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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. From these analyses, it is possible to determine the processes by which diversity among species has been achieved; the result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography. Molecular phylogenetics and molecular evolution correlate. Molecular evolution is the process of selective changes at a molecular level throughout various branches in the tree of life. Molecular phylogenetics makes inferences of the evolutionary relationships that arise due to molecular evolution and results in the construction of a phylogenetic tree; the figure displayed on the right depicts the phylogenetic tree of life as one of the first detailed trees, according to information known in the 1870s by Haeckel.

The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, Walter M. Fitch. Applications of molecular systematics were pioneered by Charles G. Sibley, Herbert C. Dessauer, Morris Goodman, followed by Allan C. Wilson, Robert K. Selander, John C. Avise. Work with protein electrophoresis began around 1956. Although the results were not quantitative and did not improve on morphological classification, they provided tantalizing hints that long-held notions of the classifications of birds, for example, needed substantial revision. In the period of 1974–1986, DNA-DNA hybridization was the dominant technique used to measure genetic difference. Early attempts at molecular systematics were termed as chemotaxonomy and made use of proteins, enzymes and other molecules that were separated and characterized using techniques such as chromatography; these have been replaced in recent times by DNA sequencing, which produces the exact sequences of nucleotides or bases in either DNA or RNA segments extracted using different techniques.

In general, these are considered superior for evolutionary studies, since the actions of evolution are reflected in the genetic sequences. At present, it is still a expensive process to sequence the entire DNA of an organism. However, it is quite feasible to determine the sequence of a defined area of a particular chromosome. Typical molecular systematic analyses require the sequencing of around 1000 base pairs. At any location within such a sequence, the bases found in a given position may vary between organisms; the particular sequence found in a given organism is referred to as its haplotype. In principle, since there are four base types, with 1000 base pairs, we could have 41000 distinct haplotypes. However, for organisms within a particular species or in a group of related species, it has been found empirically that only a minority of sites show any variation at all, most of the variations that are found are correlated, so that the number of distinct haplotypes that are found is small. In a molecular systematic analysis, the haplotypes are determined for a defined area of genetic material.

Haplotypes of individuals of related, yet different, taxa are determined. Haplotypes from a smaller number of individuals from a different taxon are determined: these are referred to as an outgroup; the base sequences for the haplotypes are compared. In the simplest case, the difference between two haplotypes is assessed by counting the number of locations where they have different bases: this is referred to as the number of substitutions; the difference between organisms is re-expressed as a percentage divergence, by dividing the number of substitutions by the number of base pairs analysed: the hope is that this measure will be independent of the location and length of the section of DNA, sequenced. An older and superseded approach was to determine the divergences between the genotypes of individuals by DNA-DNA hybridization; the advantage claimed for using hybridization rather than gene sequencing was that it was based on the entire genotype, rather than on particular sections of DNA. Modern sequence comparison techniques overcome this objection by the use of multiple sequences.

Once the divergences between all pairs of samples have been determined, the resulting triangular matrix of differences is submitted to some form of statistical cluster analysis, the resulting dendrogram is examined in order to see whether the samples cluster in the way that would be expected from current ideas about the taxonomy of the group. Any group of haplotypes that are all more similar to one another than any of them is to any other haplotype may be said to constitute a clade, which may be visually represented as the figure displayed on the right demonstrates. Statistical techniques such as bootstrapping and jackknifing help in providing reliability estimates for the positions of haplotypes within the evolutionary trees; every living organism contains deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, proteins. In general related organisms have a high degree of similarity in the molecular structure of these substances, while the molecules of organisms distantly related s

Brian Bass

Brian Michael Bass is an American former professional baseball pitcher and current pitching coach for the Stevenson University Mustangs in addition to offering private pitching instructions. He played for the Minnesota Twins, Baltimore Orioles, Pittsburgh Pirates in Major League Baseball. Bass, a graduate of Robert E. Lee High School in Montgomery, was selected by the Kansas City Royals in the 6th round of the 2000 Major League Baseball draft. After signing with the Royals, Bass played for the Rookie League Gulf Coast Royals in 2000, he went 3–5 with a 3.89 ERA. Bass made one start at the Single-A level for the Charleston Alley Cats. In 2001, Bass played for the Single-A Burlington Bees. Making 26 starts, he had a 4.65 ERA and went 3–10. Bass played the entire 2002 season for the Bees again, improving his performance on the previous season, making 20 starts and finishing 5–7 with a 3.83 ERA. Bass had the best season of his minor league career in 2003 while playing for the Single-A Wilmington Blue Rocks.

