International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science. IUPAC is registered in Zürich and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States; this administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry, its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations. IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds.
Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities. These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature, finding ways to bring chemistry to the world, publishing works. IUPAC is best known for its works standardizing nomenclature in chemistry and other fields of science, but IUPAC has publications in many fields including chemistry and physics; some important work IUPAC has done in these fields includes standardizing nucleotide base sequence code names. IUPAC is known for standardizing the atomic weights of the elements through one of its oldest standing committees, the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights; the need for an international standard for chemistry was first addressed in 1860 by a committee headed by German scientist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. This committee was the first international conference to create an international naming system for organic compounds; the ideas that were formulated in that conference evolved into the official IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry.
IUPAC stands as a legacy of this meeting, making it one of the most important historical international collaborations of chemistry societies. Since this time, IUPAC has been the official organization held with the responsibility of updating and maintaining official organic nomenclature. IUPAC as such was established in 1919. One notable country excluded from this early IUPAC is Germany. Germany's exclusion was a result of prejudice towards Germans by the Allied powers after World War I. Germany was admitted into IUPAC during 1929. However, Nazi Germany was removed from IUPAC during World War II. During World War II, IUPAC was affiliated with the Allied powers, but had little involvement during the war effort itself. After the war and West Germany were readmitted to IUPAC. Since World War II, IUPAC has been focused on standardizing nomenclature and methods in science without interruption. In 2016, IUPAC denounced the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon; the organization pointed out their concerns in a letter to Ahmet Üzümcü, the director of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, in regards to the practice of utilizing chlorine for weapon usage in Syria among other locations.
The letter stated, "Our organizations deplore the use of chlorine in this manner. The indiscriminate attacks carried out by a member state of the Chemical Weapons Convention, is of concern to chemical scientists and engineers around the globe and we stand ready to support your mission of implementing the CWC." According to the CWC, "the use, distribution, development or storage of any chemical weapons is forbidden by any of the 192 state party signatories." IUPAC is governed by several committees. The committees are as follows: Bureau, CHEMRAWN Committee, Committee on Chemistry Education, Committee on Chemistry and Industry, Committee on Printed and Electronic Publications, Evaluation Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Interdivisional Committee on Terminology and Symbols, Project Committee, Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board; each committee is made up of members of different National Adhering Organizations from different countries. The steering committee hierarchy for IUPAC is as follows: All committees have an allotted budget to which they must adhere.
Any committee may start a project. If a project's spending becomes too much for a committee to continue funding, it must take the issue to the Project Committee; the project committee either decides on an external funding plan. The Bureau and Executive Committee oversee operations of the other committees. IUPAC committee has a long history of naming organic and inorganic compounds. IUPAC nomenclature is developed so that any compound can be named under one set of standardized rules to avoid duplicate names; the first publication on IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds was A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds in 1900, which contained information from the International Congress of Applied Chemistry. IUPAC organic nomenclature has three basic parts: the substituents, carbon chain length and chemical ending; the substituents are any functional groups attached to the main carbon chain. The main carbon chain is the longest possible continuous chain; the chemical ending denotes. For example, the ending ane denotes a single bonded carbon chain, as in "hexane".
Another example of IUPAC organic no
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
International System of Units
The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, is the most used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, which are the ampere, second, kilogram, mole, a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units; the system specifies names for 22 derived units, such as lumen and watt, for other common physical quantities. The base units are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light in vacuum and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy, one physical artefact; the artefact is the international prototype kilogram, certified in 1889, consisting of a cylinder of platinum-iridium, which nominally has the same mass as one litre of water at the freezing point. Its stability has been a matter of significant concern, culminating in a revision of the definition of the base units in terms of constants of nature, scheduled to be put into effect on 20 May 2019.
