonies which are conventionally identified as "enthronement" and "coronation"; the first part of Hirohito's reign took plac
Shigenori Tōgō was Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Empire of Japan at both the start and the end of the Japanese–Allied conflict during World War II. He served as Minister of Colonial Affairs in 1941, assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater East Asia, in 1945. Tōgō was born in Kagoshima, in what is now part of the city of Hioki, Kagoshima, his family was a descendant of Koreans who settled in Kyushu after the Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign against Korea. Born Pak Mudǒk, his father took up "Tōgō" as the last name in 1886, he was a graduate of the Literature Department of Tokyo Imperial University in 1904, subsequently studied the German language at Meiji University. He entered the Ministry for Foreign Affairs after applying for a post five times. Tōgō’s first overseas posting was to the Japanese consulate at Mukden, Manchuria, in 1913. In 1916, he was assigned to the Japanese embassy in Switzerland. In 1919, Tōgō was sent on a diplomatic mission to Weimar Germany, as diplomatic relations between the two countries were reestablished following the Japanese ratification of the Treaty of Versailles.
He was assigned to the Bureau of North American affairs. In 1922, despite the strenuous objections of Tōgō's family, he married a German woman, the widow of noted architect George de Lalande who has designed numerous buildings in Japan and its empire, including the Japanese General Government Building in Seoul; the wedding was held in the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. In 1926, Tōgō was appointed as secretary to the Japanese embassy in United States, moved to Washington DC, he returned to Japan in 1929, after a brief stay in Manchuria, was sent back to Germany. He was the head of the Japanese delegation to the unsuccessful World Disarmament Conference held in Geneva in 1932. Tōgō returned to Japan in 1933 to assume the post of director of the Bureau of North American affairs, but was in a severe automobile accident which left him hospitalized for over a month. In 1937, Tōgō was appointed as Japanese ambassador to Germany. After Tōgō was replaced as ambassador to Germany by Hiroshi Ōshima, he was reassigned to Moscow as the ambassador to the Soviet Union 1938–1940.
During this time, he negotiated a peace settlement following the Battles of Khalkhin Gol between Japan and the Soviet Union, concluded the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1941. He was recalled to Japan by Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka for reassignment. Tōgō was adamantly against war with the United States and the other western powers, which he felt was unwinnable, together with Mamoru Shigemitsu, made unsuccessful last-ditch efforts to arrange for direct face-to-face negotiations between Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe and US President Franklin Roosevelt in an attempt to stave off the conflict. In October 1941, Tōgō became Foreign Minister in the Tōjō administration. Once war was decided, it was Tōgō’s signature on the declaration of war, as he disliked pressing the responsibility of the failure of diplomacy on others. With the start of World War II, Tōgō worked to conclude an alliance between Japan and the Kingdom of Thailand in late 1941; as part of a more reconciliatory policy towards the western powers, he announced on 21 January 1942 that the Japanese government shall uphold the Geneva Convention though it did not sign it.
On 1 September 1942, he resigned his post as Foreign Minister due to his opposition to establish a special ministry for occupied territories within the Japanese government. Although appointed to the Upper House of the Diet of Japan, throughout most of the war, he lived in retirement. Upon the formation of the government of Admiral Kantarō Suzuki in April 1945, Tōgō was asked to return to his former position as Minister of Foreign Affairs. In that position, he was one of the chief proponents for acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration which, he felt, contained the best conditions for peace Japan could hope to be offered. Up until the last, Tōgō hoped for favorable terms from the Soviet Union. At Tōgō's suggestion, no official response was made to the Declaration at first, though a censored version was released to the Japanese public, while Tōgō waited to hear from Moscow. However, Allied leaders interpreted this silence as a rejection of the Declaration, so bombing was allowed to continue. Tōgō was one of the Cabinet Ministers who advocated Japanese surrender in the summer of 1945.
Several days after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese government agreed to unconditional surrender. Following the end of World War II, Tōgō retired to his summer home in Nagano. However, he was soon arrested by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers on war crime charges, along with all former members of the Japanese government, was held at Sugamo Prison. During the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Haruhiko Nishi agreed to act as his defense attorney. On 4 November 1948, Tōgō was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. Togo, who suffered from atherosclerosis, died of cholecystitis while in prison. A volume of his memoirs was published posthumously under the title The Cause of Japan, edited by his former defense counsel Ben Bruce Blakeney; the Japanese diplomat and scholar on international relations, Kazuhiko Tōgō, is his grandson. List of Japanese ministers and ambassadors to Germany "Foreign Office Files for Japan and the Far East". Adam Matthew Publications.
Accessed 2 March 2005. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun. New York: Vintage