Making 26 starts, he went 9–8 with a 2.84 ERA. He was third on the team in wins, second in the team in games started and innings pitched, led the team in strikeouts with 119. On August 6, against the Winston-Salem Warthogs, Bass came within one out of a no-hitter. Baseball America named Bass as the Royals 8th best prospect. Bass went winless in 2004 while playing for the Rookie League Arizona Royals and the Double-A Wichita Wranglers. Losing a combined 5 games, he had a 5.94 ERA in 14 starts. In 2005, while playing for the Wranglers again, Bass had a 12–8 record and a 5.24 ERA. In 2006, Bass split the season between the Arizona Royals, the Wichita Wranglers, the Triple-A Omaha Royals. Making a combined 15 starts in 16 games, Bass went 6–7 with a 5.70 ERA. Bass became a minor league free agent after the season. Bass, after leaving the Royals organization, signed a minor league contract with the Minnesota Twins for the 2007 season. Bass played the entire season for the Triple-A Rochester Red Wings.

Bass made 10 starts and 27 relief appearances, finishing the season 7–3 with a 3.48 ERA. Included in his 10 starts was a complete game shutout, the second in his career and the first since 2001. Bass became a minor league free agent after the season. Bass won a long relief role out of spring training with the Minnesota Twins, he made his major league debut on April 1 against the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, pitching 1.2 innings in relief in a 9–1 loss. Bass appeared in 44 games as a reliever for the Twins, going 3–4 with an ERA of 4.87 with one save before being sent outright to the minors on August 20. He was traded to the Baltimore Orioles on September 2008, for a PTBNL or cash considerations. On December 12, 2009, Bass was non-tendered by the Baltimore Orioles making him a free agent. On January 12, 2010, Bass signed a minor-league contract with Pittsburgh which included an invitation to spring training, he appeared in four games and was designated for assignment on September 13. The Philadelphia Phillies signed Bass to a minor league contract after he had become a free agent following the 2010 season.

On January 6, 2011, the Phillies invited Bass to major league camp at spring training. Bass signed with the Hanwha Eagles of the Korea Baseball Organization for the 2012 season. However, he was released after just a few games. On May 27, 2012, Bass signed with the Houston Astros, he was assigned to the Oklahoma City RedHawks. In April 2013, Bass signed with the Camden Riversharks. Bass retired on July 6, 2013. On October 9, 2013, Bass accepted the pitching coach job at Stevenson University. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference


Mytilida is an order of marine bivalve molluscs known as true mussels. There is the Mytiloidea, with a single extant family, the Mytilidae. Species in the order Mytilida are found worldwide, but they are more abundant in colder seas, where they form uninterrupted beds on rocky shores in the intertidal zone and the shallow subtidal; the subfamily Bathymodiolinae is found in deep-sea habitats. Mytilids include the well-known edible sea mussels. A common feature of the shells of mussels is an asymmetrical shell which has a thick, adherent periostracum; the animals attach themselves to a solid substrate using a byssus. In 2010, a new proposed classification system for the Bivalvia was published by Bieler, Carter & Coan; this included the suborder Mytiloida. Superfamily †Modiolopsoidea Family †Colpomyidae Family †Modiolopsidae Family †Saffordiidae Superfamily Mytiloidea Family †Mysideiellidae Family Mytilidae

Robert Medley

Charles Robert Owen Medley CBE, RA known as Robert Medley, was an English artist who painted in both abstract and figurative styles, who worked as theatre designer. He held several teaching positions in both Rome. Medley was born in London, one of six children to Charles Medley, a successful copyright lawyer, friends with many writers of the day, he was educated at Gresham's School in Holt, Norfolk from 1919 to 1923, before attending the Byam Shaw School of Art. During 1924 Medley studied art at the Royal Academy Schools but soon switched to the Slade School of Fine Art and completed his art training by spending two years, from 1926 to 1928, in Paris. At Gresham's School Medley was the friend of W. H. Auden, first suggested that Auden might write poetry, although Medley did not know at the time that he had this effect; as described in his memoir, Drawn from the Life, in his early years Medley believed he was heterosexual and therefore did not understand Auden's erotic intentions toward him until they spent a single weekend together after both had left school.

Until he was seduced at 19, he recalled "I was still under the illusion that I was heterosexual." In Paris in 1926 Medley met Rupert Doone, with whom he lived for the rest of Doone's life. During the 1930s he worked in various avant-garde styles. Between 1929 and 1934 Medley worked with Vanessa Bell. From 1929 onwards Medley began to exhibit paintings with the London Group. In 1931 Medley held his first solo show at the Cooling Galleries in 1931 and began teaching at the Chelsea At School the same year, he exhibited at the London Artists' Association in 1932 but the majority of his time was spent on design work for the theatre. In 1932 he and Doone jointly founded the Group Theatre, for which Medley served as artistic director, either designing the Group's productions himself or supervising designs that included masks by Henry Moore. Medley and Doone invited Auden to write plays for the Group. Through Auden, Medley met Stephen Spender, Louis MacNeice and others who became associated with the Group Theatre.