Derived units may be defined in terms of other derived units. They are adopted to facilitate measurement of diverse quantities; the SI is intended to be an evolving system. The most recent derived unit, the katal, was defined in 1999; the reliability of the SI depends not only on the precise measurement of standards for the base units in terms of various physical constants of nature, but on precise definition of those constants. The set of underlying constants is modified as more stable constants are found, or may be more measured. For example, in 1983 the metre was redefined as the distance that light propagates in vacuum in a given fraction of a second, thus making the value of the speed of light in terms of the defined units exact; the motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the centimetre–gram–second systems and the lack of coordination between the various disciplines that used them. The General Conference on Weights and Measures, established by the Metre Convention of 1875, brought together many international organisations to establish the definitions and standards of a new system and standardise the rules for writing and presenting measurements.
The system was published in 1960 as a result of an initiative that began in 1948. It is based on the metre–kilogram–second system of units rather than any variant of the CGS. Since the SI has been adopted by all countries except the United States and Myanmar; the International System of Units consists of a set of base units, derived units, a set of decimal-based multipliers that are used as prefixes. The units, excluding prefixed units, form a coherent system of units, based on a system of quantities in such a way that the equations between the numerical values expressed in coherent units have the same form, including numerical factors, as the corresponding equations between the quantities. For example, 1 N = 1 kg × 1 m/s2 says that one newton is the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at one metre per second squared, as related through the principle of coherence to the equation relating the corresponding quantities: F = m × a. Derived units apply to derived quantities, which may by definition be expressed in terms of base quantities, thus are not independent.
Other useful derived quantities can be specified in terms of the SI base and derived units that have no named units in the SI system, such as acceleration, defined in SI units as m/s2. The SI base units are the building blocks of the system and all the other units are derived from them; when Maxwell first introduced the concept of a coherent system, he identified three quantities that could be used as base units: mass and time. Giorgi identified the need for an electrical base unit, for which the unit of electric current was chosen for SI. Another three base units were added later; the early metric systems defined a unit of weight as a base unit, while the SI defines an analogous unit of mass. In everyday use, these are interchangeable, but in scientific contexts the difference matters. Mass the inertial mass, represents a quantity of matter, it relates the acceleration of a body to the applied force via Newton's law, F = m × a: force equals mass times acceleration. A force of 1 N applied to a mass of 1 kg will accelerate it at 1 m/s2.
This is true whether the object is floating in space or in a gravity field e.g. at the Earth's surface. Weight is the force exerted on a body by a gravitational field, hence its weight depends on the strength of the gravitational field. Weight of a 1 kg mass at the Earth's surface is m × g. Since the acceleration due to gravity is local and varies by location and altitude on the Earth, weight is unsuitable for precision
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, their relation to energy, work and properties of bodies of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the specific composition of the material or system in question; the laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854 which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, the relation of heat to electrical agency."
The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was extended early on to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field. Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged in the following decades. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerned itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach to the field in his axiomatic formulation of thermodynamics, a description referred to as geometrical thermodynamics. A description of any thermodynamic system employs the four laws of thermodynamics that form an axiomatic basis; the first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as work. The second law defines the existence of a quantity called entropy, that describes the direction, thermodynamically, that a system can evolve and quantifies the state of order of a system and that can be used to quantify the useful work that can be extracted from the system.
In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are categorized. Central to this are the concepts of its surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, those properties are in turn related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes. With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment; this can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, corrosion engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, economics, to name a few.
This article is focused on classical thermodynamics which studies systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is treated as an extension of the classical treatment, but statistical mechanics has brought many advances to that field; the history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump. Using this pump and Hooke noticed a correlation between pressure and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. In 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a steam digester, a closed vessel with a fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.
Designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine, he did not, follow through with his design. In 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time; the fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in steam engine efficiency. Drawing on all the previous work led Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", to publish Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, a discourse on heat, power and engine efficiency.
The book outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, motive power. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern scien
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer calibrated in one or more temperature scales; the most used scales are the Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, Kelvin scale. The kelvin is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units, in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities; the Kelvin scale is used in science and technology. Theoretically, the coldest a system can be is when its temperature is absolute zero, at which point the thermal motion in matter would be zero. However, an actual physical system or object can never attain a temperature of absolute zero. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale. For an ideal gas, temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the random microscopic motions of the constituent microscopic particles. Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, Earth science and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.
