Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They have cylindrical bodies; the term mole is and most properly used for "true moles" of the Talpidae family in the order Eulipotyphla, which are found in most parts of North America and Europe, although it may refer to unrelated mammals of Australia and southern Africa that have convergently evolved the "mole" body plan. The term is not applied to all talpids. Moles are known pests to human activities such as agriculture and gardening. However, they do not eat plant roots. However, while moles may be viewed as pests. Benefits include: soil aeration, feeding on slugs and other insects that do eat plant roots, providing prey for other wildlife. In Middle English, moles were known as moldwarp; the expression "don't make a mountain out of a mole hill" – exaggerating problems – was first recorded in Tudor times. By the era of Early Modern English, the mole was known in English as mouldywarp, a word having cognates in other Germanic languages such as German, Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, where the muld/mull/mold part of the word means soil and the varp/vad/varpa part means throw, hence "one who throws soil" or "dirt tosser".
Male moles are called "boars", females are called "sows". A group of moles is called a "labour". Moles have been found to tolerate higher levels of carbon dioxide than other mammals because their blood cells have a special form of hemoglobin that has a higher affinity to oxygen than other forms. In addition to this, moles utilize oxygen more by reusing the exhaled air, as a result, are able to survive in low-oxygen environments such as burrows. Moles have polydactyl forepaws. While the mole's other digits have multiple joints, the prepollex has a single, sickle-shaped bone that develops and differently from the other fingers during embryogenesis from a transformed sesamoid bone in the wrist, independently evolved but similar to the giant panda thumb; this supernumerary digit is species-specific, as it is not present in shrews, the mole's closest relatives. Androgenic steroids are known to affect the growth and formation of bones, a connection is possible between this species-specific trait and the "male" genital apparatus in female moles of many mole species.
A mole's diet consists of earthworms and other small invertebrates found in the soil. The mole runs are in reality "worm traps", the mole sensing when a worm falls into the tunnel and running along to kill and eat it; because their saliva contains a toxin that can paralyze earthworms, moles are able to store their still-living prey for consumption. They construct special underground "larders" for just this purpose. Before eating earthworms, moles pull them between their squeezed paws to force the collected earth and dirt out of the worm's gut; the star-nosed mole can detect and eat food faster than the human eye can follow. Breeding season for a mole depends on species but is February through May. Males search for females by tunneling through foreign areas; the gestation period of the Eastern mole is 42 days. Three to five young are born in March and early April. Townsend moles mate in February and March, the 2–4 young are born in March and April after a gestation period of about 1 month; the Townsend mole is endangered in the United States and Canada.
Coast moles produce a litter of 2 -- 5 pups between April. Pups leave the nest 30–45 days after birth to find territories of their own. Moles are solitary creatures, coming together only to mate. Territories may overlap; the family Talpidae contains some of their close relatives. Desmans, which are Talpidae but are not called "moles", are not shown below, but belong to the subfamily Talpinae; those species called "shrew moles" represent an intermediate form between the moles and their shrew ancestors, as such may not be described by the article. On the other hand, there is no monophyletic relation between the mole and the hedgehog, both of which were placed in the now abandoned order Insectivora; as a result, Soricomorpha within Insectivora, has been elevated to the level of an order. Subfamily Scalopinae: New World moles Tribe Condylurini Star-nosed mole Genus Condylura: Star-nosed mole Tribe Scalopini New World moles Genus Parascalops: Hairy-tailed mole Genus Scalopus: Eastern mole Genus Scapanulus: Gansu mole Genus Scapanus: Western North American moles Subfamily Talpinae Old World moles and shrew moles Tribe Talpini: Old World moles Genus Euroscaptor: Ten Asian species Genus Mogera Nine species from Japan and Eastern China Genus Parascaptor: White-tailed mole, southern Asia Genus Scaptochirus: Short-faced mole, China Genus Talpa Eleven species and western Asia Tribe Scaptonych
Laura Evans-Williams was a Welsh soprano singer. Laura Evans was born in Henllan, Denbighshire in the north-east Wales and was the eldest child of a castrator, John Evans, his wife Ellen Evans, her sister was the director Eleanor Evans. Evans-Williams was educated at Howell's School and the Royal Academy of Music where she studied under the guidance of Edward Iles who helped to develop her voice, she won prizes at several eisteddfodau. She performed in the 1911 edition of The Proms in the event's 28th day. Evans-Williams interpreted several operatic arias Welsh folk-songs and toured extensively with fellow contralto singer Clara Butt during World War I. In 1910, Evans-Williams was featured as soloist in Edward Elgar's Caractacus in London, with Merlin Morgan conducting. Evans-Williams had been invited to give the performance of the National Eisteddfod's traditional chairing song at the 1917 event held in Birkenhead, but she sang I Blas Gogerddan when it was announced the winner of the chair, Ellis Evans, had been killed in battle.