Medley had a painting in the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936 and in 1937 Medley founded the Artists' International Association, AIA, which promoted socialist and avant-garde art. In 1938 he chaired a reported debate between Realists and Surrealists organized by the AIA. At the beginning of the Second World War Medley served as a Air Raid Precautions warden until he was offered a three-month commission by the War Artists' Advisory Committee, WAAC, to go to France to record troop landings for the British Expeditionary Force. Medley's appointment was blocked by MI5 who considered him to be "closely associated with subversive Communist doctrine". Instead WAAC offered Medley a contract to record air raid precautions in the north-east of England and he spent an enjoyable two months based in Newcastle upon Tyne doing just that. Earlier he had, like many other artists, put his name forward to undertake camouflage work for the war effort and when his WAAC contract was completed, Medley was sent to Cairo as a camouflage officer and spent the rest of the war there.

Returning from the war and Donne lived together in London where Medley taught at the Chelsea Art School, now part of the Chelsea College of Art and Design, from 1945 to 1949. One of his'Cyclist' series of paintings, composed between 1950 and 1952, won a prize at the Festival of Britain 60 Paintings for 51 exhibition. Medley was a visiting lecturer at the Slade and returned there full-time in 1958 as Head of the department of Theatre Design, a post he held until 1966; the Cast Room at the Slade inspired Medley to create his'Antique Room' series of paintings. In the late 1950s Medley painted a series of industrial landscapes in the Gravesend area. In the 1960s Medley turned to abstraction, but in years returned to figurative painting; these last paintings are the most respected of his works. A retrospective exhibition of his work was held at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1963 and in 1966 he became chairman of the faculty of painting at the British School in Rome. In 1982 he was appointed CBE and in 1985 he was elected to the Royal Academy.

A centenary tribute at James Hyman Fine Art in 2005 was accompanied by a catalogue with essays about Medley's work. Medley was an important supporter of emerging out gay artists studying at the Slade who included Mario Dubsky and Derek Jarman. Rhododendrons at the Tate Gallery Portrait of Maggi Hambling at the Ashmolean Museum Mottisfont Abbey, Hampshire - Landscape Robert Medley page at the James Hyman Gallery Robert Medley page at The Art Stable Gallery Chilvers, Ian. "Medley, Robert" in A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Robert Medley, Answers to Unanswerable Questions Robert Medley, Drawn from the Life: A Memoir, "Robert Medley", Daily Telegraph, 24 October 1994, p25 53 paintings by or after Robert Medley at the Art UK site

Air Odisha

Air Odisha was an Indian regional airline based in Bhubaneswar, India. It operated daily flights to numerous destinations across India, according to the Regional Connectivity Scheme; the airline had its base at Biju Patnaik International Airport with an additional operation base at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport. It meanwhile suspended operations. Air Odisha Aviation Private Limited was formed under Companies Act, Government of Odisha to provide air charter service. Air Odisha is one of the regional scheduled airlines of India; the airline availed its license to commence scheduled operations on 13 February 2018. In February 2018, 60% of Air Odisha's stake was sold to GSEC Monarch Aviation, an Adani Group enterprise. Air Odisha flew to 27 destinations in India as of May 2018; as of April 2018, the Air Odisha fleet consisted of the following aircraft: Official website

Uttarakhand Sampark Kranti Express

Uttaranchal Sampark Kranti Express is a Sampark Kranti Express train which connects Delhi Railway Station to Ramnagar and Kathgodam of Uttarakhand state in India. The train runs daily via Moradabad split into two trains, one is for Ramnagar and another for Kathgodam station, it is the shortest running Sampark Kranti of Indian Railways. Departure from Delhi: Train splits for two destination and Kathgodam at Moradabad railway station junction. Arrival to Delhi: Train start from Kathgodam station and connect to Ramnagar Delhi Link Express for New Delhi Railway Station. Main Route DELHI Railway Station Jn. Ghaziabad, Moradabad railway station Jn. Rampur Jn. Bilaspur Road, Lalkuan Jn. Haldwani and Kathgodam. Slip Route Delhi Railway Station Jn. Ghaziabad, Moradabad railway station Jn. Kashipur Jn. and Ramnagar. Indian Rail Info Indian Railways Official Booking website