Many physical processes are affected by temperature, such as physical properties of materials including the phase, solubility, vapor pressure, electrical conductivity rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur the amount and properties of thermal radiation emitted from the surface of an object speed of sound is a function of the square root of the absolute temperature Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees, the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale. The Celsius scale is used for common temperature measurements in most of the world, it is an empirical scale, developed by a historical progress, which led to its zero point 0 °C being defined by the freezing point of water, additional degrees defined so that 100 °C was the boiling point of water, both at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Because of the 100-degree interval, it was called a centigrade scale. Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of 273.15.
The United States uses the Fahrenheit scale, on which water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F at sea-level atmospheric pressure. Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale, named in honor of the Scots-Irish physicist who first defined it, it is a absolute temperature scale. Its zero point, 0 K, is defined to coincide with the coldest physically-possible temperature, its degrees are defined through thermodynamics. The temperature of absolute zero occurs at 0 K = −273.15 °C, the freezing point of water at sea-level atmospheric pressure occurs at 273.15 K = 0 °C. The International System of Units defines a scale and unit for the kelvin or thermodynamic temperature by using the reliably reproducible temperature of the triple point of water as a second reference point; the triple point is a singular state with its own unique and invariant temperature and pressure, along with, for a fixed mass of water in a vessel of fixed volume, an autonomically and stably self-determining partition into three mutually contacting phases, vapour and solid, dynamically depending only on the total internal energy of the mass of water.
For historical reasons, the triple point temperature of water is fixed at 273.16 units of the measurement increment. There is a variety of kinds of temperature scale, it may be convenient to classify them theoretically based. Empirical temperature scales are older, while theoretically based scales arose in the middle of the nineteenth century. Empirically based temperature scales rely directly on measurements of simple physical properties of materials. For example, the length of a column of mercury, confined in a glass-walled capillary tube, is dependent on temperature, is the basis of the useful mercury-in-glass thermometer; such scales are valid only within convenient ranges of temperature. For example, above the boiling point of mercury, a mercury-in-glass thermometer is impracticable. Most materials expand with temperature increase, but some materials, such as water, contract with temperature increase over some specific range, they are hardly useful as thermometric materials. A material is of no use as a thermometer near one of its phase-change temperatures, for example its boiling-point.
In spite of these restrictions, most used practical thermometers are of the empirically based kind. It was used for calorimetry, which contributed to the discovery of thermodynamics. Empirical thermometry has serious drawbacks when judged as a basis for theoretical physics. Empirically based thermometers, beyond their base as simple direct measurements of ordinary physical properties of thermometric materials, can be re-calibrated, by use of theoretical physical reasoning, this can extend their range of adequacy. Theoretically-based temperature scales are based directly on theoretical arguments those of thermodynamics, kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, they rely on theoretical properties of idealized materials. They are more or less comparable with feasible physical devices and materials. Theoretically based temperature scales are used to provide calibrating standards for practi
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape and volume in response to a change in temperature. Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance; when a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases. Thus, the molecules begin vibrating/moving more and maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are unusual; the relative expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of thermal expansion and varies with temperature. If an equation of state is available, it can be used to predict the values of the thermal expansion at all the required temperatures and pressures, along with many other state functions. A number of materials contract on heating within certain temperature ranges. For example, the coefficient of thermal expansion of water drops to zero as it is cooled to 3.983 °C and becomes negative below this temperature. Pure silicon has a negative coefficient of thermal expansion for temperatures between about 18 and 120 kelvins.
Unlike gases or liquids, solid materials tend to keep their shape. Thermal expansion decreases with increasing bond energy, which has an effect on the melting point of solids, so, high melting point materials are more to have lower thermal expansion. In general, liquids expand more than solids; the thermal expansion of glasses is higher compared to that of crystals. At the glass transition temperature, rearrangements that occur in an amorphous material lead to characteristic discontinuities of coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat; these discontinuities allow detection of the glass transition temperature where a supercooled liquid transforms to a glass. Absorption or desorption of water can change the size of many common materials. Common plastics exposed to water can, in the long term, expand by many percent; the coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. It measures the fractional change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure.