Evans-Williams had lost her beloved brother, Stanley at Ypres in 1916 and would lose her elder brother, Hugh George at Peronne in 1918. She sang the chairing song when the Eisteddfod moved to Wrexham sixteen years and received an encore. Evans-Williams undertook a concert tour of the United States in 1925–1926, she was the first Welsh artist to broadcast from Savoy Hill. Laura Evans-Williams moved back to Colwyn Bay in 1940 after living in London and taught singing until she died on 5 October 1944. Evans-Williams was survived by her husband for 39 years, R. T. Williams, two children.
Something to Answer For is a 1968 novel by the English writer P. H. Newby, its chief claim to fame is that in 1969 it won the inaugural Booker Prize, which would go on to become one of the major literary awards in the English-speaking world. It was reissued by Faber & Faber in 2008 in the "Faber Finds" line, in 2011 as paperback and in 2018. Townrow is a Fund Distributor stealing from the fund, he is contacted by the widow of Elie Khoury. They had met ten years in 1946, in Port Said after he had been thrown from a horse in front of the Khoury's beach hut. Mrs Khoury wants Townrow to go to see her in Cairo. After thinking it through, Townrow accepts Mrs Khoury's offer of a plane ticket to Cairo, he stops over in Rome where he argues with two men, defending the British Government from its involvement in Nazi Germany's Final Solution campaign. The discussion ends on a friendly note. In Cairo, Townrow makes a joke about marrying Mrs Khoury for her money to an immigration officer, which leads to him being interrogated.
He is released once his train has departed. Townrow doesn't go straightaway to see Mrs Khoury when he arrives in Port Said, instead opting to stay in a hotel. Here he considers having no one who cares about him in his life. Townrow visits a bar; the owner of the bar, recognises him and kicks out his clientele for some privacy. Townrow asks about Elie's death. Christous tells him that Mrs Khoury, with great difficulty, took her husband's body back to Lebanon to be buried; because of her actions, Colonel Nasser took the Suez Canal as Egypt's. Townrow gets so drunk he blacks out, he awakens naked and alone, is attacked by a passing camel-driver, causing his head and one eye to be bandaged for most of the remainder of the novel. After the discussion with Christous and Townrow's subsequent blackout, the novel becomes much more dream-like and at times surreal, with Townrow a unreliable narrator who cannot remember his nationality nor whether his mother is alive, he imagines that he is watching the burial at sea.
He meets an Egyptian Jew, married and repels his attentions though she becomes his lover and develops an obsession for him. Townrow walks though scenes of mob unrest, is arrested as a spy, watches bloody gunfights between Egyptian and British troops with bemused detachment, he imagines digging up Elie's grave to make certain he is dead apparently does so. At the end of the novel, though it is uncertain how much of what was related took place or how much was a fever or drunken dream, Townrow comes to believe that a citizen is not responsible for the morality of his government and has only himself and his own actions to answer for