Several types of coefficients have been developed: volumetric and linear. The choice of coefficient depends on the particular application and which dimensions are considered important. For solids, one might only be concerned over some area; the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient, the most relevant for fluids. In general, substances expand or contract when their temperature changes, with expansion or contraction occurring in all directions. Substances that expand at the same rate in every direction are called isotropic. For isotropic materials, the area and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient are approximately twice and three times larger than the linear thermal expansion coefficient. Mathematical definitions of these coefficients are defined below for solids and gases. In the general case of a gas, liquid, or solid, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion is given by α V = 1 V p The subscript p indicates that the pressure is held constant during the expansion, the subscript V stresses that it is the volumetric expansion that enters this general definition.
In the case of a gas, the fact that the pressure is held constant is important, because the volume of a gas will vary appreciably with pressure as well as temperature. For a gas of low density this can be seen from the ideal gas law; when calculating thermal expansion it is necessary to consider whether the body is free to expand or is constrained. If the body is free to expand, the expansion or strain resulting from an increase in temperature can be calculated by using the applicable coefficient of Thermal Expansion. If the body is constrained so that it cannot expand internal stress will be caused by a change in temperature; this stress can be calculated by considering the strain that would occur if the body were free to expand and the stress required to reduce that strain to zero, through the stress/strain relationship characterised by the elastic or Young's modulus. In the special case of solid materials, external ambient pressure does not appreciably affect the size of an object and so it is not necessary to consider the effect of pressure changes.
Common engineering solids have coefficients of thermal expansion that do not vary over the range of temperatures where they are designed to be used, so where high accuracy is not required, practical calculations can be based on a constant, value of the coefficient of expansion. Linear expansion means change in one dimension as opposed to change in volume. To a first approximation, the change in length measurements of an object due to thermal expansion is related to temperature change by a "Coefficient of linear th
A volumetric flask is a piece of laboratory apparatus, a type of laboratory flask, calibrated to contain a precise volume at a certain temperature. Volumetric flasks are used for preparation of standard solutions; these flasks are pear-shaped, with a flat bottom, made of glass or plastic. The flask's mouth is either furnished with a plastic snap/screw cap or fitted with a joint to accommodate a PTFE or glass stopper; the neck of volumetric flasks is narrow with an etched ring graduation marking. The marking indicates; the marking is calibrated "to contain" at 20 °C and indicated correspondingly on a label. The flask's label indicates the nominal volume, precision class, relevant manufacturing standard and the manufacturer’s logo. Volumetric flasks are of various sizes. Calibration and toleration standards for volumetric flasks are defined in the following standard specifications and practices: ASTM E288, E542, E694, ISO 1042, GOST 1770-74. According to these specifications, volumetric flasks come in two different classes.
The higher standard flasks are made with a more placed graduation mark, have a unique serial number for traceability. Where this is not required, a lower standard is used for educational work. Volumetric flasks are colourless but may be amber-coloured for the handling of light-sensitive compounds such as silver nitrate or vitamin A. A modification of the volumetric flask exists for dealing with large quantities of solids that are to be transferred into a volumetric vessel for dissolution; such a flask known as a Kohlrausch volumetric flask. This kind of volumetric flask is used in analysis of the sugar content in sugar beets. While conventional volumetric flasks have a single mark, industrial volumetric tests in analytical chemistry and food chemistry may employ specialized volumetric flasks with multiple marks to combine several measured volumes. A specialized kind of the volumetric flask is the Le Chatelier flask for use with the volumetric procedure in specific gravity determination. Graduated cylinder Babcock bottle Burette Hughes, J. C.
Testing of Glass Volumetric Apparatus, NBS Circular 602. Natl. Bur. Stand. Houser, J. F. Procedures for the Calibration of Volumetric Test Measures, NBSIR 73-287. Natl. Bur. Stand. Lembeck, J. Calibration of Small Volumetric Laboratory Glassware, NBSIR 74-461. Natl. Bur. Stand